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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443260/growth-without-growth-hormone-in-combined-pituitary-hormone-deficiency-caused-by-pituitary-stalk-interruption-syndrome
#1
Sang Soo Lee, A-Leum Han, Moon Bae Ahn, Shin Hee Kim, Won Kyoung Cho, Kyoung Soon Cho, So Hyun Park, Min Ho Jung, Byung-Kyu Suh
Growth hormone (GH) is an essential element for normal growth. However, reports of normal growth without GH have been made in patients who have undergone brain surgery for craniopharyngioma. Normal growth without GH can be explained by hyperinsulinemia, hyperprolactinemia, elevated leptin levels, and GH variants; however, its exact mechanism has not been elucidated yet. We diagnosed a female patient aged 13 with combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD) caused by pituitary stalk interruption syndrome (PSIS)...
March 2017: Annals of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439093/gene-expression-profile-of-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-in-bmi-discordant-monozygotic-twin-pairs-unravels-molecular-and-clinical-changes-associated-with-sub-types-of-obesity
#2
M Muniandy, S Heinonen, H Yki-Järvinen, A Hakkarainen, J Lundbom, N Lundbom, J Kaprio, A Rissanen, M Ollikainen, K H Pietiläinen
BACKGROUND: Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) undergoes major changes in obesity, but little is known about the whole-genome scale patterns of these changes or about their variation between different obesity subgroups. We sought to compare how transcriptomics profiles in SAT differ between monozygotic (MZ) co-twins who are discordant for body mass index (BMI), whether the profiles vary between twin pairs and whether the variation can be linked to clinical characteristics. METHODS: We analyzed the transcriptomics (Affymetrix U133 Plus 2...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433656/impaired-endothelium-derived-hyperpolarization-type-relaxation-in-superior-mesenteric-arteries-isolated-from-female-otsuka-long-evans-tokushima-fatty-rats
#3
Takayuki Matsumoto, Shota Kobayashi, Makoto Ando, Shun Watanabe, Maika Iguchi, Kumiko Taguchi, Tsuneo Kobayashi
Endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH) is an important signaling mechanism of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation, and little attention has been paid to the EDH-type responses in female metabolic syndrome such as that observed with type-2 diabetes. We previously reported that EDH-type relaxation was impaired in superior mesenteric arteries from male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat, a model of type-2 diabetes, however, the response was unclear in female OLETF rat. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine if EDH-type relaxation was altered in superior mesenteric arteries isolated from female OLETF rats compared to age-matched, control female Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats at age 50-59 weeks...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432106/prohibitin-induced-obesity-leads-to-anovulation-and-polycystic-ovary-in-mice
#4
Sudharsana Rao Ande, Khanh Hoa Nguyen, Yang Xin Zi Xu, Suresh Mishra
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a prevalent endocrine disorder and the most common cause of female infertility. However, the etiology of the disease and the mechanisms by which this disorder progress remain unclear. Here we report that a transgenic obese mouse (Mito-Ob) developed by overexpressing prohibitin in adipocytes develops polycystic ovaries. Initially, the female Mito-Ob mice were equally fertile to their wild-type littermates. Mito-Ob mice begin to gain weight after puberty, become significantly obese between 3-6 months of age, and roughly 25% of them become infertile by 9 months of age...
