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Hyperinsulinemia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682407/kill-two-birds-with-one-stone-making-multi-transgenic-pre-diabetes-mouse-models-through-insulin-resistance-and-pancreatic-apoptosis-pathogenesis
#1
Siyuan Kong, Jinxue Ruan, Kaiyi Zhang, Bingjun Hu, Yuzhu Cheng, Yubo Zhang, Shulin Yang, Kui Li
Background: Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance accompanied by defective insulin secretion. Transgenic mouse models play an important role in medical research. However, single transgenic mouse models may not mimic the complex phenotypes of most cases of type 2 diabetes. Methods: Focusing on genes related to pancreatic islet damage, peripheral insulin resistance and related environmental inducing factors, we generated single-transgenic (C/EBP homology protein, CHOP) mice (CHOP mice), dual-transgenic (human islet amyloid polypeptide, hIAPP; CHOP) mice (hIAPP-CHOP mice) and triple-transgenic (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1, 11β-HSD1; hIAPP; CHOP) mice (11β-HSD1-hIAPP- CHOP mice)...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681858/aqueous-extract-of-black-maca-prevents-metabolism-disorder-via-regulating-the-glycolysis-gluconeogenesis-tca-cycle-and-ppar%C3%AE-signaling-activation-in-golden-hamsters-fed-a-high-fat-high-fructose-diet
#2
Wenting Wan, Hongxiang Li, Jiamei Xiang, Fan Yi, Lijia Xu, Baoping Jiang, Peigen Xiao
Maca ( Lepidium meyenii Walpers) has been used as a dietary supplement and ethnomedicine for centuries. Recently, maca has become a high profile functional food worldwide because of its multiple biological activities. This study is the first explorative research to investigate the prevention and amelioration capacity of the aqueous extract of black maca (AEM) on high-fat, high-fructose diet (HFD)-induced metabolism disorder in golden hamsters and to identify the potential mechanisms involved in these effects...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679627/diabetes-and-cancer-pathophysiological-fundamentals-of-a-dangerous-affair
#3
REVIEW
Angelo Cignarelli, Valentina Annamaria Genchi, Irene Caruso, Annalisa Natalicchio, Sebastio Perrini, Luigi Laviola, Francesco Giorgino
Diabetes and cancer are worldwide chronic diseases with a major impact on the quality and expectancy of life. Metabolic abnormalities observed during the onset and progression of diabetes may have a critical role on the initiation and progression of carcinogenesis. To date, there are no conclusive data on the mechanisms underlying the relationship between diabetes and any type of human cancer. However, recent evidence suggests that both hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia in diabetes could elicit cell damage responses, such as glucotoxicity, lipotoxicity and oxidative stress, which participate in the cell transformation process raising the risk of cancer development...
April 18, 2018: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679542/treatments-for-diabetes-mellitus-type-ii-new-perspectives-regarding-the-possible-role-of-calcium-and-camp-interaction
#4
REVIEW
Diego Soares Carvalho, Alexandre Aparecido de Almeida, Aurélio Ferreira Borges, Diego Vannucci Campos
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is among the top ten causes of death worldwide. It is considered to be one of the major global epidemics of the 21st century, with a significant impact on public health budgets. DM is a metabolic disorder with multiple etiologies. Its pathophysiology is marked by dysfunction of pancreatic β-cells which compromises the synthesis and secretion of insulin along with resistance to insulin action in peripheral tissues (muscle and adipose). Subjects presenting insulin resistance in DM type 2 often also exhibit increased insulin secretion and hyperinsulinemia...
April 18, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677013/low-carbohydrate-diets-for-the-treatment-of-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#5
Kevin D Hall, Stephanie T Chung
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Summarize the physiological effects of low-carbohydrate diets as they relate to weight loss, glycemic control, and metabolic health. RECENT FINDINGS: Low-carbohydrate diets are at least as effective for weight loss as other diets, but claims about increased energy expenditure and preferential loss of body fat are unsubstantiated. Glycemic control and hyperinsulinemia are improved by low-carbohydrate diets, but insulin sensitivity and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion may be impaired, especially in the absence of weight loss...
