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Hyperinsulinemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529547/basal-hyperinsulinemia-beyond-a-threshold-predicts-major-adverse-cardiac-events-at-1-year-after-coronary-angiogram-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#1
Mukund Srinivasan, Padmanabh Kamath, Narayan Bhat, Narasimha Pai, Rajesh Bhat, Tejas Shah, Poornima Manjrekar, Chakrapani Mahabala
BACKGROUND: There is a substantial reduction in cardiovascular related morbidity and mortality in the general population attributed to improved treatment of cardiac risk factors and disease, the same magnitude of benefit has not been observed in those with diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to evaluate factors associated with the cardiac outcome at 1 year after coronary angiogram in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and to compare the outcomes with nondiabetics. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was carried out in subjects who underwent coronary angiogram for an evaluation of CAD, with follow-up data available for period of 12 months...
2017: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529331/butyrylcholinesterase-regulates-central-ghrelin-signaling-and-impacts-food-intake-and-glucose-homeostasis
#2
V P Chen, Y Gao, L Geng, S Brimijoin
BACKGROUND: Ghrelin is the only orexigenic hormone known to stimulate food intake and promote obesity and insulin resistance. We recently showed that plasma ghrelin is controlled by butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), which has a strong impact on feeding and weight gain. BChE knockout (KO) mice are prone to obesity on high-fat diet but hepatic BChE gene transfer rescues normal food intake and obesity resistance. However, these mice lack brain BChE and still develop hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, suggesting essential interactions between BChE and ghrelin within the brain...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526383/effect-of-magnesium-supplementation-on-insulin-resistance-in-humans-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Jennifer Beatriz Silva Morais, Juliana Soares Severo, Geórgia Rosa Reis de Alencar, Ana Raquel Soares de Oliveira, Kyria Jayanne Clímaco Cruz, Dilina do Nascimento Marreiro, Betânia de Jesus E Silva de Almendra Freitas, Cecília Maria Resende de Carvalho, Maria do Carmo de Carvalho E Martins, Karoline de Macedo Gonçalves Frota
OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have demonstrated that minerals play a role in glucose metabolism disorders in humans. Magnesium, in particular, is an extensively studied mineral that has been shown to function in the management of hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance (IR) action. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of magnesium supplementation on IR in humans via systematic review of the available clinical trials. METHODS: This review was conducted in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) recommendations...
June 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521289/role-of-transgelin-2-in-diabetes-associated-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#4
Yan Sun, Weiwei He, Man Luo, Yuhong Zhou, Guilin Chang, Weiying Ren, Kefen Wu, Xi Li, Jiping Shen, Xiaoping Zhao, Yu Hu
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive malignancy with poor prognosis. Diabetes is a significant risk factor for PDAC and >50% of PDAC patients have concomitant diabetes. How diabetes influences the initiation and progression of PDAC remains elusive. Here, we show that transgelin-2 is dominantly expressed in PDAC tissues compared with adjacent normal tissues. The high level of transgelin-2 indicates poor survival of patients with PDAC. Remarkably, transgelin-2 expression is correlated with diabetic status...
April 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514281/acute-hyperinsulinemia-effects-on-systemic-markers-of-immune-activation-in-hiv
#5
Timothy K O'malley, Tricia H Burdo, Jake A Robinson, Kathleen V Fitch, Steven K Grinspoon, Suman Srinivasa
: The well-treated HIV population remains at risk for insulin resistance and chronic immune activation. We tested the effects of acute hyperinsulinemia on inflammation in HIV. Twenty HIV-infected and 10 non-HIV-infected individuals well-matched for BMI underwent oral glucose tolerance testing to stimulate insulin secretion and assess for changes in circulating sCD163, sCD14, and MCP-1. sCD14 decreased significantly after stimulation of hyperinsulinemia and no significant changes in sCD163 or MCP-1 were demonstrated in HIV-infected and non-HIV-infected groups...
