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Hyperinsulinemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029082/decreased-homocysteine-trans-sulfuration-in-hypertension-with-hyperhomocysteinemia-relationship-with-insulin-resistance
#1
Paolo Tessari, Monica Vettore, Lucia Puricelli, Diego Cecchet, Anna Coracina, Edward Kivanuka
Context: Homocysteine is an independent cardiovascular risk factor and is increased in essential hypertension. Insulin stimulates homocysteine catabolism in healthy individuals. However, the mechanisms of hyperhomocysteinemia and its relationship with insulin resistance in essential hypertension are unknown. Objective: To investigate whole-body methionine and homocysteine kinetics, and the effects of insulin, in essential hypertension. Design & Setting: Eight hypertensive male subjects, and six male normotensive controls, were infused with L-[methyl-2H3,1-13C]methionine for 6 hrs...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026311/artesunate-prevents-rats-from-the-clozapine-induced-hepatic-steatosis-and-elevation-in-plasma-triglycerides
#2
Yanmei Li, Ruibing Su, Shuqin Xu, Qingjun Huang, Haiyun Xu
Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic with therapeutic efficacy in treatment-resistant schizophrenia patients and low incidence of extrapyramidal side effects. However, the use of clozapine has been limited by its adverse effects on metabolism. Artesunate is a semisynthetic derivative of artemisinin and was shown to decrease the plasma cholesterol and triglyceride in rabbits and rats in recent studies. The aim of this study was to examine possible effects of artesunate on the clozapine-induced metabolic alterations in rats given saline, clozapine, artesunate, or clozapine plus artesunate for 6 weeks...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023424/dietary-anthocyanins-and-insulin-resistance-when-food-becomes-a-medicine
#3
REVIEW
Tarun Belwal, Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi, Solomon Habtemariam
Insulin resistance is an abnormal physiological state that occurs when insulin from pancreatic β-cells is unable to trigger a signal transduction pathway in target organs such as the liver, muscles and adipose tissues. The loss of insulin sensitivity is generally associated with persistent hyperglycemia (diabetes), hyperinsulinemia, fatty acids and/or lipid dysregulation which are often prevalent under obesity conditions. Hence, insulin sensitizers are one class of drugs currently employed to treat diabetes and associated metabolic disorders...
October 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993561/a-missense-variant-rs4645843-in-tnf-%C3%AE-gene-is-a-risk-factor-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-in-the-uygur-population
#4
Shan Li, Lei Zhao, Xiao-Hui Wan
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrine syndrome, resulting from the interaction of gene variants and environmental factors. PCOS is viewed as a proinflammatory state and is characterized by hyperandrogenism, hyperinsulinemia, and over-weight. In China, the incidence of PCOS is higher in the Uygur population than that in the Chinese Han population. The association of the tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) gene with PCOS remains to be clarified. Here, we investigated the association of TNF-α polymorphisms with PCOS in the Uygur population (393 patients with PCOS and 381 healthy subjects)...
2017: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987875/activation-of-igf-1-receptors-and-akt-signaling-by-systemic-hyperinsulinemia-contributes-to-cardiac-hypertrophy-but-does-not-regulate-cardiac-autophagy-in-obese-diabetic-mice
#5
Karla Maria Pires, Marcio Buffolo, Christin Schaaf, J David Symons, James Cox, E Dale Abel, Craig H Selzman, Sihem Boudina
Autophagy plays an important role in the maintenance of normal heart function. However, the role of autophagy in the inulin resistant and diabetic heart is not well understood. Furthermore, the upstream signaling and the downstream targets involved in cardiac autophagy regulation during obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are not fully elucidated. The aim of this study was to measure autophagic flux and to dissect the upstream and downstream signaling involved in cardiac autophagy regulation in the hearts of obese T2DM mice...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975521/nigella-sativa-oil-and-chromium-picolinate-ameliorate-fructose-induced-hyperinsulinemia-by-enhancing-insulin-signaling-and-suppressing-insulin-degrading-enzyme-in-male-rats
#6
Mohamed Mahmoud Elseweidy, Rawia Sarhan Amin, Hebatallah Husseini Atteia, Maha Abdo Aly
In vivo and in vitro studies suggested that chromium enhances insulin sensitivity by promoting insulin receptor signaling. However, its effect on insulin clearance has not been yet identified. Nigella sativa, a widely used spice, possesses an antidiabetic activity. We, therefore, hypothesized that chromium picolinate may alter insulin clearance by modulating insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) in insulin-resistant rats. We evaluated also the effect of Nigella sativa oil on insulin signaling and degradation with respect to chromium picolinate...
October 4, 2017: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974704/maternal-intake-of-grape-seed-procyanidins-during-lactation-induces-insulin-resistance-and-an-adiponectin-resistance-like-phenotype-in-rat-offspring
#7
Antoni Caimari, Roger Mariné-Casadó, Noemí Boqué, Anna Crescenti, Lluís Arola, Josep Maria Del Bas
Previously, we demonstrated that a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) supplementation in pregnant and lactating rats exerted both healthy and deleterious programming effects on their offspring. Here, we evaluated whether the administration of GSPE during lactation (100 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) in rats elicited beneficial effects in their normoweight (STD-GSPE group) and cafeteria-fed obese (CAF-GSPE group) adult male offspring. STD-GSPE and CAF-GSPE offspring showed increased energy expenditure and circulating total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin...