April 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675407/pancreatic-aquaporin-7-a-novel-target-for-anti-diabetic-drugs
#6
REVIEW
Leire Méndez-Giménez, Silvia Ezquerro, Inês V da Silva, Graça Soveral, Gema Frühbeck, Amaia Rodríguez
Aquaporins comprise a family of 13 members of water channels (AQP0-12) that facilitate a rapid transport of water across cell membranes. In some cases, these pores are also permeated by small solutes, particularly glycerol, urea or nitric oxide, among other solutes. Several aquaporins have been identified in the pancreas, an exocrine and endocrine organ that plays an essential role in the onset of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. The exocrine pancreas, which accounts for 90% of the total pancreas, secretes daily large volumes of a near-isotonic fluid containing digestive enzymes into the duodenum...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674968/peripherally-administered-y-2-receptor-antagonist-biie0246-prevents-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice-with-excess-neuropeptide-y-but-enhances-obesity-in-control-mice
#7
Liisa Ailanen, Laura H Vähätalo, Henriikka Salomäki-Myftari, Satu Mäkelä, Wendy Orpana, Suvi T Ruohonen, Eriika Savontaus
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis in the level of central and sympathetic nervous systems (SNSs). Genetic silencing of peripheral Y2 -receptors have anti-obesity effects, but it is not known whether pharmacological blocking of peripheral Y2 -receptors would similarly benefit energy homeostasis. The effects of a peripherally administered Y2 -receptor antagonist were studied in healthy and energy-rich conditions with or without excess NPY. Genetically obese mice overexpressing NPY in brain noradrenergic nerves and SNS (OE-NPYDβH ) represented the situation of elevated NPY levels, while wildtype (WT) mice represented the normal NPY levels...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673543/dihydrocapsiate-supplementation-prevented-high-fat-diet-induced-adiposity-hepatic-steatosis-glucose-intolerance-and-gut-morphological-alterations-in-mice
#8
Ritesh K Baboota, Pragyanshu Khare, Priyanka Mangal, Dhirendra Pratap Singh, Kamlesh K Bhutani, Kanthi K Kondepudi, Jaspreet Kaur, Mahendra Bishnoi
Despite the lipolytic and thermogenic properties of capsaicin, its putative use as a weight-lowering dietary supplement has been limited because of the burning sensation caused by capsaicin when it comes in contact with mucous membranes. A potential alternative to capsaicin are the capsinoids, nonpungent capsaicin analogs that exhibit effects similar to capsaicin. Whereas the antiobesity properties of capsinoids have been reported, the effectiveness of FDA-approved synthetic dihydrocapsiate has not yet been investigated...
March 2018: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666062/morning-hyperinsulinemia-primes-the-liver-for-glucose-uptake-and-glycogen-storage-later-in-the-day
#9
Mary Courtney Moore, Marta S Smith, Ben Farmer, Katie C Coate, Guillaume Kraft, Masakazu Shiota, Phillip E Williams, Alan D Cherrington
We observed that a 4h morning (AM) duodenal infusion of glucose vs saline doubled hepatic glucose uptake (HGU) and storage during a hyperinsulinemic hyperglycemic (HIHG) clamp that afternoon (PM). To separate the effects of AM hyperglycemia vs AM hyperinsulinemia on the PM response, we used hepatic balance and tracer (3 H-glucose) techniques in conscious dogs. From 0-240 min, dogs underwent a euinsulinemic hyperglycemic (GLC; n =7) or hyperinsulinemic euglycemic (INS; n =8) clamp. Tracer equilibration and basal sampling occurred from 240-360 min, followed by a HIHG clamp (360-600 min; 4xbasal insulin, 2xbasal glycemia) with portal glucose infusion (4 mg...
April 17, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665988/mild-suppression-of-hyperinsulinemia-to-treat-obesity-and-insulin-resistance
#10
REVIEW
Melissa M Page, James D Johnson
Insulin plays roles in lipid uptake, lipolysis, and lipogenesis, in addition to controlling blood glucose levels. Excessive circulating insulin is associated with adipose tissue expansion and obesity, yet a causal role for hyperinsulinemia in the development of mammalian obesity has proven controversial, with many researchers suggesting it as a consequence of insulin resistance. Recently, evidence that specifically reducing hyperinsulinemia can prevent and reverse obesity in animal models has been presented...