May 16, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504618/butyrate-reduces-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-alterations-hepatic-steatosis-and-pancreatic-beta-cell-and-intestinal-barrier-dysfunctions-in-prediabetic-mice
#6
V A Matheus, Lcs Monteiro, R B Oliveira, D A Maschio, C B Collares-Buzato
In this study, we investigated the effect of diet supplementation with sodium butyrate (5% w/w), a short-chain fatty acid produced by the intestinal microbiota, on metabolic parameters, body adiposity, hepatic and pancreatic lipid accumulation, beta cell function/mass as well as on the structure and function of the tight junction-mediated intestinal epithelial barrier in both normal and obese/prediabetic C57 mice fed a regular (control) or high-fat diet for 60 days, respectively. Butyrate treatment significantly inhibited all the high-fat-induced metabolic dysfunctions evaluated, i...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502917/the-role-of-heparin-cofactor-%C3%A2-in-the-regulation-of-insulin-sensitivity-and-maintenance-of-glucose-homeostasis-in-humans-and-mice
#7
Kiyoe Kurahashi, Seika Inoue, Sumiko Yoshida, Yasumasa Ikeda, Kana Morimoto, Ryoko Uemoto, Kazue Ishikawa, Takeshi Kondo, Tomoyuki Yuasa, Itsuro Endo, Masato Miyake, Seiichi Oyadomari, Toshio Matsumoto, Masahiro Abe, Hiroshi Sakaue, Ken-Ichi Aihara
AIM: Accelerated thrombin action is associated with insulin resistance. It is known that upon activation by binding to dermatan sulfate proteoglycans, heparin cofactor Ⅱ(HCⅡ) inactivates thrombin in tissues. Because HCⅡ may be involved in glucose metabolism, we investigated the relationship between plasma HCⅡ activity and insulin resistance. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a clinical study, statistical analysis was performed to examine the relationships between plasma HCⅡ activity, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in elderly Japanese individuals with lifestyle-related diseases...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502509/the-heterozygous-n291s-mutation-in-the-lipoprotein-lipase-gene-impairs-whole-body-insulin-sensitivity-and-affects-a-distinct-set-of-plasma-metabolites-in-humans
#8
Sofia Mikkelsen Berg, Jesper Havelund, Harald Hasler-Sheetal, Vibeke Kruse, Andreas James Thestrup Pedersen, Aleksander Bill Hansen, Mads Nybo, Henning Beck-Nielsen, Kurt Højlund, Nils Joakim Færgeman
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the lipoprotein lipase gene causing decreased lipoprotein lipase activity are associated with surrogate markers of insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome in humans. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the hypothesis that a heterozygous lipoprotein lipase mutation (N291S) induces whole-body insulin resistance and alterations in the plasma metabolome. METHODS: In 6 carriers of a heterozygous lipoprotein lipase mutation (N291S) and 11 age-matched and weight-matched healthy controls, we examined insulin sensitivity and substrate metabolism by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps combined with indirect calorimetry...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492735/subclinical-diabetes
#9
Luís M T R Lima
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is increasing in prevalence worldwide, and those non-diagnosed or misdiagnosed comprise a significant group compared to those diagnosed. Accumulated scientific evidence indicate that the current diagnostic markers (fasting glycemia, 2h glycemia after an oral glucose load and HbA1c) are indeed late diagnostic criteria when considering the incidence of diabetes-related complications and comorbidities, which are also at high risk in some groups among normoglycemic individuals. Additionally, the earlier identification of future risk of diabetes is desirable since it would allow better adherence to preventive actions such as lifestyle intervention, ultimately avoiding complications and minimizing the economic impact/burden on health care expenses...
May 4, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489766/sex-difference-determined-the-role-of-sex-hormone-binding-globulin-in-obese-children-during-short-term-weight-reduction-program
#10
Fu-Min Wang, Chien-Ming Lin, Shao-Hung Lien, Li-Wei Wu, Ching-Feng Huang, Der-Ming Chu
The relationship between hyperinsulinemia and decreased sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels has been observed in obese adults and children. Weight reduction not only increased insulin sensitivity but also elevated serum SHBG levels in obese adults and children. However, the correlation between the changes in insulin resistance indices and serum SHBG concentration during weight reduction program (WRP) is not fully understood, particularly in obese children. This study is to evaluate whether SHBG level is a potential biomarker that can be used to assess insulin resistance in obese children during a short-term WRP...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489058/the-neuroprotective-effects-of-phenolic-acids-molecular-mechanism-of-action
#11
Dominik Szwajgier, Kamila Borowiec, Katarzyna Pustelniak
The neuroprotective role of phenolic acids from food has previously been reported by many authors. In this review, the role of phenolic acids in ameliorating depression, ischemia/reperfusion injury, neuroinflammation, apoptosis, glutamate-induced toxicity, epilepsy, imbalance after traumatic brain injury, hyperinsulinemia-induced memory impairment, hearing and vision disturbances, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, anti-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Chagas disease and other less distributed diseases is discussed...
