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Hyperinsulinemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730823/pathophysiological-analysis-of-the-progression-of-hepatic-lesions-in-stam-mice
#1
T Saito, M Muramatsu, Y Ishii, Y Saigo, T Konuma, Y Toriniwa, K Miyajima, T Ohta
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a current health issue since the disease often leads to hepatocellular carcinoma; however, the pathogenesis of the disease has still not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the pathophysiological changes observed in hepatic lesions in STAM mice, a novel NASH model. STAM mice, high fat-diet (HFD) fed mice, and streptozotocin (STZ) treated mice were prepared, and changes over time, such as biological parameters, mRNA expression, and histopathological findings, were evaluated once animal reached 5, 7, and 10 weeks of age...
July 18, 2017: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727072/the-equine-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-receptor-a-potential-therapeutic-target-for-insulin-dysregulation
#2
M H Kheder, M N Sillence, L M Bryant, M A de Laat
Metabolic disease is a significant problem that causes a range of species-specific comorbidities. Recently, a better understanding of glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) biology has led to the suggestion that inhibiting its action may attenuate obesity in several species. In horses, antagonism of GIP may also reduce hyperinsulinemia, which leads to insulin-associated laminitis, a painful comorbidity unique to this species. However, little is known about GIP in horses. The aims of this study were to examine the tissue distribution of equine GIP receptors (eGIPR), to determine whether eGIPR can be blocked using a GIP antagonist not tested previously in horses, and to establish whether there is any association between GIP concentrations and body mass in this species...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724173/a-comparative-study-between-myo-inositol-and-metformin-in-the-treatment-of-insulin-resistant-women
#3
K Nas, L Tűű
OBJECTIVE: Insulin resistance (IR) is a common disorder, which can impair female fertility and is characterized by phenotypic heterogeneity. Life-style treatment and insulin sensitizers are commonly used in the management of women with IR and consequent hyperinsulinemia, in order to restore the normal endocrinological and clinical parameters. Metformin (MET) is considered one of the first approaches to this pathology but new evidences are showing promising results using myo-inositol (MYO) in the management of this pathology...
June 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708512/insulin-during-in%C3%A2-vitro-oocyte-maturation-has-an-impact-on-development-mitochondria-and-cytoskeleton-in-bovine-day-8-blastocysts
#4
Denise Laskowski, Renée Båge, Patrice Humblot, Göran Andersson, Marc-André Sirard, Ylva Sjunnesson
Insulin is a key metabolic hormone that controls energy homeostasis in the body, including playing a specific role in regulating reproductive functions. Conditions associated with hyperinsulinemia can lower developmental rates in bovine in vitro embryo production and are linked to decreased fertility in humans, as in cases of obesity or type 2 diabetes. Embryo quality is important for fertility outcome and it can be assessed by choosing scoring standards for various characteristics, such as developmental stage, quality grade, cell number, mitochondrial pattern or actin cytoskeleton structure...
June 13, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705835/transendothelial-movement-of-adiponectin-is-restricted-by-glucocorticoids
#5
Thanh Q Dang, Nanyoung Yoon, Helen Chasiotis, Emily C Dunford, Qilong Feng, Pingnian He, Michael C Riddell, Scott P Kelly, Gary Sweeney
Altered permeability of the endothelial barrier in a variety of tissues has implications both in disease pathogenesis and treatment. Glucocorticoids are potent mediators of endothelial permeability, and this forms the basis for their heavily prescribed use as medications to treat ocular disease. However, the effect of glucocorticoids on endothelial barriers elsewhere in the body is less well studied. Here, we investigated glucocorticoid-mediated changes in endothelial flux of Adiponectin (Ad), a hormone with a critical role in diabetes...
August 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705458/insulin-resistance-and-elevated-c-reactive-protein-among-first-degree-relatives-of-ischemic-stroke-patients
#6
Krishnamoorthy Srilatha, Zachariah Bobby, D K Subrahmanyam, Uppoor NithinKumar
BACKGROUND: Family history is one of the non-modifiable risk factors for ischemic stroke. Atherosclerosis and thrombosis are the two major mechanisms for cardiovascular disease and stroke. Screening of family members is an important method to identify individuals at risk. Therefore, this study was planned to assess the atherosclerotic risk factors in first-degree relatives of patients with ischemic stroke. METHODOLOGY: Case group included 40 first-degree relatives of ischemic stroke patients between 30 and 50 years of age...
July 4, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704113/role-of-resveratrol-in-the-management-of-insulin-resistance-and-related-conditions-mechanism-of-action
#7
Ebrahim Abbasi Oshaghi, Mohammad Taghi Goodarzi, Victoria Higgins, Khosrow Adeli
Resveratrol (RES), a well-known antioxidant, is present in numerous plant species and, as a result, is easily obtained through dietary intake of plant-based foods and beverages. Several studies suggest that RES has anti-carcinogenic, anti-microbial, and anti-viral effects. It may also have beneficial metabolic properties that result in mitigation of insulin resistance (IR) and related metabolic abnormalities, including dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hyperinsulinemia through regulation of gene expression or the activity of rate-limiting enzymes...