October 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972482/insulin-like-growth-factor-1-possible-dependence-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome-of-nodular-pathology-of-the-thyroid-gland
#8
M Rekvava, T Dundua, M Kobulia, L Javashvili, E Giorgadze
Metabolic syndrome and nodular pathology of the thyroid gland is a widespread problem nowadays. Recently there has been a notable coincidence between metabolic syndrome and nodular pathology of thyroid gland. Hence, it is interesting to reveal the connection between these two diseases. It is possible that insulin-like growth factor system (IGF), namely IGF 1 is connecting link between metabolic syndrome and nodular pathology of thyroid gland, because IGF1 stimulates growth and proliferation of cells in the body...
September 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971990/chronic-renal-artery-insulin-infusion-increases-mean-arterial-pressure-in-male-sprague-dawley-rats
#9
Debra L Irsik, Jian-Kang Chen, Michael W Brands
Hyperinsulinemia has been hypothesized to cause hypertension in obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome through a renal mechanism. However, it has been challenging to isolate renal mechanisms in chronic experimental models due, in part, to technical difficulties. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a renal mechanism underlies insulin hypertension. We developed a novel technique to permit continuous insulin infusion through the renal artery in conscious rats for 7 days. Mean arterial pressure increased by approximately 10 mmHg in rats that were infused intravenously (IV) with insulin and glucose...
September 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970780/mulberry-branch-bark-powder-significantly-improves-hyperglycemia-and-regulates-insulin-secretion-in-type-ii-diabetic-mice
#10
Xiao-Lu Yin, Hua-Yu Liu, Yu-Qing Zhang
This experiment, based on the previous study on R. mori, introduces whole mulberry branch powder into the diet to treat diabetic mice. Mulberry branch bark powder (MBBP) was administered orally to streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type II diabetic (T2D) mice to investigate hypoglycemic effects. After a 4-week period of diet consumption containing 5%, 10% and 20% MBBP, the fasting blood glucose, body weight and the related western blotting were measured, pathologic and immunohistochemical were observed. The 20% MBBP group showed a significant reduction in hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia; fasting blood glucose and insulin decreased from 25...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969466/short-and-long-term-consequences-for-offspring-exposed-to-maternal-diabetes-a-review
#11
S Burlina, M G Dalfrà, A Lapolla
The prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus is increasing, as is the worldwide prevalence of type 2 diabetes and obesity, even in children and adolescents. Exposure in utero to maternal diabetes carries several short-term consequences due mainly to maternal hyperglycemia, and consequent fetal hyperinsulinemia. Current evidence also supports the hypothesis that adult health and disease have developmental origins, and that disorders in early-life environments prompt metabolic imprinting that results in a greater risk of negative metabolic outcomes later in life...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28966594/the-role-of-the-autonomic-nervous-system-in-the-pathophysiology-of-obesity
#12
REVIEW
Daniela Guarino, Monica Nannipieri, Giorgio Iervasi, Stefano Taddei, Rosa Maria Bruno
Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions globally and represents a major cause of comorbidities, mostly related to cardiovascular disease. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction has a two-way relationship with obesity. Indeed, alterations of the ANS might be involved in the pathogenesis of obesity, acting on different pathways. On the other hand, the excess weight induces ANS dysfunction, which may be involved in the haemodynamic and metabolic alterations that increase the cardiovascular risk of obese individuals, i...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961383/caloric-restriction-stabilizes-body-weight-and-accelerates-behavioral-recovery-in-aged-rats-after-focal-ischemia
#13
Ovidiu Ciobanu, Raluca Elena Sandu, Adrian Tudor Balseanu, Alexandra Zavaleanu, Andrei Gresita, Eugen Bogdan Petcu, Adriana Uzoni, Aurel Popa-Wagner
Obesity and hyperinsulinemia are risk factors for stroke. We tested the hypothesis that caloric restriction, which reduces the incidence of age-related obesity and metabolic syndrome, may represent an efficient and cost-effective strategy for preventing stroke and its devastating consequences. To this end, we placed aged, obese Sprague-Dawley aged rats on a calorie-restricted diet for 8 weeks prior to the experimental infarction. Stroke in this animal model caused a progressive decrease in weight that reached a minimum at day 6 for the young rats, and at day 10 for the aged, ad libitum-fed rats...
September 29, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958751/insulin-therapy-increases-cardiovascular-risk-time-for-a-sea-of-change-in-type-2-diabetes-treatment
#14
REVIEW
Mary E Herman, James H O'Keefe, David S H Bell, Stanley S Schwartz
Insulin therapy increased cardiovascular (CV) risk and mortality among type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients in several recently reported clinical outcomes trials. To assess whether this association is causative or coincidental, PubMed searches were used to query the effects of insulin therapy for T2D on CV health and longevity from large-scale outcomes trials, meta-analyses, and patient registry studies, as well as basic research on insulin's direct and pleiotropic actions. Although several old studies provided conflicting results, the majority of large observational studies show strong dose-dependent associations for injected insulin with increased CV risk and worsened mortality...
