keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Insulin resistance AND mtor

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196954/metformin-and-thyroid-disease
#1
Xianghui Meng, Shuhang Xu, Guofang Chen, Michael Derwahl, Chao Liu
An intriguing area of research in thyroidology is the recently discovered association of insulin resistance with thyroid functional and morphological abnormalities. Individuals with hyperinsulinemia have larger thyroid gland and a higher prevalence of thyroid nodules and cancer. Accordingly, patients treated with metformin have a smaller thyroid volume and a lower risk of incident goiter, thyroid nodule and cancer. Multiple studies in vitro and in vivo have demonstrated that metformin can inhibit the growth of thyroid cells and different types of thyroid cancer cells by affecting the insulin/IGF-1 and mTOR pathways...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185837/insulin-promotes-her2-signaling-activation-during-barrett-s-esophagus-carcinogenesis
#2
Diletta Arcidiacono, Alessandro Antonello, Matteo Fassan, Daniele Nucci, Tiziana Morbin, Marco Agostini, Donato Nitti, Massimo Rugge, Alfredo Alberti, Giorgio Battaglia, Stefano Realdon
BACKGROUND: Insulin-resistance and hyperinsulinemia could have a role in the growing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and its pre-cancerous lesion Barrett's Esophagus (BE). HER2 activation has also a pivotal role in EAC carcinogenesis but no data correlate these two phenomena in this disease context. AIMS: To investigate the role of hyperinsulinemia in BE-dysplasia-adenocarcinoma sequence and the possible relationship between insulin-mediated and HER2 signaling in EAC development...
January 22, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179884/cellular-signaling-pathways-in-insulin-resistance-systems-biology-analyses-of-microarray-dataset-reveals-new-drug-target-gene-signatures-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#3
Syed Aun Muhammad, Waseem Raza, Thanh Nguyen, Baogang Bai, Xiaogang Wu, Jake Chen
Purpose: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic and metabolic disorder affecting large set of population of the world. To widen the scope of understanding of genetic causes of this disease, we performed interactive and toxicogenomic based systems biology study to find potential T2DM related genes after cDNA differential analysis. Methods: From the list of 50-differential expressed genes (p < 0.05), we found 9-T2DM related genes using extensive data mapping. In our constructed gene-network, T2DM-related differentially expressed seeder genes (9-genes) are found to interact with functionally related gene signatures (31-genes)...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168653/effects-of-a-hyperandrogenaemic-state-on-the-proliferation-and-decidualization-potential-in-human-endometrial-stromal-cells
#4
Alexander Freis, Tobias Renke, Ulrike Kämmerer, Julia Jauckus, Thomas Strowitzki, Ariane Germeyer
OBJECTIVE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women, involving hyperandrogenaemia and insulin resistance. Treatment options include dexamethasone, as well as the off-label use of metformin. To evaluate the impact of those drugs on cyclic changes in endometrial development, we tested possible effects of metformin and dexamethasone on endometrial stromal cells decidualisation, proliferation, and gene regulation in a hyperandrogenaemic microenvironment in vitro...
February 6, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153729/4-pba-reverses-autophagic-dysfunction-and-improves-insulin-sensitivity-in-adipose-tissue-of-obese-mice-via-akt-mtor-signaling
#5
Qinyue Guo, Lin Xu, Huixia Li, Hongzhi Sun, Shufang Wu, Bo Zhou
BACKGROUND: 4-phenyl butyric acid (4-PBA) has been considered as a key regulator of insulin resistance in obesity. However the mechanism of 4-PBA involved in insulin resistance remains elusive. METHODS: We evaluated the effect of 4-PBA on abnormal autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in obese mice. 4-PBA was administered in obese mice and adipocyte models, and metabolic parameters, autophagy markers, ER stress indicators, Akt/mTOR signaling and insulin signaling molecular were assessed...
