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Hyperinsulinemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910718/substituting-poly-and-mono-unsaturated-fat-for-dietary-carbohydrate-reduces-hyperinsulinemia-in-women-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#1
Dalia Perelman, Nicole Coghlan, Cindy Lamendola, Susan Carter, Fahim Abbasi, Tracey McLaughlin
OBJECTIVE: Hyperinsulinemia is a prevalent feature of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), contributing to metabolic and reproductive manifestations of the syndrome. Weight loss reduces hyperinsulinemia but weight regain is the norm, thus preventing long-term benefits. In the absence of weight loss, replacement of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) with mono/polyunsaturated fat reduces ambient insulin concentrations in non-PCOS subjects. The current study evaluated whether this dietary intervention could ameliorate hyperinsulinemia in women with PCOS...
December 2, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909900/obesity-and-colorectal-cancer
#2
Carmen Jochem, Michael Leitzmann
There is strong evidence that modifiable lifestyle factors such as obesity play a key role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Epidemiologic data have consistently reported a positive association between obesity and colorectal cancer. The relative risk associated with general obesity (as assessed by BMI) is higher in men than in women and for cancer of the colon than for cancer of the rectum. Abdominal obesity (as assessed by waist circumference (WC) or waist-to-hip ratio) is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer in both sexes, with stronger associations for cancer of the colon than for cancer of the rectum...
2016: Recent Results in Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908213/determinants-of-low-bone-mineral-density-in-premenopausal-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-patients
#3
Cihan Karadağ, Tevfik Yoldemir, Dilek Gogas Yavuz
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the bone mineral density (BMD) values and to determine the associations between BMD and insulin sensitivity, hyperandrogenemia, body mass index (BMI), and sex hormones in premenopausal polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients. METHODS: A hundred and three women with PCOS and sixty age- and BMI-matched healthy control women were enrolled to this cross-sectional study. Serum androgen and estradiol (E2) levels were measured...
December 2, 2016: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905649/-hyperinsulinemia-and-insulin-resistance-in-children
#4
Ana Beatriz Rosas-Sumano, Francisco Javier Rodal-Canales, Margarita Barrientos Pérez, Beatriz Eugenia Cárdenas-Morales, Laura Pérez-Campos Mayoral, Eduardo Pérez-Campos
BACKGROUND: Obesity during childhood is a risk factor for developing cardiovascular diseases during adulthood. AIM: To measure insulin and glucose levels and parameters of insulin resistance in obese, overweight and normal weight Mexican children. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Comparative study of 21 obese children with a body mass index (BMI) over percentile 95, aged 10 ± 1 years (10 males), 14 children aged 10 ± 2 (7 males) with a BMI between percentiles 85 and 94 and 16 children aged 9 ± 2 years (3 males) with a body mass index between percentiles 10 and 84...
August 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904553/comparison-of-the-effects-of-metformin-flutamide-plus-oral-contraceptives-and-simvastatin-on-the-metabolic-consequences-of-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#5
Ferdous Mehrabian, Hatav Ghasemi-Tehrani, Mahboobe Mohamadkhani, Maryam Moeinoddini, Pooya Karimzadeh
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the common endocrine disorders in women of reproductive ages. It is associated with a range of disorders, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance (IR), compensatory hyperinsulinemia, gestational, and type 2 diabetes, and increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity. There are different treatments available for PCOS. The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the effects of metformin, flutamide plus oral contraceptives (OCs), and simvastatin on the metabolic consequences of PCOS...
2016: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901033/impact-of-dietary-glycemic-challenge-on-fuel-partitioning
#6
REVIEW
A Bosy-Westphal, F Hägele, A Nas
The 'carbohydrate-insulin theory of obesity' is used to justify popular health claims stating that carbohydrates make you fat or a high glycemic load and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs) and breakfast skipping increase fat gain. According to this theory, the elevated postprandial insulin secretion to a high glycemic challenge is blamed as a causal mechanism by directing nutrients away from oxidation in muscle towards storage in adipose tissue. Scientific evidence is however largely disagreeing with an adverse effect of postprandial hyperinsulinemia on fuel partitioning...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895819/nutrition-insulin-resistance-and-dysfunctional-adipose-tissue-determine-the-different-components-of-metabolic-syndrome
#7
REVIEW
Juan Antonio Paniagua
Obesity is an excessive accumulation of body fat that may be harmful to health. Today, obesity is a major public health problem, affecting in greater or lesser proportion all demographic groups. Obesity is estimated by body mass index (BMI) in a clinical setting, but BMI reports neither body composition nor the location of excess body fat. Deaths from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and diabetes accounted for approximately 65% of all deaths, and adiposity and mainly abdominal adiposity are associated with all these disorders...