April 14, 2018: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663879/anti-cancer-effects-of-metformin-recent-evidences-for-its-role-in-prevention-and-treatment-of-cancer
#11
Masoumeh Kheirandish, Hamidreza Mahboobi, Maryam Yazdanparast, Warda Kamal, Mohammad A Kamal
Metformin is widely used for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Recently growing evidence has shown its anti-cancer effects. The results are mainly obtained from observational studies and thus, little information is available concerning the mechanisms of action. Adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in the mechanism of action of metformin. The anti-cancer mechanisms of metformin include direct and indirect effects. The direct effects of metformin include AMPK-independent and AMPK-dependent effects, whereas the decrease in glucose level, hyperinsulinemia, and Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) level was considered its indirect effects...
April 16, 2018: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662006/hyperinsulinemia-promotes-esophageal-cancer-development-in-a-surgically-induced-duodeno-esophageal-reflux-murine-model
#12
Diletta Arcidiacono, Arben Dedja, Cinzia Giacometti, Matteo Fassan, Daniele Nucci, Simona Francia, Federico Fabris, Alice Zaramella, Emily J Gallagher, Mauro Cassaro, Massimo Rugge, Derek LeRoith, Alfredo Alberti, Stefano Realdon
Hyperinsulinemia could have a role in the growing incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) and its pre-cancerous lesion, Barrett's Esophagus, a possible consequence of Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease. Obesity is known to mediate esophageal carcinogenesis through different mechanisms including insulin-resistance leading to hyperinsulinemia, which may mediate cancer progression via the insulin/insulin-like growth factor axis. We used the hyperinsulinemic non-obese FVB/N (Friend leukemia virus B strain) MKR (muscle (M)-IGF1R-lysine (K)-arginine (R) mouse model to evaluate the exclusive role of hyperinsulinemia in the pathogenesis of EAC related to duodeno-esophageal reflux...
April 14, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651214/homeostatic-model-assessment-insulin-resistance-homa-ir-2-in-mild-subclinical-hypothyroid-subjects
#13
Shreejita Sengupta, T Jaseem, Jayachidambaram Ambalavanan, Anupama Hegde
Despite various studies with conflicting results, the effect of thyroid hormones on lipids and insulin levels in dysthyroidism is of great interest. This case control study was aimed to perceive the existence of IR and dyslipidemia in mild subclinical hypothyroid subjects (TSH ≤ 9.9 µIU/ml) as compared to their age and gender matched euthyroid controls. Basic demographic information like height, weight was recorded. Serum samples of all the subjects were assayed for thyroid profile, lipid profile, blood glucose, HbA1C and insulin...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651002/metformin-decreases-the-incidence-of-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma-promoted-by-diet-induced-obesity-in-the-conditional-krasg12d-mouse-model
#14
Hui-Hua Chang, Aune Moro, Caroline Ei Ne Chou, David W Dawson, Samuel French, Andrea I Schmidt, James Sinnett-Smith, Fang Hao, O Joe Hines, Guido Eibl, Enrique Rozengurt
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a particularly deadly disease. Chronic conditions, including obesity and type-2 diabetes are risk factors, thus making PDAC amenable to preventive strategies. We aimed to characterize the chemo-preventive effects of metformin, a widely used anti-diabetic drug, on PDAC development using the KrasG12D mouse model subjected to a diet high in fats and calories (HFCD). LSL-KrasG12D/+ ;p48-Cre (KC) mice were given control diet (CD), HFCD, or HFCD with 5 mg/ml metformin in drinking water for 3 or 9 months...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643765/mirna-long-term-response-to-early-metabolic-environmental-challenge-in-hypothalamic-arcuate-nucleus
#15
Charlotte Benoit, Soraya Doubi-Kadmiri, Xavier Benigni, Delphine Crepin, Laure Riffault, Ghislaine Poizat, Claire-Marie Vacher, Mohammed Taouis, Anne Baroin-Tourancheau, Laurence Amar
Epidemiological reports and studies using rodent models indicate that early exposure to nutrient and/or hormonal challenges can reprogram metabolism at adulthood. Hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) integrates peripheral and central signals to adequately regulate energy homeostasis. microRNAs (miRNAs) participate in the control of gene expression of large regulatory networks including many signaling pathways involved in epigenetics regulations. Here, we have characterized and compared the miRNA population of ARC of adult male rats continuously exposed to a balanced metabolic environment to the one of adult male rats exposed to an unbalanced high-fat/high-carbohydrate/moderate-protein metabolic environment during the perinatal period and/or at adulthood that consequently displayed hyperinsulinemia and/or hyperleptinemia...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642915/adipokine-rbp4-drives-ovarian-cancer-cell-migration