January 30, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117213/unraveling-the-role-of-ataxin-2-in-metabolism
#6
REVIEW
Sara Carmo-Silva, Clevio Nobrega, Luís Pereira de Almeida, Claudia Cavadas
Ataxin-2 is a polyglutamine protein implicated in several biological processes such as RNA metabolism and cytoskeleton reorganization. Ataxin-2 is highly expressed in various tissues including the hypothalamus, a brain region that controls food intake and energy balance. Ataxin-2 expression is influenced by nutritional status. Emerging studies discussed here now show that ataxin-2 deficiency correlates with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, an action mediated via the mTOR pathway, suggesting that ataxin-2 might play key roles in metabolic homeostasis including body weight regulation, insulin sensitivity, and cellular stress responses...
January 20, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089725/high-concentration-of-branched-chain-amino-acids-promotes-oxidative-stress-inflammation-and-migration-of-human-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-via-mtorc1-activation
#7
Olha Zhenyukh, Esther Civantos, Marta Ruiz-Ortega, Maria Soledad Sánchez, Clotilde Vázquez, Concepción Peiró, Jesús Egido, Sebastián Mas
Leucine, isoleucine and valine are essential aminoacids termed branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) due to its aliphatic side-chain. In several pathological and physiological conditions increased BCAA plasma concentrations have been described. Elevated BCAA levels predict insulin resistance development. Moreover, BCAA levels higher than 2mmol/L are neurotoxic by inducing microglial activation in maple syrup urine disease. However, there are no studies about the direct effects of BCAA in circulating cells. We have explored whether BCAA could promote oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from healthy donors...
January 13, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064447/up-regulation-of-mir-497-confers-resistance-to-temozolomide-in-human-glioma-cells-by-targeting-mtor-bcl-2
#8
Danhua Zhu, Ming Tu, Bo Zeng, Lin Cai, Weiming Zheng, Zhipeng Su, Zhengquan Yu
The occurrence of an inherent or acquired resistance to temozolomide (TMZ) is a major burden for patients suffering from glioma. Recently, studies have demonstrated that microRNAs play an important role in the regulation of tumor properties in cancers. However, whether miR-497 contributes to glioma resistance to chemotherapy is not fully understood. In this study, we showed that the expression of miR-497 was markedly up-regulated in TMZ-resistant glioma cells; high miR-497 expression level was associated with TMZ-resistant phenotype of glioma cells...
January 8, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050343/brain-insulin-resistance-deteriorates-cognition-by-altering-the-topological-features-of-brain-networks
#9
Fan Su, Hao Shu, Qing Ye, Zan Wang, Chunming Xie, Baoyu Yuan, Zhijun Zhang, Feng Bai
Insulin resistance represents one of the mechanisms underlying the link between type 2 diabetes (T2D) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and we explored its in vivo neurobiology related to cognition based on a pathway-based genetic association analyses. Eighty-seven mild cognitive impairment (MCIs) subjects and 135 matched controls (HCs) were employed at baseline, and they underwent functional MRI scans, clinical evaluations and exon sequencings of 20 genes related to brain insulin resistance. A longitudinal study for an average of 35 months was performed to assess their cognitive decline over time...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035937/mtorc2-rictor-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-reversal-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-expression-induced-insulin-resistance-and-toxicity-in-rat-primary-cortical-neurons
#10
Han-Kyu Lee, Bumsup Kwon, Cynthia A Lemere, Suzanne de la Monte, Kyohei Itamura, Austin Y Ha, Henry W Querfurth
Mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), a nutrient sensor and central controller of cell growth and proliferation, is altered in various models of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Even less studied or understood in AD is mammalian target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) that influences cellular metabolism, in part through the regulations of Akt/PKB and SGK. Dysregulation of insulin/PI3K/Akt signaling is another important feature of AD pathogenesis. We found that both total mTORC1 and C2 protein levels and individual C1 and C2 enzymatic activities were decreased in human AD brain samples...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017449/anabolic-resistance-does-not-explain-sarcopenia-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-compared-with-healthy-controls-despite-reduced-mtor-pathway-activity
#11
Daniel J Cuthbertson, John Babraj, Graham Leese, Mario Siervo
BACKGROUND: Ageing and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are risk factors for skeletal muscle loss. We investigated whether anabolic resistance to feeding might underlie accelerated muscle loss in older people with T2DM and whether dysregulated mTOR signalling was implicated. SUBJECTS: 8 obese men with T2DM, and 12 age-matched controls were studied (age 68 ± 3 vs. 68±6 y; BMI: 30 ± 2 vs. 27 ± 5 kg m(-2)). METHODS: Body composition was measured by dual-X-ray absorptiometry...
