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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343295/identification-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-subtype-1-s1p1-as-a-pathogenic-factor-in-transient-focal-cerebral-ischemia
#1
Bhakta Prasad Gaire, Chi-Ho Lee, Arjun Sapkota, Sang Yeul Lee, Jerold Chun, Hee Jun Cho, Tae-Gyu Nam, Ji Woong Choi
Medically relevant roles of receptor-mediated sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling have become a successful or promising target for multiple sclerosis or cerebral ischemia. Animal-based proof-of-concept validation for the latter is particularly through the neuroprotective efficacy of FTY720, a non-selective S1P receptor modulator, presumably via activation of S1P1. In spite of a clear link between S1P signaling and cerebral ischemia, it remains unknown whether the role of S1P1 is pathogenic or neuroprotective...
March 25, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343294/neuroprotective-role-of-exogenous-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-hypoxia-hypoglycemia-induced-hippocampal-neuron-injury-via-regulating-trkb-mir134-signaling
#2
Weidong Huang, Facai Meng, Jie Cao, Xiaobin Liu, Jie Zhang, Min Li
Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury is an important cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been reported to play a neuroprotective role in hypoxic-ischemic brain injury; however, the specific effects and mechanism of BDNF on hypoxic-hypoglycemic hippocampal neuron injury remains unknown. The current study investigated the action of BDNF in regulating cerebral hypoxic-ischemic injury by simulating hippocampal neuron ischemia and hypoxia. We found that BDNF, p-Trkb, and miR-134 expression levels decreased, and that exogenous BDNF increased survival and reduced apoptosis in hypoxic-hypoglycemic hippocampal neurons...
March 26, 2017: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342979/guggulsterone-sensitized-drug-resistant-human-hepatocarcinoma-cells-to-doxorubicin-through-a-cox-2-p-gp-dependent-pathway
#3
Hong-Bin Xu, Jun Fu, Fang Huang, Jing Yu
Previous researches indicated that cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) might be involved in P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated multidrug resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma cells. Doxorubicin-resistant hepatocellular carcinoma PLC/PRF/5 cells (PLC/PRF/5R) and HepG2 (HepG2R) cells were developed in the present study. The modulatory effect of guggulsterone on Cox-2 and P-gp in PLC/PRF/5R and HepG2R cells was investigated. Cells proliferation, Cox-2 and P-gp expression, and prostaglandin E2 release were examined using MTT, flow cytometry, western blot and ELISA assays...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342842/protectin-dx-suppresses-hepatic-gluconeogenesis-through-ampk-ho-1-mediated-inhibition-of-er-stress
#4
Tae Woo Jung, Hyung-Chun Kim, Ji Hoon Jeong
Several studies have shown that protectins, which are ω-3 fatty acid-derived proresolution mediators, may improve insulin resistance. Recently, protectin DX (PDX) was documented to attenuate insulin resistance by stimulating IL-6 expression in skeletal muscle, thereby regulating hepatic gluconeogenesis. These findings made us investigate the direct effects of PDX on hepatic glucose metabolism in the context of diabetes. In the current study, we show that PDX regulates hepatic gluconeogenesis in a manner distinct from its indirect glucoregulatory activity via IL-6...
March 22, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342809/identity-and-function-of-a-cardiac-mitochondrial-small-conductance-ca-2-activated-k-channel-splice-variant
#5
Meiying Yang, Amadou K S Camara, Mohammed Aldakkak, Wai-Meng Kwok, David F Stowe
We provide evidence for location and function of a small conductance, Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (SKCa) channel isoform 3 (SK3) in mitochondria (m) of guinea pig, rat and human ventricular myocytes. SKCa agonists protected isolated hearts and mitochondria against ischemia/reperfusion (IR) injury; SKCa antagonists worsened IR injury. Intravenous infusion of a SKCa channel agonist/antagonist, respectively, in intact rats was effective in reducing/enhancing regional infarct size induced by coronary artery occlusion...