July 13, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698587/a-novel-dual-eigen-analysis-of-mouse-multi-tissues-expression-profiles-unveils-new-perspectives-into-type-2-diabetes
#8
Lei M Li, Xiuxiu Liu, Lin Wang, Yong Wang, Xiuqin Liu, Xue Tian, Fuzhou Gong, Li Shen, Xiao-Ding Peng
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex and polygenic disease yet in need of a complete picture of its development mechanisms. To better understand the mechanisms, we examined gene expression profiles of multi-tissues from outbred mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) or regular chow at weeks 1, 9, and 18. To analyze such complex data, we proposed a novel dual eigen-analysis, in which the sample- and gene-eigenvectors correspond respectively to the macro- and micro-biology information. The dual eigen-analysis identified the HFD eigenvectors as well as the endogenous eigenvectors for each tissue...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697997/the-impact-of-parental-history-of-type-2-diabetes-on-hyperinsulinemia-and-insulin-resistance-in-subjects-from-central-mexico
#9
Ana Paula Acevedo-Negrete, Leonardo M Porchia, M Elba Gonzalez-Mejia, Enrique Torres-Rasgado, Dania G Solis-Cano, Guadalupe Ruiz-Vivanco, Ricardo Pérez-Fuentes
AIMS: Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance are both associated with the development of Type 2 Diabetes and other pathologies; however, the influence of parental history of Type 2 diabetes (PH-T2D) has yet to be investigated. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the effect of PH-T2D has on the risk of developing hyperinsulinemia and IR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 1092 subjects (703 non-pregnant females and 389 males) were enrolled for a cross-sectional study...
July 3, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697184/insulin-action-and-resistance-in-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#10
Michael P Czech
Nutritional excess is a major forerunner of type 2 diabetes. It enhances the secretion of insulin, but attenuates insulin's metabolic actions in the liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. However, conflicting evidence indicates a lack of knowledge of the timing of these events during the development of obesity and diabetes, pointing to a key gap in our understanding of metabolic disease. This Perspective reviews alternate viewpoints and recent results on the temporal and mechanistic connections between hyperinsulinemia, obesity and insulin resistance...
July 11, 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694663/inhibition-of-n-methyl-n-nitrosourea-induced-gastric-tumorigenesis-by-liuwei-dihuang-pill-in-db-db-mice
#11
Shan Zhuang, Yong-Mei Jian, Yong-Ning Sun
AIM: To investigate the inhibitory effect of Liuwei Dihuang Pill (LDP) on gastric tumorigenesis induced by N-methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU) in diabetic mice. METHODS: Four-week-old mice were divided into four groups: A, 12 db/m mice treated with MNU and saline, as the non-diabetic control; B, 12 db/db mice treated with MNU and saline, as the diabetic control; C, 12 db/db mice treated with MNU and metformin, as the positive control; and D, 12 db/db mice treated with MNU and LDP...
June 21, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687552/hyponatremia-induced-by-hyperinsulinemia-euglycemia-therapy
#12
Jennifer R Beavers, Joanna L Stollings, Todd W Rice
PURPOSE: A case of symptomatic hyponatremia induced by hyperinsulinemia-euglycemia (HIE) therapy is reported. SUMMARY: A 59-year-old, 81.65-kg woman with hypertension, major depressive disorder, and anxiety arrived at a tertiary medical center 1.5 hours after an intentional overdose of oral amlodipine 200 mg, metoprolol tartrate 2,000 mg, and isosorbide mononitrate 1,200 mg. Upon arrival, her pulse was 63 beats/min and blood pressure was 106/56 mm Hg. The patient's blood pressure was refractory to fluids, calcium gluconate, and norepinephrine, resulting in initiation of HIE therapy...
July 15, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684634/the-effect-of-ingested-glucose-dose-on-the-suppression-of-endogenous-glucose-production-in-humans
#13
Greg M Kowalski, Samantha M Moore, Steven Hamley, Ahrathy Selathurai, Clinton R Bruce
Insulin clamp studies have shown that insulin's suppressive actions on endogenous glucose production (EGP) are markedly more sensitive than that for stimulating glucose disposal (Rd). However, clamp conditions do not adequately mimic postprandial physiological responses. Here, in healthy subjects, using the variable infusion dual-tracer approach, we used a 3-fold range of ingested glucose doses (25, 50 and 75 g) to investigate how physiologic changes in plasma insulin influence EGP. Remarkably, the glucose responses were similar for all doses tested, yet there was a dose-dependent increase in insulin secretion and plasma insulin levels...
July 6, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679589/insulin-stimulates-uric-acid-reabsorption-via-regulating-urate-transporter-1-and-atp-binding-cassette-sub-family-g-member-2
#14
Daigo Toyoki, Shigeru Shibata, Emiko Kuribayashi-Okuma, Ning Xu, Kenichi Ishizawa, Makoto Hosoyamada, Shunya Uchida
Accumulating data indicate that renal uric acid (UA) handling is altered in diabetes and by hypoglycemic agents. In addition, hyperinsulinemia is associated with hyperuricemia and hypouricosuria. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate how diabetes and hypoglycemic agents alter the levels of renal UA transporters. In insulin-depleted diabetic rats with streptozotocin treatment, both UA excretion and fractional excretion of UA (FEUA) were increased, suggesting that tubular handling of UA is altered in this model...