#16
Yanyan Wang, Yilin Wang, Zhenyu Zhang
BACKGROUND: Obesity has been linked to several types of cancers including ovarian cancer. Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4) is an adipokine that drives the development of hyperinsulinemia and type II diabetes in obesity patients and animals. Previously, we have identified RBP4 as a serum marker for ovarian cancer. Here we further explored the consequence of RBP4 upregulation in ovarian cancer cells and its molecular mechanism. RESULTS: Our results show that RBP4 is overexpressed in ovarian cancer cells to the same extent as in adipose tissues...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Ovarian Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615900/peripheral-cb1-receptor-neutral-antagonist-am6545-ameliorates-hypometabolic-obesity-and-improves-adipokine-secretion-in-monosodium-glutamate-induced-obese-mice
#17
Haiming Ma, Guina Zhang, Chunrong Mou, Xiujuan Fu, Yadan Chen
Effect of peripheral cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1R) blockade by AM6545 in the monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced hypometabolic and hypothalamic obesity was observed, and the impact on intraperitoneal adipose tissue and adipokines was investigated. The MSG mice is characterized by excessive abdominal obesity, and combined with dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. 3-Week AM6545 treatment dose-dependently decreased the body weight, intraperitoneal fat mass, and rectified the accompanied dyslipidemia include elevated serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, free fatty acids, and lowered LDLc level...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609864/long-acting-insulin-analogs-and-cancer
#18
REVIEW
L Sciacca, V Vella, L Frittitta, A Tumminia, L Manzella, S Squatrito, A Belfiore, R Vigneri
AIMS: Hyperinsulinemia is a recognized risk factor for cancer and plays a major role for the increased cancer incidence in diabetic patients. Whether insulin analogs, and particularly long-acting analogs, worsen the pro-cancer effect of excess insulin is still controversial. DATA SYNTHESIS: In this paper we summarize the biological bases for the potential detrimental effect of long-acting analogs on cancer cells and review the in vitro and in vivo evidence on this issue...
February 24, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599416/low-protein-diet-in-puberty-impairs-testosterone-output-and-energy-metabolism-in-male-rats
#19
Júlio Cezar de Oliveira, Egberto G Moura, Rosiane Aparecida Miranda, Ana Moraes, Luiz Felipe Barella, Ellen Paula Santos da Conceição, Rodrigo Mello Gomes, Tatiane Aparecida da Silva Ribeiro, Ananda Malta, Isabela Peixoto Martins, Claudinéia Conationi da Silva Franco, Patricia Lisboa, Paulo Cezar de Freitas Mathias
We examined the long-term effects of protein restriction during puberty on the function of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes in male rats. Male Wistar rats were fed a low-protein diet (4%, LP) from 30 to 60 days-old. A normal-protein diet (20.5%) was reintroduced from 60 to 120 days-old. Control rats were fed a normal-protein diet throughout life (NP). Rats were euthanized at 60 or 120 days-old. Food consumption, body weight, visceral fat deposits, lipid profile, glycemia, insulinemia, corticosteronemia, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), testosteronemia and leptinemia were evaluated...
March 29, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29598932/glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-likes-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
REVIEW
Ilgin Yildirim Simsir, Utku Erdem Soyaltin, Sevki Cetinkalp
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a 30 amino acid long peptide hormone derived from the proglucagon gene and secreted in the distal small intestine when food enters the duodenum. GLP-1 is also produced in the central nervous system (CNS), predominantly in the brainstem, and subsequently transported to a large number of regions in the CNS. Neuronal cells in nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) can synthesize GLP-1 and extends to hypothalamus, some thalamic and cortical areas. A G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) provides the majority of GLP-1 actions...
March 16, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
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