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Hyperinsulinemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089587/development-of-111-in-labeled-exendin-9-39-derivatives-for-single-photon-emission-computed-tomography-imaging-of-insulinoma
#1
Hiroyuki Kimura, Hirokazu Matsuda, Yu Ogawa, Hiroyuki Fujimoto, Kentaro Toyoda, Naotaka Fujita, Kenji Arimitsu, Keita Hamamatsu, Yusuke Yagi, Masahiro Ono, Nobuya Inagaki, Hideo Saji
Insulinoma is a tumor derived from pancreatic β-cells, and the resulting hyperinsulinemia leads to characteristic hypoglycemia. Recent studies have reported the frequent overexpression of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in human insulinomas, suggesting that the binding of a radiolabeled compound to GLP-1R is useful for the imaging of such tumors. Exendin(9-39), a fragment peptide of exendin-3 and -4, binds GLP-1R with high affinity and acts as an antagonist. Accordingly, radiolabeled exendin(9-39) derivatives have also been investigated as insulinoma imaging probes that might be less likely to induce hypoglycemia...
January 3, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088698/metformin-enhancing-the-antitumor-efficacy-of-carboplatin-against-ehrlich-solid-carcinoma-grown-in-diabetic-mice-effect-on-igf-1-and-tumoral-expression-of-igf-1-receptors
#2
Dina M Abo-Elmatty, Eman A Ahmed, Mona K Tawfik, Seham A Helmy
Diabetes has been listed as a risk factor for various types of cancer. Cancer cell development can be promoted by increased levels of IGF-1 and hyperinsulinemia that are associated with diabetes type II. Metformin is an anti-diabetic agent and its potential antitumor impact has become the objective of numerous studies. In this vein, we hypothesize that using metformin in diabetes type II mice may synergistic with carboplatin for reducing the risk of cancer. Therefore, the study aimed to evaluate the in vivo antitumor activity of metformin against solid EAC tumor growth in female diabetic mice and its potential pro-apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects with clarification of its inconclusive biological mechanisms...
January 12, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081576/the-clinical-characteristics-of-obese-patients-with-acanthosis-nigricans-and-its-independent-risk-factors
#3
Yueye Huang, Jiaqi Chen, Xingchun Wang, Yan Li, Shezhen Yang, Shen Qu
Objective: This study aimed to investigate the clinical characteristics and risk factors for acanthosis nigricans (AN) in obese patients. Methods: 80 obese patients without AN (OB group) and 128 obese patients with AN (AN group) were included in this study. Clinical data for each patients were collected. Serum levels of leptin were measured by ELISA. Results: Body mass index (BMI), uric acid (UA) levels, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR were higher in AN than OB (P<0.05). The levels of leptin were significantly higher in AN than OB (P<0...
January 12, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080913/liver-ultrasonography-in-dolphins-use-of-ultrasonography-to-establish-a-technique-for-hepatobiliary-imaging-and-to-evaluate-metabolic-disease-associated-liver-changes-in-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#4
Kelsey E Seitz, Cynthia R Smith, Stanley L Marks, Stephanie K Venn-Watson, Marina Ivančić
The objective of this study was to establish a comprehensive technique for ultrasound examination of the dolphin hepatobiliary system and apply this technique to 30 dolphins to determine what, if any, sonographic changes are associated with blood-based indicators of metabolic syndrome (insulin greater than 14 μIU/ml or glucose greater than 112 mg/dl) and iron overload (transferrin saturation greater than 65%). A prospective study of individuals in a cross-sectional population with and without elevated postprandial insulin levels was performed...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078101/intrauterine-diabetic-milieu-instigates-dysregulated-adipocytokines-production-in-f1-offspring
#5
Shady H Tawfik, Maha M Haiba, Mohamed I Saad, Taha M Abdelkhalek, Mervat Y Hanafi, Maher A Kamel
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine environment plays a pivotal role in the origin of fatal diseases such as the metabolic syndrome. Diabetes is associated with low-grade inflammatory state and dysregulated adipokines production. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of maternal diabetes on adipocytokines (adiponectin, leptin and TNF-α) production in F1 offspring in rats. METHODS: The offspring groups were as follows: F1 offspring of control mothers under control diet (CD) (CF1-CD), F1 offspring of control mothers under high caloric diet (HCD) (CF1-HCD), F1 offspring of diabetic mothers under CD (DF1-CD), and F1 offspring of diabetic mothers under HCD (DF1-HCD)...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069449/a-model-of-ovulatory-regulation-examining-the-effects-of-insulin-mediated-testosterone-production-on-ovulatory-function