March 22, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342779/suppression-of-calpain-expression-by-nsaids-is-associated-with-inhibition-of-cell-migration-in-rat-duodenum
#6
Kristopher Silver, A Littlejohn, Laurel Thomas, Bhupinder Bawa, James D Lillich
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are widely used for the alleviation of pain and inflammation, but these drugs are also associated with a suite of negative side effects. Gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity is particularly concerning since it affects an estimated 70% of individuals taking NSAIDs routinely, and evidence suggests the majority of toxicity is occurring in the small intestine. Traditionally, NSAID-induced GI toxicity has been associated with indiscriminate inhibition of cyclooxygenase isoforms, but other mechanisms, including inhibition of cell migration, intestinal restitution, and wound healing, are likely to contribute to toxicity...
March 22, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339614/integrin-linked-kinase-regulates-syncytialization-of-bewo-trophoblast-cells%C3%A2
#7
Trina M Butler, Justin A Pater, Daniel J MacPhee
During placental development, mononuclear villous cytotrophoblast cells differentiate and fuse with the overlying syncytiotrophoblast. This process requires the dissolution of E-cadherin (CDH1)-containing adherens junctions in cytotrophoblast. Integrin linked kinase (ILK) can downregulate CDH1 through poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) and Snail-1 (SNAI1) during epithelial-mesenchymal transition. ILK is known to be expressed in cytotrophoblast; thus, the role of a potential ILK-PARP1-SNAI1 pathway in aiding trophoblast syncytialization via the downregulation of CDH1 was examined...
January 27, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339081/hbx-represses-riz1-expression-by-dna-methyltransferase%C3%A2-1-involvement-in-decreased-mir-152-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#8
Zhujiang Zhao, Ying Hu, Xiaohui Shen, Yingbin Lao, Lihua Zhang, Xuemei Qiu, Jiaojiao Hu, Pihai Gong, He Cui, Sen Lu, Ying Zheng, Menghan Zhou, Hong Fan
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is mainly suspected to promote hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development by epigenetic alteration. The HBV X protein (HBx) plays a key role in the molecular pathogenesis of HBV-related HCC. However, the mechanism of HBx-mediated hepatocarcinogenesis remains to be elucidated. RIZ1 gene, a candidate HCC suppressor gene, is frequently found to be hypermethylated and downregulated in HCC. In the present study, we show that the expression of RIZ1 was downregulated in 65% HCC tissues. Decreased expression of RIZ1 was restored by 5'-Aza in MHCC-97H HCC cell lines...
March 21, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339080/inhibition-of-ccr7-promotes-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-apoptosis-and-suppresses-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#9
Lan Zhang, Xuyang Xiao, Hui An, Jian Wang, Yanmei Ma, Yi-Hua Qian
Activation of C-C chemokine receptor type 7 (CCR7) has been demonstrated to mediate the occurrence and progression of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the potential therapeutic role of CCR7 inhibition in NSCLC is still obscure. Thus, the present study was conducted to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the inhibition of CCR7 on cell apoptosis and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in NSCLC A549 cells. Chemokine ligand 21 (CCL21) was used to activate CCR7 and the results revealed that CCR7 upregulation inhibited cell apoptosis and affected apoptosis‑related protein levels...
March 23, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339072/hepatitis-b-virus-x-protein-increases-microrna%C3%A2-21-expression-and-accelerates-the-development-of-hepatoma-via-the-phosphatase-and-tensin-homolog-phosphoinositide-3%C3%A2-kinase-protein-kinase-b-signaling-pathway
#10
Zhouhua Hou, Jun Quan
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) is a key regulatory protein that is involved in HBV infection, replication and carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of HBx in the progression and metastasis of liver cancer cells and to determine the underlying molecular mechanism of HBx in metastatic liver cancer cells. HBx protein expression was detected by western blot analysis, and microRNA (miR)‑21 levels were determined by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction in the highly metastatic MHCC‑97H low metastatic MHCC‑97L and SMMC‑7721 liver cancer cell lines...