April 21, 2017: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429777/interleukin-6-increases-the-expression-and-activity-of-insulin-degrading-enzyme
#5
Mirian A Kurauti, José M Costa-Júnior, Sandra M Ferreira, Gustavo J Santos, Carlos H G Sponton, Everardo M Carneiro, Guilherme D Telles, Mara P T Chacon-Mikahil, Cláudia R Cavaglieri, Luiz F Rezende, Antonio C Boschero
Impairment of the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) is associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Here, we used 4-mo-old male C57BL/6 interleukin-6 (IL-6) knockout mice (KO) to investigate the role of this cytokine on IDE expression and activity. IL-6 KO mice displayed lower insulin clearance in the liver and skeletal muscle, compared with wild type (WT), due to reduced IDE expression and activity. We also observed that after 3-h incubation, IL-6, 50 and 100 ng ml(-1), increased the expression of IDE in HEPG2 and C2C12 cells, respectively...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428756/neck-circumference-is-associated-with-muscle-sympathetic-nerve-activity-in-overweight-and-obese-men-but-not-women
#6
Nora E Straznicky, Mariee T Grima, Carolina I Sari, Nina Eikelis, Paul J Nestel, John B Dixon, Gavin W Lambert, Markus P Schlaich, Sarah E Phillips, Elisabeth A Lambert
Background: Neck circumference (NC) is a predictor of cardiometabolic risk. The objective of this study was to explore the relationship of NC to muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) within an overweight and obese population. Methods: The study design was a retrospective cross-sectional analysis. Un-medicated persons (72 men, 53 postmenopausal women) aged 56 ± 1 years (mean ± SEM) with body mass index (BMI) 32.8 ± 0.4 kg/m(2), were studied. NC was measured together with traditional anthropometric measures, supine blood pressure, fasting blood lipids, insulin, and glucose...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428362/hepatic-lipid-accumulation-cause-and-consequence-of-dysregulated-glucoregulatory-hormones
#7
Caroline E Geisler, Benjamin Jennings Renquist
Fatty liver can be diet, endocrine, genetic, viral, or drug induced. Independent of cause, hepatic lipid accumulation promotes systemic metabolic dysfunction. By acting as peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ligands, hepatic non-esterified fatty acids upregulate expression of gluconeogenic, beta-oxidative, lipogenic, and ketogenic genes, promoting hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, and ketosis. The typical hormonal environment in fatty liver disease consists of hyperinsulinemia, hyperglucagonemia, hypercortisolemia, growth hormone deficiency, and elevated sympathetic tone...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427866/effect-of-amyloid-%C3%AE-25-35-in-hyperglycemic-and-hyperinsulinemic-rats-effects-on-phosphorylation-and-o-glcnacylation-of-tau-protein
#8
Liliana Lozano, Jorge Guevara, Tony Lefebvre, Ivan Ramos-Martinez, Daniel Limón, Alfonso Díaz, Eduarda Cerón, Edgar Zenteno
Aggregation of the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide and hyperphosphorylation of tau protein, which are markers of Alzheimer's disease (AD), have been reported also in diabetes mellitus (DM). One regulator of tau phosphorylation is O-GlcNAcylation, whereas for hyperphosphorylation it could be GSK3beta, which is activated in hyperglycemic conditions. With this in mind, both O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation of tau protein were evaluated in the brain of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and treated with the Aß25-35 peptide in the hippocampal region CA1...
April 6, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427228/mir-29a-regulated-er-positive-breast-cancer-cell-growth-and-invasion-and-is-involved-in-the-insulin-signaling-pathway
#9
Zhi-Hua Li, Qiu-Yun Xiong, Liang Xu, Peng Duan, Qianwen Ou Yang, Ping Zhou, Jian-Hong Tu
Increasing amounts of evidence show that insulin can activate different insulin signaling pathways to promote breast cancer growth and invasion. miR-29a plays crucial roles in decreasing glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, as well as in regulating breast cancer cell proliferation and EMT. However, the mechanism responsible for the regulatory effects of miR-29a on breast cancer growth and invasion and the relationship between these effects and insulin signaling remains unclear. Herein, we showed that human insulin increased miR-29a expression in ER-positive breast cancer cells and that miR-29a facilitated the ability of insulin to promote breast cancer cell proliferation and migration...
March 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420820/high-insulin-impaired-ovarian-function-in-early-pregnant-mice-and-the-role-of-autophagy-in-this-process
#10
Yan Su, Juan Wu, Junlin He, Xueqing Liu, Xuemei Chen, Yubin Ding, Chen Zhang, Wenqi Chen, Yingxiong Wang, Rufei Gao
Metabolic disorders, such as PCOS (polycystic ovarian syndrome) and T2DM (type 2 diabetes mellitus), are associated with menstrual dysfunction, anovulation, infertility, and early pregnancy loss. Ovarian dysfunction is not only related to low pregnancy rates but also to the increased risk of miscarriage. Women with PCOS or T2DM, characterized by hyperinsulinemia, commonly experience ovarian dysfunction. In this study, we first explored whether high insulin levels directly affected ovarian functioning during embryo implantation...
