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Preconception health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779516/high-risk-pregnancy
#1
REVIEW
Nola Holness
Any unexpected or unanticipated medical or obstetric condition associated with a pregnancy with an actual or potential hazard to the health or well-being of the mother or fetus is considered a high-risk pregnancy. There is no exact definition of risk in pregnancy, as risk may be perceived in different ways by the woman and her health care provider. Women with complicated pregnancies may require lifestyle changes, medication regimens, technical support, and even hospitalization. Nurses can foster an environment of security and trust during preconception, antenatal, intrapartal, and postnatal care to enhance the health and well-being of mother and fetus...
June 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779511/preconception-care-for-the-patient-and-family
#2
REVIEW
Elizabeth Hall, Robingale Panepinto, Elizabeth Keeley Bowman
Preconception counseling is essential for women of childbearing age and family members who have decided to conceive because the level of well health of the mother and unborn child are affected by decisions and actions of the mother before and during pregnancy. Proactively planning pregnancy includes scheduling a preconception counseling consultation with a provider. Understanding physical, psychological, and emotional needs promotes healthy pregnancy outcomes for mother and baby. This article offers a reflective and holistic perspective of how health care providers frame, prioritize, and engage with the patient and family during the preconception consultation...
June 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778017/the-preconception-care-experiences-of-women-with-epilepsy-on-sodium-valproate
#3
Lorna Lawther, Helen Dolk, Marlene Sinclair, Jim Morrow
PURPOSE: To understand the preconception experiences of women with epilepsy who have been taking the teratogenic drug valproate. METHODS: Seven women were recruited, three from a preconception clinic and four from an antenatal clinic in a region of the UK. All had taken valproate preconceptionally. Three preconception clinic encounters were observed and audio-recorded. Interviews with all women were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). RESULTS: Women experienced a "trajectory of balance"...
May 16, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774805/men-s-preconception-health-a-primary-health-care-viewpoint
#4
Anthony Paul O'Brien, John Hurley, Paul Linsley, Karen Anne McNeil, Richard Fletcher, John Robert Aitken
The purpose of this article is to theoretically explore men's preconception health as a mechanism to enhance fertility, as well as the health and well-being of the subject and his descendants. Premorbid risk factors and behaviors associated with stress, environmental toxins, excessive alcohol consumption, smoking, lack of exercise/obesity, and the use of illicit drugs are all known to affect fecundity. While there are many health clinics available to women, where advice in areas such as postnatal care of the newborn, family planning, and couples fertility is provided, there are few, if any, equivalent health clinics available to men...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Men's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774380/-thyroid-and-pregnancy
#5
REVIEW
K A Iwen, H Lehnert
During pregnancy thyroid hormones have profound effects on embryonal/fetal development and maternal health. Therefore, thyroid gland disorders should be immediately diagnosed and adequately treated. Pregnancy-specific physiological alterations during pregnancy cause changes in the reference interval for thyroid-stimulating hormone levels and trimester-specific thresholds must be taken into account. This article summarizes the most important diagnostic and therapeutic aspects before, during and after pregnancy...
May 17, 2018: Der Internist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767745/preconception-maternal-iodine-status-is-positively-associated-with-iq-but-not-with-measures-of-executive-function-in-childhood
#6
Sian M Robinson, Sarah R Crozier, Elizabeth A Miles, Catharine R Gale, Philip C Calder, Cyrus Cooper, Hazel M Inskip, Keith M Godfrey
Background: Adverse effects of severe maternal iodine deficiency in pregnancy on fetal brain development are well-established, but the effects of milder deficiency are uncertain. Most studies examine iodine status in pregnancy; less is known about iodine nutrition before conception. Objective: We examined relations between maternal preconception iodine status and offspring cognitive function, within a prospective mother-offspring cohort. Methods: Maternal iodine status was assessed through the use of the ratio of iodine:creatinine concentrations (I/Cr) in spot urine samples [median (IQR) period before conception 3...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757075/unpacking-racial-ethnic-disparities-in-prenatal-care-use-the-role-of-individual-household-and-area-level-characteristics
#7
Tiffany L Green
OBJECTIVE: To identify the contributions of individual-, household-, and area-level characteristics to disparities in the use of prenatal care (PNC). METHODS: This study used individual-level data from the 2001 Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort linked to county-level U.S. Census data (N ≈ 5,200). I used nonlinear regression decomposition to quantify the contributions of several groups of factors-maternal health and pregnancy characteristics, preconception health behaviors, insurance coverage, PNC location, socioeconomic status (SES), and the social/economic and healthcare environments-to PNC disparities...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757070/racial-ethnic-disparities-in-diabetes-diagnosis-and-glycemic-control-among-women-of-reproductive-age
#8
Laura E Britton, Jon M Hussey, Jamie L Crandell, Diane C Berry, Jada L Brooks, Amy G Bryant
BACKGROUND: Types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus complicate pregnancies and threaten the health of women of reproductive age and their children. Among older adults, diabetes morbidity disproportionately burdens racial/ethnic minorities, but diabetes emergence among younger adults has not been as well characterized. The objective of this study was to describe the distribution of diagnosed diabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, suboptimal preconception glycemic control, and prediabetes among women of reproductive age across racial/ethnic backgrounds...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744539/community-based-pre-pregnancy-care-programme-improves-pregnancy-preparation-in-women-with-pregestational-diabetes
#9
Jennifer M Yamamoto, Deborah J F Hughes, Mark L Evans, Vithian Karunakaran, John D A Clark, Nicholas J Morrish, Gerry A Rayman, Peter H Winocour, Clare Hambling, Amanda W Harries, Michael J Sampson, Helen R Murphy
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Women with diabetes remain at increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with poor pregnancy preparation. However, women with type 2 diabetes are less aware of and less likely to access pre-pregnancy care (PPC) compared with women with type 1 diabetes. We developed and evaluated a community-based PPC programme with the aim of improving pregnancy preparation in all women with pregestational diabetes. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study comparing pregnancy preparation measures before and during/after the PPC intervention in women with pre-existing diabetes from 1 June 2013 to 28 February 2017...