March 23, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339062/p53-microrna-374b-akt1-regulates-colorectal-cancer-cell-apoptosis-in-response-to-dna-damage
#11
Hangjun Gong, Yu Cao, Gang Han, Yun Zhang, Qing You, Yidong Wang, Yamin Pan
Colorectal cancer (CRC) has a rising morbidity worldwide and its resistance to chemotherapy has been observed in clinical treatment. Tumor suppressor p53 is well-studied in CRC, but little is known about its effects during DNA damage of CRC cells. This study was aimed at uncovering potential mechanisms of p53 regarding microRNA-374b and v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (AKT1) during DNA damage of CRC cells. CRC cells HCT116 and HT29 were transfected with p53-specific small interfering RNA (siRNA), p53 overexpression vector or miR-374b inhibitor, and then treated with 10 µM bleomycin (BLM) for 24 h to induce DNA damage...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339027/su6668-modulates-prostate-cancer-progression-by-downregulating-mtdh-akt-signaling-pathway
#12
Benjiang Qian, Yi Yao, Changming Liu, Jiabing Zhang, Huihong Chen, Huizhang Li
Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in Western counties and has increased in incidence also in China in recent years. Although diagnosis modalities for primary prostate cancer have markedly improved, there are still no effective therapies for metastatic prostate cancer. SU6668 is an inhibitor of the tyrosine kinase activity of three angiogenic receptors VEGFR2, PDGFRβ and FGFR1. There is strong experimental evidence that SU6668 can induce growth inhibition of various primary tumors...
March 22, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339026/opposite-effects-of-tumor-protein-d-tpd-52-and-tpd54-on-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-cells
#13
Kosuke Kato, Yoshiki Mukudai, Hiromi Motohashi, Chihiro Ito, Shinnosuke Kamoshida, Toshikazu Shimane, Seiji Kondo, Tatsuo Shirota
The tumor protein D52 (TPD52) protein family includes TPD52, -53, -54 and -55. Several reports have shown important roles for TPD52 and TPD53, and have also suggested the potential involvement of TPD54, in D52-family physiological effects. Therefore, we performed detailed expression analysis of TPD52 family proteins in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Towards this end, TPD54-overexpressing or knocked-down cells were constructed using OSCC-derived SAS, HSC2 and HSC3 cells. tpd52 or tpd53 was expressed or co-expressed in these cells by transfection...
March 23, 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338898/the-hematopoietic-cell-specific-transcription-factor-pu-1-is-critical-for-expression-of-cd11c
#14
Takuya Yashiro, Kazumi Kasakura, Yoshihito Oda, Nao Kitamura, Akihito Inoue, Shusuke Nakamura, Hokuto Yokoyama, Kanako Fukuyama, Mutsuko Hara, Hideoki Ogawa, Ko Okumura, Makoto Nishiyama, Chiharu Nishiyama
PU.1 is a hematopoietic cell-specific transcription factor belonging to the Ets-family, which plays an important role in the development of dendritic cells (DCs). CD11c (encoded by Itgax) is well established as a characteristic marker of hematopoietic lineages including DCs. In the present study, we analyzed the role of PU.1 (encoded by Spi-1) in the expression of CD11c. When small interfering RNA (siRNA) for Spi-1 was introduced into bone marrow-derived (BM) DCs, the mRNA level and cell surface expression of CD11c were dramatically reduced...
February 24, 2017: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338575/the-role-of-cx43-mediated-nf%C3%B0%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-ossification-of-posterior-longitudinal-ligament-an-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-study
#15
Dechun Chen, Yu Chen, Tiefeng Li, Lei Shi, Mengxiao Pan, Deyu Chen
STUDY DESIGN: In vivo and in vitro experiments. OBJECTIVES: To illustrate the further molecular mechanism of Cx43-mediated osteoblastic differentiation of ligament cells. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is one of the main causes of myelopathy in Asian, but its etiology has not been clarified. We have previously found the mechanical stress can up-regulate Cx43 expression in ligament cells, which transduces mechanical signal to promote osteoblastic differentiation...