April 18, 2017: Endocrine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418191/evaluation-of-chinese-herbal-medicine-jinlida-in-type-2-diabetes-patients-based-on-stratification-results-of-subgroup-analysis-from-12-week-trial
#11
Jiaxing Tian, Fengmei Lian, Libo Yang, Xiaolin Tong
BACKGROUND: Previous study found that the Chinese Herbal Medicine Jinlida could significantly enhance the hypoglycemic action of metformin compared to metformin alone. However, the advantage of Jinlida has not been clarified yet. We aimed to compare the efficacy of Jinlida in patients with T2DM based on stratification. METHODS: Data were analyzed from a 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multicenter study of Jinlida. The efficacy evaluation included HbA1c, FPG and 2hPG levels stratified by baseline HbA1c, sex, age, BMI, and duration of DM diagnosis...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416361/unraveling-the-regulation-of-hepatic-metabolism-by-insulin
#12
REVIEW
Paul M Titchenell, Mitchell A Lazar, Morris J Birnbaum
During insulin-resistant states such as type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), insulin fails to suppress hepatic glucose production but promotes lipid synthesis leading to hyperglycemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Defining the downstream signaling pathways underlying the control of hepatic metabolism by insulin is necessary for understanding both normal physiology and the pathogenesis of metabolic disease. We summarize recent literature highlighting the importance of both hepatic and extrahepatic mechanisms in insulin regulation of liver glucose and lipid metabolism...
April 14, 2017: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407322/effect-of-intravenous-small-volume-hypertonic-sodium-bicarbonate-sodium-chloride-and-glucose-solutions-in-decreasing-plasma-potassium-concentration-in-hyperkalemic-neonatal-calves-with-diarrhea
#13
F M Trefz, P D Constable, I Lorenz
BACKGROUND: Hyperkalemia is a frequently observed electrolyte imbalance in dehydrated neonatal diarrheic calves that can result in skeletal muscle weakness and life-threatening cardiac conduction abnormalities and arrhythmias. HYPOTHESIS: Intravenous administration of a small-volume hypertonic NaHCO3 solution is clinically more effective in decreasing the plasma potassium concentration (cK) in hyperkalemic diarrheic calves than hypertonic NaCl or glucose solutions...
April 13, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406767/homeostatic-model-assessment-for-insulin-resistance-homa-ir-a-better-marker-for-evaluating-insulin-resistance-than-fasting-insulin-in-women-with-polycystic-ovarian-syndrome
#14
Hafsa Majid, Qamar Masood, Aysha Habib Khan
OBJECTIVE: To assess the utility of HOMA-IR in assessing insulin resistance in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and compare it with fasting insulin for assessing insulin resistance (IR). STUDY DESIGN: Observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Section of Clinical Chemistry, Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2009 to September 2012. METHODOLOGY: Medical chart review of all women diagnosed with PCOS was performed...
March 2017: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401072/the-investigation-of-insulin-resistance-in-two-groups-of-epileptic-patients-treated-with-sodium-valproate-and-carbamazepine
#15
Mohammad Reza Najafi, Bahareh Bazooyar, Mohammad Zare, Mohammad Reza Aghaghazvini, Behnaz Ansari, Ali Rajaei, Masoumeh Dashti
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used broad-spectrum antiepileptic drug for therapy of generalized and focal epilepsies. Cross-sectional studies have suggested that valproate treatment may be associated with hyperinsulinemia. We decided to investigate hyperinsulinemia as a health-threatening side effect of VPA in Iranian epileptic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Body mass index (BMI), lipid profile, fasting serum insulin, fasting blood glucose (FBS), and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were measured in 30 VPA-treated epileptic patients and 30 controls (CBZ-treated)...