November 25, 2016: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981444/hyperglycaemia-induced-by-novel-anticancer-agents-an-undesirable-complication-or-a-potential-therapeutic-opportunity
#12
REVIEW
Rashmi R Shah
Signalling pathways involving protein kinase, insulin-like growth factor 1, insulin receptors and the phosphoinositide 3 kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) system are critical in promoting oncogenesis. The use of anticancer agents that inhibit these pathways frequently results in hyperglycaemia, an on-target effect of these drugs. Hyperglycaemia induced by these agents denotes optimal inhibition of the desired pharmacological target. As hyperglycaemia can be treated successfully and effectively with metformin, managing this complication by reducing the dose of or discontinuing the anticancer drug may be counterproductive, especially if it is otherwise effective and clinically tolerated...
December 15, 2016: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928899/alleviating-vldl-overproduction-is-an-important-mechanism-for-laminaria-japonica-polysaccharide-to-inhibit-atherosclerosis-in-ldlr-mice-with-diet-induced-insulin-resistance
#13
Xue-Qiang Zha, Wei-Nan Zhang, Fu-Hua Peng, Lei Xue, Jian Liu, Jian-Ping Luo
SCOPE: The overproduction of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) is an important cause for initiation and development of atherosclerosis, which is highly associated with insulin signaling. The aim of this work is to verify whether the inhibition of VLDL overproduction is an underlying mechanism for a Laminaria japonica polysaccharide (LJP61A) to resist atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS: LJP61A (50 and 200 mg/Kg/day) was orally administered to a high fat diet (HFD)-fed LDLr(-/-) mice for 14 weeks...
December 8, 2016: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865874/bromodomain-containing-protein-2-induces-insulin-resistance-via-the-mtor-akt-signaling-pathway-and-an-inflammatory-response-in-adipose-tissue
#14
Ruixin Sun, Yi Wu, Weihua Hou, Zujun Sun, Yuxiong Wang, Huanhuan Wei, Wei Mo, Min Yu
Insulin resistance is a major metabolic abnormality in a large majority of patients with type II diabetes. Bromodomain-containing protein 2 (Brd2), a transcriptional co-activator/co-repressor with switch mating type/sucrose non-fermenting (SWI/SNF)-like functions that regulates chromatin, suppresses adipocyte differentiation and regulates pancreatic β-cell biology. However, the effects of Brd2 on insulin resistance remain unknown. Here, overexpression of Brd2 in white adipose tissue of wild-type (WT) mice led to insulin resistance...
January 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847319/transcriptional-profiles-of-type-2-diabetes-in-human-skeletal-muscle-reveal-insulin-resistance-metabolic-defects-apoptosis-and-molecular-signatures-of-immune-activation-in-response-to-infections
#15
Chun Wu, Gang Xu, Shang-Yi A Tsai, William J Freed, Chun-Ting Lee
Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is considered to be the primary defect involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Despite transcriptome studies in limited T2DM human subjects suggesting an association of T2DM with impaired oxidative phosphorylation in muscle, its molecular pathogenesis remains largely unknown. To identify dysregulated genes and gene networks that are associated with T2DM in human skeletal muscle, we examined expression patterns of 56,318 transcribed genes on 92 T2DM cases and 184 gender-, age- and race-matched non-diabetic controls from the Genotype-Tissue Expression (GTEx) database...