March 23, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338079/dissecting-mirna-gene-repression-on-single-cell-level-with-an-advanced-fluorescent-reporter-system
#16
Nicolas Lemus-Diaz, Kai O Böker, Ignacio Rodriguez-Polo, Michael Mitter, Jasmin Preis, Maximilian Arlt, Jens Gruber
Despite major advances on miRNA profiling and target predictions, functional readouts for endogenous miRNAs are limited and frequently lead to contradicting conclusions. Numerous approaches including functional high-throughput and miRISC complex evaluations suggest that the functional miRNAome differs from the predictions based on quantitative sRNA profiling. To resolve the apparent contradiction of expression versus function, we generated and applied a fluorescence reporter gene assay enabling single cell analysis...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338001/renin-angiotensin-system-acting-on-reactive-oxygen-species-in-paraventricular-nucleus-induces-sympathetic-activation-via-at1r-pkc%C3%AE-rac1-pathway-in-salt-induced-hypertension
#17
Qing Su, Chan-Juan Huo, Hong-Bao Li, Kai-Li Liu, Xiang Li, Qing Yang, Xin-Ai Song, Wen-Sheng Chen, Wei Cui, Guo-Qing Zhu, Xiao-Lian Shi, Jin-Jun Liu, Yu-Ming Kang
Brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) could regulate oxidative stress in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) in the development of hypertension. This study was designed to explore the precise mechanisms of RAS acting on reactive oxygen species (ROS) in salt-induced hypertension. Male Wistar rats were administered with a high-salt diet (HS, 8.0% NaCl) for 8 weeks to induced hypertension. Those rats were received PVN infusion of AT1R antagonist losartan (LOS, 10 μg/h) or microinjection of small interfering RNAs for protein kinase C γ (PKCγ siRNA) once a day for 2 weeks...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337960/g-protein-signaling-protein-17-rgs17-is-upregulated-and-promotes-tumor-growth-and-migration-in-human-colorectal-carcinoma
#18
Ling Li, He-Sheng Luo
Colorectal carcinoma is one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths and has a high tendency for metastasis, which makes it a priority to find novel methods to diagnose and treat colorectal carcinoma in the very early stage. Herein, we studied the role of regulators of G-protein signaling (RGS) family protein RGS17 in colorectal carcinoma growth and metastasis. We found that RGS17 was upregulated in both clinical colorectal carcinoma tissues and cultured colorectal carcinoma cells. Knockdown of RGS17 by specific siRNA decreased, whereas overexpression of RGS17 with expression plasmid increased cell proliferation rate in cultured cells...
March 23, 2017: Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337828/tradd-traf2-rip1-and-tak1-are-required-for-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-pro-labour-mediators-in-human-primary-myometrial-cells
#19
Ratana Lim, Gillian Barker, Martha Lappas
PROBLEM: TNF-α plays a central role in the processes of human labour and delivery. This study sought to determine the role of the adaptor proteins TNFR1-associated death domain protein (TRADD), TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2), receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1) and transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) in TNF-α-induced formation of pro-labour mediators. METHOD OF STUDY: Human primary myometrial cells were transfected with siRNA against TRADD (siTRADD), TRAF2 (siTRAF2), RIP1 (siRIP1) or TAK1 (siTAK1), treated with TNF-α, and assayed for pro-inflammatory mediators expression...
March 24, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337381/hla-e-inhibitor-enhances-the-killing-of-neuroblastoma-stem-cells-by-co-cultured-dendritic-cells-and-cytokine-induced-killer-cells-loaded-with-membrane-based-microparticles
#20
Zijun Zhen, Kaibin Yang, Litong Ye, Zhiyao You, Rirong Chen, Ying Liu, Youjian He
Neuroblastoma stem cells (NSCs) can cause drug resistance and tumor recurrence. This study aimed to enhance the lytic effect of dendritic cells (DCs) co-cultured with cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells. NSCs were obtained by suspension culture, and DC-CIK cells were loaded with extracted NSC membrane-based microparticles (MMPs) before evaluating the lytic effect of DC-CIK cells on NSCs. After inhibiting the function or expression of human leukocyte antigen-E (HLA-E) in NSCs by anti-HLA-E monoclonal antibody or siRNA, the DC-CIK cell lytic effect on NSCs was re-assessed...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
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