2017: Advanced Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400260/prevention-of-the-adverse-effects-of-olanzapine-on-lipid-metabolism-with-the-antiepileptic-zonisamide
#16
Aneta Stefanidis, Matthew J Watt, Michael A Cowley, Brian J Oldfield
BACKGROUND: Atypical antipsychotic drugs, particularly olanzapine, represent a mainstay in the treatment of psychoses; however, their use is commonly associated with weight gain and diabetes. The aim of this study was to determine whether combined administration of olanzapine and zonisamide can be used to prevent olanzapine-induced metabolic disturbances. METHODS AND RESULTS: These experiments involved female Sprague Dawley rats (n = 6-8/group) that were administered olanzapine, either acutely (6 mg/kg, s...
April 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397090/tributyltin-in-male-mice-disrupts-glucose-homeostasis-as-well-as-recovery-after-exposure-mechanism-analysis
#17
Bingshui Li, Jiaojiao Guo, Zhihui Xi, Jing Xu, Zhenghong Zuo, Chonggang Wang
Organotin compounds such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin can induce diabetes and insulin resistance. However, the development of diabetes caused by organotins and its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, male KM mice were orally administered with TBT (0.5, 5, and 50 μg/kg) once every 3 days for 45 days. Their body weights increased and reached a significant difference compared to the control, and the fasting blood glucose levels were significantly elevated. The fasting levels of serum insulin and adiponectin increased, while glucagon levels decreased in the animals treated with TBT...
April 10, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393204/inverse-relationship-between-insulin-receptor-expression-and-progression-in-renal-cell-carcinoma
#18
Makoto Takahashi, Takamitsu Inoue, Mingguo Huang, Kazuyuki Numakura, Hiroshi Tsuruta, Mitsuru Saito, Atsushi Maeno, Eijiro Nakamura, Shintaro Narita, Norihiko Tsuchiya, Tomonori Habuchi
We investigated the relationship among serum insulin level, insulin receptor (IR) expression in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), and outcomes in patients with RCC who underwent nephrectomy. We also explored the role of insulin signaling in RCC progression in a murine RCC allograft RENCA model using metformin to treat hyperinsulinemia induced by a high-carbohydrate diet. Clinically, the IR expression level in RCC tissue was significantly lower in patients with tumor stage pT2-4 and/or distant metastases. The IR expression level in RCC tissue was significantly lower in patients with preoperative serum C-peptide levels greater than or equal to the median than in patients with levels less than the median...
April 5, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391908/apob-lipoproteins-and-dysfunctional-white-adipose-tissue-relation-to-risk-factors-for-type-2-diabetes-in-humans
#19
Valérie Lamantia, Simon Bissonnette, Hanny Wassef, Yannick Cyr, Alexis Baass, Robert Dufour, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, May Faraj
BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma apoB is an independent predictor of T2D; however, underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Chronic reduction in white adipose tissue (WAT) function promotes T2D. We reported that differentiation of preadipocytes and acute incubation of human WAT with LDL induce their dysfunction (decreased hydrolysis and storage of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins [TRL]). OBJECTIVE: To examine the hypothesis that the association of plasma apoB with T2D risk factors, hypertriglyceridemia (hyperTG), insulin resistance (IR), and hyperinsulinemia, was dependent on WAT dysfunction...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390904/normal-bone-density-and-trabecular-bone-score-but-high-serum-sclerostin-in-congenital-generalized-lipodystrophy
#20
Josivan Gomes Lima, Lucia Helena C Nobrega, Natalia Nobrega Lima, Marcel Catão Ferreira Dos Santos, Maria de Fatima P Baracho, Renaud Winzenrieth, Francisco Bandeira, Carolina de O Mendes-Aguiar, Francisco Paulo Freire Neto, Leonardo Capistrano Ferreira, Clifford J Rosen, Selma Maria B Jeronimo
CONTEXT: Berardinelli-Seip Congenital Lipodystrophy (BSCL) is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome characterized by a difficulty in storing lipids in adipocytes, low body fat mass, hypoleptinemia, and hyperinsulinemia. Sclerostin is a product of SOST gene that blocks the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, decreasing bone formation and enhancing adipogenesis. There are no data about sclerostin in people with BSCL. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to evaluate serum sclerostin, bone mineral density (BMD), and L1-L4 Trabecular Bone Score (TBS) in BSCL patients, generating new knowledge about potential mechanisms involved in the bone alterations of these patients...
April 6, 2017: Bone
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