July 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673586/potential-therapeutic-effect-of-alkaline-reduced-water-in-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#15
Jesmin Ara, Selikem Abla Nuwormegbe, Ma Easter Joy Sajo, Soo-Ki Kim, Kwang-Yong Shim, Kyu-Jae Lee
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine-metabolic disorder characterized by hormonal disturbances including hyperandrogenemia, insulin resistance, and hyperinsulinemia culminating into obesity, multiple ovarian cysts and anovulatory infertility in women. There has been no effective medication against PCOS and its complication. However, weight loss can reduce insulin resistance, which in turn helps to restore hormonal balance and ovulation resulting to improved fertility. Previously, we reported that alkaline reduced water (ARW) could significantly reduce obesity by alleviating adiposity, regulating the levels of adipokines/pro-inflammatory cytokines and by inducing cholesterol homeostasis...
July 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670544/randomized-placebo-control-study-of-metformin-in-psoriasis-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome-systemic-treatment-cohort
#16
Surjit Singh, Anil Bhansali
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis has been found to be associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome (MS), diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors. Metformin treatment showed improvement in cardiovascular risk factors and hyperinsulinemia. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of metformin in psoriasis patients with MS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a single-center, parallel-group, randomized, open-label study with blinded end point assessment of metformin (1000 mg once daily for 12 weeks; n = 20) and placebo (n = 18) in psoriasis patients with MS...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667906/the-sglt2-inhibitor-empagliflozin-improves-the-primary-diabetic-complications-in-zdf-rats
#17
Sebastian Steven, Matthias Oelze, Alina Hanf, Swenja Kröller-Schön, Fatemeh Kashani, Siyer Roohani, Philipp Welschof, Maximilian Kopp, Ute Gödtel-Armbrust, Ning Xia, Huige Li, Eberhard Schulz, Karl J Lackner, Leszek Wojnowski, Serge P Bottari, Philip Wenzel, Eric Mayoux, Thomas Münzel, Andreas Daiber
Hyperglycemia associated with inflammation and oxidative stress is a major cause of vascular dysfunction and cardiovascular disease in diabetes. Recent data reports that a selective sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (SGLT2i), empagliflozin (Jardiance(®)), ameliorates glucotoxicity via excretion of excess glucose in urine (glucosuria) and significantly improves cardiovascular mortality in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The overarching hypothesis is that hyperglycemia and glucotoxicity are upstream of all other complications seen in diabetes...
June 22, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667123/mutant-p53-potentiates-the-oncogenic-effects-of-insulin-by-inhibiting-the-tumor-suppressor-dab2ip
#18
Elena Valentino, Arianna Bellazzo, Giulio Di Minin, Daria Sicari, Mattia Apollonio, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Maurizio Di Bonito, Gerardo Botti, Giannino Del Sal, Licio Collavin
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are significant risk factors for malignancies, being associated with chronic inflammation and hyperinsulinemia. In this context, insulin can synergize with inflammation to promote proliferation, survival, and dissemination of cancer cells. Point mutation of p53 is a frequent event and a significant factor in cancer development and progression. Mutant p53 protein(s) (mutp53) can acquire oncogenic properties that increase metastasis, proliferation, and cell survival. We report that breast and prostate cancer cells with mutant p53 respond to insulin stimulation by increasing cell proliferation and invasivity, and that such a response depends on the presence of mutp53...
June 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658751/fasting-insulin-is-better-partitioned-according-to-family-history-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-than-post-glucose-load-insulin-of-oral-glucose-tolerance-test-in-young-adults
#19
Saritha Francis, Sindhu Padinjareveedu Chandran, K K Nesheera, Jose Jacob
INTRODUCTION: Hyperinsulinemia is contributed by insulin resistance, hepatic insulin uptake, insulin secretion and rate of insulin degradation. Family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus has been reported to cause hyperinsulinemia. AIM: Correlation of fasting insulin with post glucose load Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) insulin in young adults and their partitioning according to family history of type 2 diabetes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this observational cross-sectional study, clinical evaluation and biochemical assays of insulin and diabetes related parameters, and secondary clinical influences on type 2 diabetes in volunteers were done for inclusion as participants (n=90) or their exclusion...
May 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657375/metabolic-effect-of-obesity-on-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-adolescents-a-meta-analysis
#20
Li Li, Qiong Feng, Ming Ye, Yaojuan He, Aling Yao, Kun Shi
This meta-analysis provides an updated and comprehensive estimate of the effects of obesity on metabolic disorders in adolescent polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Relevant articles consistent with the search terms published up to 31 January 2014 were retrieved from PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and CENTRAL. Thirteen articles (16 independent studies) conformed to the inclusion criteria. The evaluated outcomes were the metabolic parameters of obese adolescents with PCOS (case group) relative to normal-weight adolescents with PCOS, or obese adolescents without PCOS...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
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