May 10, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487366/temporal-characterization-of-%C3%AE-cell-adaptive-and-maladaptive-mechanisms-during-chronic-high-fat-feeding-in-c57bl-6ntac-mice
#12
Dhananjay Gupta, Thomas L Jetton, Kyla LaRock, Navjot Monga, Basanthi Satish, James Lausier, Mina Peshavaria, John L Leahy
The onset of type 2 diabetes is characterized by transition from successful to failed insulin secretory compensation to obesity-related insulin resistance and dysmetabolism. Energy-rich diets in rodents are commonly-studied models of compensatory increases in both insulin secretion and β-cell mass. However, the mechanisms of these adaptive responses are incompletely understood, and it is also unclear why these responses eventually fail. We measured the temporal trends of glucose homeostasis, insulin secretion, β-cell morphometry, and islet gene expression in C57BL/6NTac mice fed a 60% high fat (HFD) or control diet for up to 16 weeks...
May 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483667/effect-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-on-hepatocyte-metabolism
#13
Yoni Genzer, Nava Chapnik, Oren Froy
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays crucial roles in the development, maintenance, plasticity and homeostasis of the central and peripheral nervous systems. Perturbing BDNF signaling in mouse brain results in hyperphagia, obesity, hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. Currently, little is known whether BDNF affects liver tissue directly. Our aim was to determine the metabolic signaling pathways activated after BDNF treatment in hepatocytes. Unlike its effect in the brain, BDNF did not lead to activation of the liver AKT pathway...
May 5, 2017: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480128/self-adjusting-synthetic-gene-circuit-for-correcting-insulin-resistance
#14
Haifeng Ye, Mingqi Xie, Shuai Xue, Ghislaine Charpin-El Hamri, Jianli Yin, Henryk Zulewski, Martin Fussenegger
By using tools from synthetic biology, sophisticated genetic devices can be assembled to reprogram mammalian cell activities. Here, we demonstrate that a self-adjusting synthetic gene circuit can be designed to sense and reverse the insulin-resistance syndrome in different mouse models. By functionally rewiring the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling pathway to produce MAPK-mediated activation of the hybrid transcription factor TetR-ELK1, we assembled a synthetic insulin-sensitive transcription-control device that self-sufficiently distinguished between physiological and increased blood insulin levels and correspondingly fine-tuned the reversible expression of therapeutic transgenes from synthetic TetR-ELK1-specific promoters...
January 2017: Nat Biomed Eng
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475811/ablation-of-hepatic-production-of-the-acid-labile-subunit-in-the-bovine-gh-transgenic-mice-effects-on-organ-and-skeletal-growth
#15
Zhongbo Liu, Tianzhen Han, Shannon Fishman, James Butler, Tracy Zimmermann, Frederic Tremblay, Carole Harbison, Nidhi Agrawal, John J Kopchick, Mitchell B Schaffler, Shoshana Yakar
Growth hormone (GH) and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are anabolic hormones that facilitate somatic and skeletal growth, and regulate metabolism via endocrine and autocrine/paracrine mechanisms. We hypothesized that excess tissue production of GH will protect skeletal growth and integrity in states of reductions in serum IGF-1 levels. To test our hypothesis we used the bovine GH (bGH) transgenic mice as a model of GH hypersecretion and ablated the liver-derived acid labile subunit (ALS), which stabilizes IGF-1 complexes with IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) and -5 in circulation...