#6
Erica J Graham, James F Selgrade
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a common cause of infertility in women, is often accompanied by abnormal reproductive and metabolic hormone levels. Specifically, androgens such as testosterone are elevated in many PCOS women, and the syndrome itself is frequently associated with insulin resistance, which leads to hyperinsulinemia, i.e., elevated insulin. Although the precise role of insulin in ovulatory function is unclear, its role in ovulatory dysfunction is often linked to the effects of increased ovarian androgen production...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065828/adipocyte-dynamics-and-reversible-metabolic-syndrome-in-mice-with-an-inducible-adipocyte-specific-deletion-of-the-insulin-receptor
#7
Masaji Sakaguchi, Shiho Fujisaka, Weikang Cai, Jonathon N Winnay, Masahiro Konishi, Brian T O'Neill, Mengyao Li, Rubén García-Martín, Hirokazu Takahashi, Jiang Hu, Rohit N Kulkarni, C Ronald Kahn
Insulin and IGF1 signaling are important for adipose tissue development and function; however, their role in mature adipocytes is unclear. Mice with a tamoxifen-inducible knockout of insulin and/or IGF1 receptors (IR/IGF1R) demonstrate a rapid loss of white and brown fat due to increased lipolysis and adipocyte apoptosis. This results in insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hepatosteatosis, islet hyperplasia with hyperinsulinemia, and cold intolerance. This phenotype, however, resolves over 10-30 days due to a proliferation of preadipocytes and rapid regeneration of both brown and white adipocytes as identified by mTmG lineage tracing...
January 4, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052999/a-causal-role-for-hyperinsulinemia-in-obesity
#8
Nicole M Templeman, Søs Skovsø, Melissa M Page, Gareth E Lim, James D Johnson
Insulin modulates the biochemical pathways controlling lipid uptake, lipolysis and lipogenesis at multiple levels. Elevated insulin levels are associated with obesity, and conversely, dietary and pharmacological manipulations that reduce insulin have occasionally been reported to cause weight loss. However, the causal role of insulin hypersecretion in the development of mammalian obesity remained controversial in the absence of direct loss-of-function experiments. Here, we discuss theoretical considerations around the causal role of excess insulin and obesity, as well as recent studies employing mice that are genetically incapable of the rapid and sustained hyperinsulinemia that normally accompanies a high fat diet...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052647/the-modulative-effects-of-microcurrent-electrical-nerve-stimulation-on-diabetic-mice
#9
Wen-Ching Huang, Wen-Chieh Chang, Yi-Ju Hsu, Chun-Feng Huang, Chi-Chang Huang, Cheng-Yan Kao, Che-Li Lin
Diabetes (one of non-communicable diseases) is serious due to its complications, such like, cardiovascular ailments, neuropathy, nephropathy, retinopathy, wound gangrene and sexual impotence. Diabetes and associated chronic conditions are rapidly emerging as major health problems. In clinical, there were different drugs for diabetes treatment on different mechanisms. However, there were limited studies on the efficacy of electric stimulations on diabetes therapeutic application. In current study, we try to evaluate the effect of microcurrent electrical nerve stimulator (MENS) on diabetes modulation as an alternative medicine...
28, 2017: Chinese Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040833/insights-into-the-relationships-between-diabetes-prediabetes-and-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Lorenzo Scappaticcio, Maria Ida Maiorino, Giuseppe Bellastella, Dario Giugliano, Katherine Esposito
Diabetes mellitus and cancer are two growing health problems. They have in common many modifiable risk factors including sex, age, obesity, physical activity, diet, alcohol, and smoking, and have a long latency before overtly manifesting. Patients with diabetes experience a roughly 20-25% higher cancer incidence compared to individuals without diabetes, and it depends on cancer site. Moreover, patients with diabetes who further develop cancer have increased early and late mortality in comparison with cancer patients without diabetes...