September 25, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958690/relationship-between-circulating-levels-of-pancreatic-proteolytic-enzymes-and-pancreatic-hormones
#15
Sakina H Bharmal, Sayali A Pendharkar, Ruma G Singh, Mark O Goodarzi, Stephen J Pandol, Maxim S Petrov
BACKGROUND: While the close morphological relationship between the exocrine and endocrine pancreas is well established, their functional interaction remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between circulating levels of pancreatic proteolytic enzymes and insulin, as well as other pancreatic hormones. METHODS: Fasting venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for trypsin, chymotrypsin, insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, and pancreatic polypeptide...
September 20, 2017: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955783/computational-study-of-the-activity-dynamics-energetics-and-conformations-of-insulin-analogues-using-molecular-dynamics-simulations-application-to-hyperinsulinemia-and-the-critical-residue-b26
#16
Anastasios Papaioannou, Serdar Kuyucak, Zdenka Kuncic
Due to the increasing prevalence of diabetes, finding therapeutic analogues for insulin has become an urgent issue. While many experimental studies have been performed towards this end, they have limited scope to examine all aspects of the effect of a mutation. Computational studies can help to overcome these limitations, however, relatively few studies that focus on insulin analogues have been performed to date. Here, we present a comprehensive computational study of insulin analogues-three mutant insulins that have been identified with hyperinsulinemia and three mutations on the critical B26 residue that exhibit similar binding affinity to the insulin receptor-using molecular dynamics simulations with the aim of predicting how mutations of insulin affect its activity, dynamics, energetics and conformations...
September 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945897/body-composition-and-ectopic-lipid-changes-with-biochemical-control-of-acromegaly
#17
Miriam A Bredella, Melanie Schorr, Laura E Dichtel, Anu V Gerweck, Brian J Young, Whitney W Woodmansee, Brooke Swearingen, Karen K Miller
Context: Acromegaly is characterized by GH and IGF-1 hypersecretion, and GH and IGF-1 play important roles in regulating body composition and glucose homeostasis. Objective: The purpose of our study was to investigate body composition, including ectopic lipids, measures of glucose homeostasis, and gonadal steroids in patients with active acromegaly compared to age-, BMI-, and sex-matched controls and to determine changes in those parameters following biochemical control of acromegaly...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938444/lack-of-lrp5-signaling-in-osteoblasts-sensitizes-male-mice-to-diet-induced-disturbances-in-glucose-metabolism
#18
Soohyun P Kim, Julie L Frey, Zhu Li, Brian C Goh, Ryan C Riddle
Wnt signaling through the Lrp5 co-receptor regulates osteoblast maturation, matrix mineralization, and intermediary metabolism. In the mature osteoblast, signals downstream of Lrp5 are required for normal long-chain fatty acid β-oxidation and mice rendered deficient for this co-receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes accumulate body fat with elevated serum lipid levels, but retain normal insulin sensitivity. In this study, we challenged Lrp5 mutant mice with a high fat diet to determine if they are more susceptible to diet-induced disturbances in glucose homeostasis...
September 11, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938434/fgf21-is-an-insulin-dependent-postprandial-hormone-in-adult-humans
#19
Ricardo J Samms, Jo E Lewis, Luke Norton, Francis B Stephens, Christopher J Gaffney, Tony Butterfield, Dennis Smith, Christine Cheng, James W Perfield, Andrew C Adams, Francis J P Ebling, Kostas Tsintzas
Context: Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) secretion has been shown to respond directly to carbohydrate consumption, with glucose, fructose and sucrose all reported to increase plasma levels of FGF21 in rodents and humans. However, carbohydrate consumption also results in secretion of insulin. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the combined and independent effects of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia on total and bioactive FGF21 in the postprandial period in humans, and determine whether this effect is attenuated in conditions of altered insulin secretion and action...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938412/renal-metabolic-programming-is-linked-to-the-dynamic-regulation-of-a-leptin-klf15-axis-and-akt-ampk%C3%AE-signaling-in-male-offspring-of-obese-dams
#20
Philipp Kasper, Christina Vohlen, Katharina Dinger, Jasmine Mohr, Eva Hucklenbruch-Rother, Ruth Janoschek, Jessica Köth, Jan Matthes, Sarah Appel, Jörg Dötsch, Miguel A Alejandre Alcazar
Childhood obesity is associated with renal diseases. Maternal obesity is a risk factor linked to increased adipocytokines and metabolic disorders in the offspring. Therefore, we studied the impact of maternal obesity on renal-intrinsic insulin and adipocytokine signaling and on renal function and structure. To induce maternal obesity, female mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or a standard diet (SD; control group) prior to mating, during gestation, and throughout lactation. A third group of dams was fed HFD only during lactation (HFD-Lac)...
October 1, 2017: Endocrinology
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