January 8, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826244/judicious-toggling-of-mtor-activity-to-combat-insulin-resistance-and-cancer-current-evidence-and-perspectives
#16
REVIEW
Pei Shi Ong, Louis Z Wang, Xiaoyun Dai, Sheng Hsuan Tseng, Shang Jun Loo, Gautam Sethi
The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), via its two distinct multiprotein complexes, mTORC1, and mTORC2, plays a central role in the regulation of cellular growth, metabolism, and migration. A dysregulation of the mTOR pathway has in turn been implicated in several pathological conditions including insulin resistance and cancer. Overactivation of mTORC1 and disruption of mTORC2 function have been reported to induce insulin resistance. On the other hand, aberrant mTORC1 and mTORC2 signaling via either genetic alterations or increased expression of proteins regulating mTOR and its downstream targets have contributed to cancer development...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816546/anhydroicaritin-improves-diet-induced-obesity-and-hyperlipidemia-and-alleviates-insulin-resistance-by-suppressing-srebps-activation
#17
Zu-Guo Zheng, Ya-Ping Zhou, Xin Zhang, Pyone Myat Thu, Zhi-Shen Xie, Chong Lu, Tao Pang, Bin Xue, Da-Qian Xu, Yan Chen, Xiao-Wei Chen, Hui-Jun Li, Xiaojun Xu
SREBPs play important roles in the regulation of lipid metabolism, and are closely related to the occurrence and development of many metabolic diseases. Small molecular inhibitors of SERBPs are important tools in developing efficient treatment of metabolic diseases. However, there are no listing drug targeting SREBPs. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop highly specific small molecules that inhibit SREBPs. In this study, using a hepatocyte-based high-throughput screening, we identified anhydroicaritin (AHI) as a novel inhibitor of SREBPs...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791467/identification-of-natural-products-with-neuronal-and-metabolic-benefits-through-autophagy-induction
#18
Yuying Fan, Nan Wang, Altea Rocchi, Weiran Zhang, Robert Vassar, Yifa Zhou, Congcong He
Autophagy is a housekeeping lysosomal degradation pathway important for cellular survival, homeostasis and function. Various disease models have shown that upregulation of autophagy may be beneficial to combat disease pathogenesis. However, despite several recently reported small-molecule screens for synthetic autophagy inducers, natural chemicals of diverse structures and functions have not been included in the synthetic libraries, and characterization of their roles in autophagy has been lacking. To discover novel autophagy-regulating compounds and study their therapeutic mechanisms, we used analytic chemistry approaches to isolate natural phytochemicals from a reservoir of medicinal plants used in traditional remedies...
January 2, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765027/ridaforolimus-mk-8669-synergizes-with-dalotuzumab-mk-0646-in-hormone-sensitive-breast-cancer
#19
Marc A Becker, Xiaonan Hou, Piyawan Tienchaianada, Brian B Haines, Sean C Harrington, S John Weroha, Sriram Sathyanarayanan, Paul Haluska
BACKGROUND: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) represents a key downstream intermediate for a myriad of oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases. In the case of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway, the mTOR complex (mTORC1) mediates IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R)-induced estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) phosphorylation/activation and leads to increased proliferation and growth in breast cancer cells. As a result, the prevalence of mTOR inhibitors combined with hormonal therapy has increased in recent years...
October 20, 2016: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753529/cyclin-g2-promotes-cell-cycle-arrest-in-breast-cancer-cells-responding-to-fulvestrant-and-metformin-and-correlates-with-patient-survival
#20
Maike Zimmermann, Aruni P S Arachchige-Don, Michaela S Donaldson, Tommaso Patriarchi, Mary C Horne
Definition of cell cycle control proteins that modify tumor cell resistance to estrogen (E2) signaling antagonists could inform clinical choice for estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer (BC) therapy. Cyclin G2 (CycG2) is upregulated during cell cycle arrest responses to cellular stresses and growth inhibitory signals and its gene, CCNG2, is directly repressed by E2-bound ER complexes. Our previous studies showed that blockade of HER2, PI3K and mTOR signaling upregulates CycG2 expression in HER2+ BC cells, and that CycG2 overexpression induces cell cycle arrest...
December 2016: Cell Cycle
keyword
keyword
43413
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"