May 9, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739547/campaigning-for-preconception-health
#10
EDITORIAL
The Lancet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 5, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733398/pre-pregnancy-fast-food-and-fruit-intake-is-associated-with-time-to-pregnancy
#11
Jessica A Grieger, Luke E Grzeskowiak, Tina Bianco-Miotto, Tanja Jankovic-Karasoulos, Lisa J Moran, Rebecca L Wilson, Shalem Y Leemaqz, Lucilla Poston, Lesley McCowan, Louise C Kenny, Jenny Myers, James J Walker, Robert J Norman, Gus A Dekker, Claire T Roberts
STUDY QUESTION: Is preconception dietary intake associated with reduced fecundity as measured by a longer time to pregnancy (TTP)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Lower intake of fruit and higher intake of fast food in the preconception period were both associated with a longer TTP. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Several lifestyle factors, such as smoking and obesity, have consistently been associated with a longer TTP or infertility, but the role of preconception diet in women remains poorly studied...
May 4, 2018: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726943/hepatitis-b-vaccination-effective-in-children-exposed-to-anti-tnf-alpha-in-utero
#12
Alison de Lima, Shannon L Kanis, Johanna C Escher, C Janneke van der Woude
INTRODUCTION: Neonates exposed to TNF alpha inhibitors in utero are born with detectable drug levels which can still be detected throughout the first year of life. Since 2011, the hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine is routinely administered to all newborns in the Netherlands. Adults treated with anti-TNF have been reported to respond inadequately to the HBV vaccine. The aim of this study was to compare anti-HBs levels in anti-TNF exposed children with non- exposed children following routine Dutch HBV vaccination...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715050/diabetes-during-pregnancy-surveillance-preconception-care-and-postpartum-care
#13
Shin Y Kim, Nicholas P Deputy, Cheryl L Robbins
Diabetes during pregnancy can adversely affect the health of women and infants. In this report, we provide an overview of the state of the science, and highlight Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) activities related to (1) surveillance of preexisting and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); (2) preconception care for women with preexisting diabetes; (3) postpartum diabetes screening among women with GDM-affected pregnancies; and (4) preventing the progression to Type 2 diabetes among women with GDM-affected pregnancies through lifestyle intervention programs...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706030/preconception-management-of-thyroid-dysfunction
#14
Onyebuchi E Okosieme, Ishrat Khan, Peter N Taylor
Uncorrected thyroid dysfunction in pregnancy has well recognised deleterious effects on fetal and maternal health. The early gestation period is one of critical fetal vulnerability during which maternal thyroid dysfunction may have lasting repercussions. Accordingly, a pragmatic preconception strategy is key for ensuring optimal thyroid disease outcomes in pregnancy. Preconception planning in women with hypothyroidism should pre-empt and mirror the adaptive changes of the thyroid gland by careful levothyroxine dose adjustments to ensure adequate fetal thyroid hormone delivery in pregnancy...
April 29, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700042/long-term-effects-of-ambient-particulate-matter-with-an-aerodynamic-diameter-%C3%A2-2-5-%C3%AE-m-on-hypertension-and-blood-pressure-and-attributable-risk-among-reproductive-age-adults-in-china
#15
Xiaoxu Xie, Yuanyuan Wang, Ying Yang, Jihong Xu, Ya Zhang, Wenbin Tang, Tongjun Guo, Qiaomei Wang, Haiping Shen, Yiping Zhang, Donghai Yan, Zuoqi Peng, Yixin Chen, Yuan He, Xu Ma
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological evidence on the association between long-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm; PM2.5 ) and hypertension is mixed. We investigated the long-term association between ambient fine particles and hypertension in reproductive-age adults. METHODS AND RESULTS: This analysis included 39 348 119 reproductive-age (20-49 years) participants from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project from April 22, 2010 to December 31, 2015 across China...