November 15, 2016: World Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894728/bone-density-in-patients-with-berardinelli-seip-congenital-lipodystrophy-is-higher-in-trabecular-sites-and-in-type-2-patients
#8
Josivan G Lima, Lucia Helena C Nobrega, Natalia N Lima, Marcel C F Dos Santos, Maria de Fatima P Baracho, Francisco Bandeira, Leonardo Capistrano, Francisco Paulo Freire Neto, Selma Maria B Jeronimo
Berardinelli-Seip congenital lipodystrophy (BSCL) is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by a difficulty storing lipid in adipocytes, low body fat, hypoleptinemia, and hyperinsulinemia. We report here laboratory, bone mineral density (BMD), and bone mineral content findings of 21 patients (24.1 ± 8.4 yr old, 14 females, 18 diabetics, 5.3% total body fat) with BSCL. The mean leptin was very low (0.91 ± 0.42 ng/mL), and the mean values of the Z-scores for all studied sites were positive, except for the 33% radius (Z-score -0...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886515/discovery-of-novel-lipid-profiles-in-pcos-do-insulin-and-androgen-oppositely-regulate-bioactive-lipid-production
#9
Shengxian Li, Qianqian Chu, Jing Ma, Yun Sun, Tao Tao, Rong Huang, Yu Liao, Jiang Yue, Jun Zheng, Lihua Wang, Xinli Xue, Mingjiang Zhu, Xiaonan Kang, Huiyong Yin, Wei Liu
CONTEXT: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex syndrome showing clinical features of an endocrine/metabolic disorder, including hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their derivatives play important roles in inflammation and reproduction, and both of these are tightly linked to PCOS and obesity. OBJECTIVE: To investigate serum lipid profiles in newly diagnosed PCOS patients using lipidomics and correlate these features with the hyperinsulinemia and hyperandrogenism associated with PCOS and obesity...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884723/ir-and-igf-1r-expression-affects-insulin-induced-proliferation-and-dna-damage
#10
Eman Maher Othman, Tahanee Altabaa, Henning Hintzsche, Helga Stopper
Diabetes mellitus type 2 is in its prediagnostic and early phase characterized by hyperinsulinemia. Previously, we pointed out hyperinsulinemia as a potential link between diabetes mellitus and the increased cancer risk that is associated with this disease through its induction of oxidative stress and DNA damage. In the present study, we address the relationship between the induction of proliferation and genomic damage in vitro in cell lines with different expression of the insulin and the IGF-1 receptors after treating the cells with insulin and the insulin analog glargine...
November 21, 2016: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884155/long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-lcpufas-and-nordihydroguaiaretic-acid-ndga-modulate-metabolic-and-inflammatory-markers-in-a-spontaneous-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-model-stillman-salgado-rats
#11
Alejandro Dain, Gaston Repossi, Gustavo T Diaz-Gerevini, Jairam Vanamala, Undurti N Das, Aldo R Eynard
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a complex disease with alterations in metabolic and inflammatory markers. Stillman Salgado rats (eSS) spontaneously develop type 2 DM by middle age showing progressive impairment of glucose tolerance with hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia. We analyzed the effects of supplementation of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with or without nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) added, an antioxidant and lipoxygenase inhibitor, on metabolic and inflammatory parameters in eSS rats to evaluate whether they can delay development and/or prevent progression of DM...
November 25, 2016: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867884/comparison-clinical-and-metabolic-effects-of-metformin-and-pioglitazone-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#12
Karoon Shahebrahimi, Nasrin Jalilian, Nasrin Bazgir, Mansour Rezaei
INTRODUCTION: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders in women. PCOS comprises a broad spectrum of anomalies, including hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation, obesity, and infertility. Insulin resistance and its compensatory hyperinsulinemia play a key role in the pathogenicity of PCOS. This study compares the effects of 2 types of insulin sensitizer drugs, metformin and pioglitazone, on clinical, metabolic, and endocrine characteristics of women with PCOS...