December 31, 2016: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034591/women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-have-comparable-hip-bone-geometry-to-age-matched-control-women
#11
Laura E McBreairty, Gordon A Zello, Julianne J Gordon, Shani B Serrao, Roger A Pierson, Donna R Chizen, Philip D Chilibeck
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder affecting women of reproductive age manifesting with polycystic ovaries, menstrual irregularities, hyperandrogenism, hirsutism, and insulin resistance. The oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea characteristic to PCOS are associated with low bone mineral density (BMD); conversely, the hyperandrogenism and hyperinsulinemia may elicit a protective effect on BMD. As bone geometric properties provide additional information about bone strength, the objective of this study was to compare measures of hip geometry in women with PCOS to a healthy female population...
December 26, 2016: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030919/cardiovascular-system-diseases-in-patients-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-the-role-of-inflammation-process-in-this-pathology-and-possibility-of-early-diagnosis-and-prevention
#12
REVIEW
Aleksandra Marciniak, Jolanta Nawrocka Rutkowska, Agnieszka Brodowska, Berenika Wiśniewska, Andrzej Starczewski
Polycystic ovary syndrome is a disorder which affects 5-10% of women in reproductive age. PCOS is a cause of hyperandrogenism, menstrual disorders and infertility. The most common clinical symptoms are hirsutism, acne and obesity. Patients often suffer from metabolic disorders: insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dislipidemia, leading to atherosclerosis and others irregularities of the metabolic syndrome. Patients are in the high risk group for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) development because of the metabolic abnormalities...
23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028399/indexes-of-insulin-resistance-in-hyperinsulinemic-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-a-macedonian-cohort-of-women-of-reproductive-age-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Sasha Jovanovska-Mishevska, Aleksandra Atanasova-Boshku, Iskra Bitoska, Irfan Ahmeti, Biljana Todorova, Gordana Pemovska, Tatjana Milenkovic, Brankica Krstevska
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is complex hormonal, metabolic and reproductive disorder and is a leading cause of female infertility. Hyperinsulinemia secondary to insulin resistance plays important role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. AIM: To assess the sensitivity of different indices of insulin resistance and their relevance in a clinical setting. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study of 43 patients with PCOS and 29 noromo ovulatory women as a control group was conducted...
December 15, 2016: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028036/reduced-islet-function-contributes-to-impaired-glucose-homeostasis-in-fructose-fed-mice
#14
Zeenat A Asghar, Andrew Cusumano, Zihan Yan, Maria S Remedi, Kelle H Moley
Increased sugar consumption, particularly fructose, in the form of sweetened beverages and sweeteners in our diet adversely affects metabolic health. Because these effects are associated with features of the metabolic syndrome in humans, the direct effect of fructose on pancreatic islet function is unknown. We therefore examined the islet phenotype of mice fed excess fructose. Fructose-fed mice exhibited fasting hyperglycemia and glucose intolerance, but not hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, or hyperuricemia...
December 27, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025127/glucose-tolerance-and-insulin-sensitivity-are-impaired-in-app-ps1-transgenic-mice-prior-to-amyloid-plaque-pathogenesis-and-cognitive-decline
#15
Lauren Macklin, Chelsea M Griffith, Yan Cai, Gregory M Rose, Xiao-Xin Yan, Peter R Patrylo
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition, neurofibrillary tangles and cognitive decline. Clinical data suggests that both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are risk factors for AD-related dementia and several clinical studies have demonstrated that AD patients show alterations in peripheral glucose regulation characterized by insulin resistance (hyperinsulinemia) or hypoinsulinemia. Whether animal models of AD exhibit a pre-diabetic phenotype without additional dietary or experimental manipulation is unclear however, with contradictory data available...