April 26, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698523/urine-mercury-levels-correlate-with-dna-methylation-of-imprinting-gene-h19-in-the-sperm-of-reproductive-aged-men
#16
Zhaoxu Lu, Yufeng Ma, Linying Gao, Yingjun Li, Qiang Li, Mei Qiang
BACKGROUND: Mercury (Hg) is a well-recognized environmental pollutant known by its toxicity of development and neurotoxicity, which results in adverse health outcomes. However, the mechanisms underlying the teratogenic effects of Hg are not well understood. Imprinting genes are emerging regulators for fetal development subjecting to environmental pollutants impacts. In this study, we examined the association between preconceptional Hg exposure and the alteration of DNA methylation of imprinting genes H19, Meg3, and Peg3 in human sperm DNA...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673875/intervention-strategies-to-improve-nutrition-and-health-behaviours-before-conception
#17
REVIEW
Mary Barker, Stephan U Dombrowski, Tim Colbourn, Caroline H D Fall, Natasha M Kriznik, Wendy T Lawrence, Shane A Norris, Gloria Ngaiza, Dilisha Patel, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Falko F Sniehotta, Régine Steegers-Theunissen, Christina Vogel, Kathryn Woods-Townsend, Judith Stephenson
The nutritional status of both women and men before conception has profound implications for the growth, development, and long-term health of their offspring. Evidence of the effectiveness of preconception interventions for improving outcomes for mothers and babies is scarce. However, given the large potential health return, and relatively low costs and risk of harm, research into potential interventions is warranted. We identified three promising strategies for intervention that are likely to be scalable and have positive effects on a range of health outcomes: supplementation and fortification; cash transfers and incentives; and behaviour change interventions...
April 16, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673873/before-the-beginning-nutrition-and-lifestyle-in-the-preconception-period-and-its-importance-for-future-health
#18
REVIEW
Judith Stephenson, Nicola Heslehurst, Jennifer Hall, Danielle A J M Schoenaker, Jayne Hutchinson, Janet E Cade, Lucilla Poston, Geraldine Barrett, Sarah R Crozier, Mary Barker, Kalyanaraman Kumaran, Chittaranjan S Yajnik, Janis Baird, Gita D Mishra
A woman who is healthy at the time of conception is more likely to have a successful pregnancy and a healthy child. We reviewed published evidence and present new data from low-income, middle-income, and high-income countries on the timing and importance of preconception health for subsequent maternal and child health. We describe the extent to which pregnancy is planned, and whether planning is linked to preconception health behaviours. Observational studies show strong links between health before pregnancy and maternal and child health outcomes, with consequences that can extend across generations, but awareness of these links is not widespread...
April 16, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673005/seroepidemiological-map-of-toxoplasma-gondii-infection-and-associated-risk-factors-in-preconception-period-in-china-a-nationwide-cross-sectional-study
#19
Qiongjie Zhou, Qiaomei Wang, Haiping Shen, Yiping Zhang, Shikun Zhang, Xiaotian Li, Ganesh Acharya
AIM: The aims of this study were to investigate the regional differences in seroepidemiology of toxoplasmosis in preconception period among Chinese women of reproductive age and to evaluate associated risk factors. METHODS: This national, population-based, cross-sectional serosurvey covered all 31 provinces and province-level municipalities in Mainland China. Married women intending to get pregnant within 6 months between 2010 and 2012 were recruited. Information on demographic characteristics (age, place of residence, occupation, dietary habits and exposure to cat) was obtained using interviews, and venous blood samples were collected to screen for Toxoplasma gondii infection...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672150/folate-nutrition-status-in-mothers-of-the-boston-birth-cohort-sample-of-a-us-urban-low-income-population
#20
Tina L Cheng, Kamila B Mistry, Guoying Wang, Barry Zuckerman, Xiaobin Wang
OBJECTIVES: To examine maternal folic acid supplementation and plasma folate concentrations in the Boston Birth Cohort, a predominantly urban, low-income, minority population in Boston, Massachusetts. METHODS: This report includes 7612 mothers with singleton live births (3829 Black, 2023 Hispanic, 865 White, and 895 others) enrolled in the Boston Birth Cohort at the Boston Medical Center, during 1999 to 2014. Folic acid supplementation during preconception and each trimester was obtained via interview questionnaire...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
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