May 4, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474500/vitamin-d3-supplementation-of-a-high-fat-high-sugar-diet-ameliorates-prediabetic-phenotype-in-female-ldlr-and-ldlr-mice
#16
Ramiar Kheder, James Hobkirk, Zeayd Saeed, Justyna Janus, Sean Carroll, Michael J Browning, Cordula Stover
INTRODUCTION: Fatty liver disease is prevalent in populations with high caloric intake. Nutritherapeutic approaches are being considered, such as supplementary Vitamin D3 , to improve aspects of metabolic syndrome, namely fatty liver disease, hyperlipidemia, and insulin resistance associated with obesity. METHODS: We analyzed female LDLR(-/-) and LDLR(+/+) mice on a 10-week diabetogenic diet for markers of fatty liver disease, metabolic strain, and inflammation...
June 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469173/correlates-of-insulin-clearance-in-apparently-healthy-non-obese-japanese-men
#17
Hideyoshi Kaga, Yoshifumi Tamura, Kageumi Takeno, Saori Kakehi, Takashi Funayama, Yasuhiko Furukawa, Miho Nishitani-Yokoyama, Kazunori Shimada, Hiroyuki Daida, Shigeki Aoki, Adria Giacca, Akio Kanazawa, Ryuzo Kawamori, Hirotaka Watada
Hyperinsulinemia observed in obese subject is caused at least in part by low metabolic clearance rate of insulin (MCRI). However, the determinants of MCRI in non-obese subjects are not fully understood. To investigate the correlates of MCRI in healthy non-obese men (BMI <25 kg/m(2)), we studied 49 non-obese Japanese men free of cardiometabolic risk factors. Using a 2-step hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, we evaluated MCRI and insulin sensitivity. We also calculated the rate of glucose disappearance (Rd) during the clamp and muscle insulin sensitivity was defined as Rd/steady state serum insulin (SSSI) at the second step...
May 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468933/the-metabolic-syndrome-in-mice-overexpressing-neuropeptide-y-in-noradrenergic-neurons
#18
Liisa Ailanen, Suvi T Ruohonen, Laura Vähätalo, Katja Tuomainen, Kim Eerola, Henriikka Salomäki-Myftari, Matias Röyttä, Asta Laiho, Markku Ahotupa, Helena Gylling, Eriika Savontaus
A gain-of-function polymorphism in human neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene (rs16139) associates with metabolic disorders and earlier onset of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Similarly, mice overexpressing NPY in noradrenergic neurons (OE-NPY(DBH)) display obesity and impaired glucose metabolism. In this study, the metabolic syndrome -like phenotype was characterized and mechanisms of impaired hepatic fatty acid, cholesterol and glucose metabolism in pre-obese (2-month-old) and obese (4-7-month-old) OE-NPY(DBH) mice were elucidated...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466412/hyperinsulinemia-a-cause-of-obesity
#19
REVIEW
Karel A Erion, Barbara E Corkey
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This perspective is motivated by the need to question dogma that does not work: that the problem is insulin resistance (IR). We highlight the need to investigate potential environmental obesogens and toxins. RECENT FINDINGS: The prequel to severe metabolic disease includes three interacting components that are abnormal: (a) IR, (b) elevated lipids and (c) elevated basal insulin (HI). HI is more common than IR and is a significant independent predictor of diabetes...
May 2, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463967/increased-anxiety-like-behavior-is-associated-with-the-metabolic-syndrome-in-non-stressed-rats
#20
Daniela Rebolledo-Solleiro, Gabriel Roldán-Roldán, Daniel Díaz, Myrian Velasco, Carlos Larqué, Guadalupe Rico-Rosillo, Gloria Bertha Vega-Robledo, Elena Zambrano, Marcia Hiriart, Miguel Pérez de la Mora
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of signs that increases the risk to develop diabetes mellitus type 2 and cardiovascular disease. In the last years, a growing interest to study the relationship between MS and psychiatric disorders, such as depression and anxiety, has emerged obtaining conflicting results. Diet-induced MS rat models have only examined the effects of high-fat or mixed cafeteria diets to a limited extent. We explored whether an anxiety-like behavior was associated with MS in non-stressed rats chronically submitted to a high-sucrose diet (20% sucrose in drinking water) using three different anxiety paradigms: the shock-probe/burying test (SPBT), the elevated plus-maze (EPM) and the open-field test (OFT)...
2017: PloS One
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