December 23, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019124/immediate-and-residual-effects-of-low-dose-nandrolone-decanoate-and-treadmill-training-on-adipose-and-reproductive-tissues-of-male-wistar-rats
#16
Josilene M Rodrigues, Vinicius P P Oliveira, Julia P Furlan, Ana Claudia Munhoz, Marcelo R S Rempel, Marcia N Brito, Nilton A Brito, Maria M D Pedrosa, Cecília E M Costa
CONTEXT: Residual effects after nandrolone decanoate (ND) treatment are not reported. OBJECTIVE: Immediate and residual effects of low-dose ND and treadmill training were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male rats were trained and/or ND-treated for four weeks and the assessments were made after this period or four weeks later. RESULTS: The groups did not differ in final plasma glucose or AUC of the ivGTT, but hyperinsulinemia was noticed in some trained/treated groups...
December 25, 2016: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018462/a-novel-mutation-of-abcc8-gene-in-a-patient-with-diazoxide-unresponsive-congenital-hyperinsulinism
#17
Ji Sook Park, Hong-Jun Lee, Chan-Hoo Park
Congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) is a rare condition that can cause irreversible brain damage during the neonatal period owing to the associated hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia in CHI occurs secondary to the dysregulation of insulin secretion. CHI has been established as a genetic disorder of islet-cell hyperplasia, associated with a mutation of the ABCC8 or KCNJ11 genes, which encode the sulfonylurea receptor 1 and the inward rectifying potassium channel (Kir6.2) subunit of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel, respectively...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017142/gliclazide-induced-insulin-autoimmune-syndrome-a-rare-case-report-and-review-on-literature
#18
Xiu Feng, Lu Yuan, Hu Yun, Yunqing Zhu, Fan Yang, Lanlan Jiang, Rengna Yan, Yong Luo, Enhui Zhao, Chenxiao Liu, Ying Wang, Qi Li, Xin Cao, Qian Li, Jianhua Ma
Insulin Autoimmune Syndrome (IAS) is a rare condition characterized by the combination of recurrent severely spontaneous hypoglycemia without evidence of exogenous insulin administration, high concentration of total serum insulin, and the presence of a high titer of insulin autoantibody (IAA)[ ]. But now we describe a case with IAS caused by gliclazide and hardly occuring hypoglycemia. A 70-year-old man with type 2 diabetes presented to our department with poor glycemic control without evidence of hypoglycemia, but the levels of serum insulin and IAA were very high...
December 23, 2016: Endocrine, Metabolic & Immune Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003536/deficient-melanocortin-4-receptor-causes-abnormal-reproductive-neuroendocrine-profile-in-female-mice
#19
Xiaolin Chen, Lili Huang, Hwee Y Tan, Hongzhuo Li, Ying Wan, Michael Cowley, Johannes D Veldhuis, Chen Chen
Deletion of the melanocortin-4-receptor (Mc4r) gene in mice causes hyperphagia, followed by hyperinsulinemia, obesity and progressive infertility. Evidence shows that the number of developed corpora lutea is reduced in obese MC4R-knockout (MC4R KO) female mice, but the mechanism is unclear. The effect of hyperphagia and obesity by MC4R KO on pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and ovulation remains unknown. In MC4R KO mice and wild-type littermates (WT LM) during the diestrus period throughout different ages, we examined and monitored their metabolic status, pulsatile LH profiles, follicular morphology and the number of corpora lutea...
March 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000428/dissecting-the-relationship-between-obesity-and-hyperinsulinemia-role-of-insulin-secretion-and-insulin-clearance
#20
Mee Kyoung Kim, Gerald M Reaven, Sun H Kim
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to better delineate the complex interrelationship among insulin resistance (IR), secretion rate (ISR), and clearance rate (ICR) to increase plasma insulin concentrations in obesity. METHODS: Healthy volunteers (92 nondiabetic individuals) had an insulin suppression test to measure IR and graded-glucose infusion test to measure ISR and ICR. Obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m(2) , and IR was defined as steady-state plasma glucose (SSPG) ≥10 mmol/L during the insulin suppression test...
December 21, 2016: Obesity
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