November 2016: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860326/docosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-positively-associate-with-insulin-sensitivity-in-rats-fed-high-fat-and-high-fructose-diets
#13
Jiung-Pang Huang, Mei-Ling Cheng, Cheng-Yu Hung, Chao-Hung Wang, Po-Shiuan Hsieh, Ming-Shi Shiao, Jan-Kan Chen, Dai-Er Li, Li-Man Hung
BACKGROUND: We compared the insulin resistance and metabolic alterations by using a global lipidomic approach. METHODS: Rats were fed with high-fat-diet (HFD) and high-fructose-diet (HFr) for 12 weeks to induced insulin resistance syndrome. RESULTS: Rats on both diets developed of insulin resistance syndrome, characterized by hypertension, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, impaired fasting glucose, and insulin resistance. Compared with HFr rats, nonesterified-fatty-acid was lower, and body weight and plasma insulin level were markedly higher in the HFD animals...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857694/comparable-attenuation-of-sympathetic-nervous-system-activity-in-obese-subjects-with-normal-glucose-tolerance-impaired-glucose-tolerance-and-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-type-2-diabetes-following-equivalent-weight-loss
#14
Nora E Straznicky, Mariee T Grima, Carolina I Sari, Elisabeth A Lambert, Sarah E Phillips, Nina Eikelis, Justin A Mariani, Daisuke Kobayashi, Dagmara Hering, John B Dixon, Gavin W Lambert
Background and Purpose: Elevated sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity is a characteristic of obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) that contributes to target organ damage and cardiovascular risk. In this study we examined whether baseline metabolic status influences the degree of sympathoinhibition attained following equivalent dietary weight loss. Methods: Un-medicated obese individuals categorized as normal glucose tolerant (NGT, n = 15), impaired glucose tolerant (IGT, n = 24), and newly-diagnosed T2D (n = 15) consumed a hypocaloric diet (29% fat, 23% protein, 45% carbohydrate) for 4-months...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852778/the-effects-of-peripheral-and-central-high-insulin-on-brain-insulin-signaling-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-in-young-and-old-app-ps1-mice
#15
Molly Stanley, Shannon L Macauley, Emily E Caesar, Lauren J Koscal, Will Moritz, Grace O Robinson, Joseph Roh, Jennifer Keyser, Hong Jiang, David M Holtzman
: Hyperinsulinemia is a risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). In vitro experiments describe potential connections between insulin, insulin signaling, and amyloid-β (Aβ), but in vivo experiments are needed to validate these relationships under physiological conditions. First, we performed hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps with concurrent hippocampal microdialysis in young, awake, behaving APPswe/PS1dE9 transgenic mice. Both a postprandial and supraphysiological insulin clamp significantly increased interstitial fluid (ISF) and plasma Aβ compared with controls...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848917/polycystic-ovarian-syndrome-clinical-and-biological-diagnosis
#16
Anne Bachelot
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common ovarian disorder associated with androgen excess in women, which justifies the growing interest of endocrinologists. This syndrome leads to clinical hyperandrogenism and/or a biological dysovulation and infertility. Its diagnosis is based on consensual diagnostic criteria, but which are likely to change in the near future with the rise of the interest of new markers such as AMH. Diagnostic tools of PCOS are also discussed, with emphasis on the laboratory evaluation of androgens and other potential biomarkers of ovarian and metabolic dysfunctions...
December 1, 2016: Annales de Biologie Clinique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842906/metformin-preconditioned-adipose-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-is-a-better-option-for-the-reversal-of-diabetes-upon-transplantation
#17
Nitya Shree, Ramesh R Bhonde
Metformin is used worldwide as an insulin sensitizer. Adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells have shown promising results in the reducing hyperglycemia. We examined whether preconditioning of adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) with metformin could have a better therapeutic value for the reversal of type 2 diabetes. We compared the effect of metformin, ASCs and metformin preconditioned ASCs (MetASCs) in high fat diet induced C57BL/6 mice by injecting the cells intramuscularly only once where as metformin was given at a concentration of 300mg per kg body weight orally daily...
November 11, 2016: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836689/fasting-insulin-insulin-resistance-and-risk-of-hypertension-in-the-general-population-a-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Feng Wang, Lili Han, Dayi Hu
BACKGROUND: Studies on the association of fasting insulin concentrations or insulin resistance with subsequent risk of hypertension have yielded conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: To quantitatively assess the association of fasting insulin concentrations or homeostasis model assessment insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) with incident hypertension in a general population by performing a meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched the PubMed and Embase databases until August 31, 2016 for prospective observational studies investigating the elevated fasting insulin concentrations or HOMA-IR with subsequent risk of hypertension in the general population...
November 9, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832775/correlation-between-insulin-induced-estrogen-receptor-methylation-and-atherosclerosis
#19
Jia Min, Zhong Weitian, Cai Peng, Peng Yan, Zhang Bo, Wang Yan, Bai Yun, Wang Xukai
BACKGROUND: Hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance have been recently recognized as an important cause of atherosclerosis. Clinical studies have also found that expression of the estrogen receptor is closely related to the incidence of atherosclerosis. This study investigate the effects of insulin and estrogen receptor α (ER-α) in atherosclerosis. METHODS: Double knockout ApoE/Lepr mice were given intraperitoneal injections of insulin, and their aortae were harvested for hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemical analysis...
November 10, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822713/dexamethasone-alters-the-appetite-regulation-via-induction-of-hypothalamic-insulin-resistance-in-rat-brain
#20
Ragitha Chruvattil, Shreya Banerjee, Sarmi Nath, Jatin Machhi, Gitika Kharkwal, Mange Ram Yadav, Sarita Gupta
Elevated levels of glucocorticoid, a steroid hormone released in response to stress, have been implicated in the pathophysiology of diabetes, which is now known to extend its effect on brain functions. Hence, we aimed to investigate the status of brain insulin signaling in response to dexamethasone (a synthetic glucocorticoid) treatment in female Charles Foster rat. This model exhibited pronounced hyperinsulinemia and glucose intolerance with loss in appetite and body weight. Immunoblotting of insulin receptor (INSR)-PI3kinase-AKT demonstrated reduced insulin signaling in hypothalamus but no change in hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum in dexamethasone-treated rats as compared to vehicle-treated rats, signifying the diversity of distribution and function of insulin in different brain regions...
November 7, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
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