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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214402/relationship-between-chewing-ability-and-cognitive-impairment-in-the-rural-elderly
#1
Eun-Kyong Kim, Sung Kook Lee, Youn-Hee Choi, Makiko Tanaka, Kimiko Hirotsu, Hyeon Chang Kim, Hee-Kyung Lee, Yun-Sook Jung, Atsuo Amano
OBJECTIVE: Relationship between masticatory function and cognitive impairment had been suggested but still understudied. We investigated the association between chewing ability and cognitive impairment among the elderly living in a rural region. METHODS: A total of 295 elderly individuals aged ≥70 years in a rural city of Korea participated in a cross-sectional study. Trained nurses conducted interviews and assessed chewing ability using gum that changed color based on chewing performance...
February 11, 2017: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213134/speech-in-noise-perception-in-musicians-a-review
#2
REVIEW
Emily B J Coffey, Nicolette Mogilever, Robert J Zatorre
The ability to understand speech in the presence of competing sound sources is an important neuroscience question in terms of how the nervous system solves this computational problem. It is also a critical clinical problem that disproportionally affects the elderly, children with language-related learning disorders, and those with hearing loss. Recent evidence that musicians have an advantage on this multifaceted skill has led to the suggestion that musical training might be used to improve or delay the decline of speech-in-noise (SIN) function...
February 14, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212408/prevalence-and-associated-comorbidities-of-restless-legs-syndrome-rls-data-from-a-large-population-based-door-to-door-survey-on-19176-adults-in-tehran-iran
#3
Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad, Arash Rahmani, Mahdiyeh Shafieesabet, Mahshid Soori, Ahmad Delbari, Mohammad Reza Motamed, Johan Lökk
BACKGROUND: Discrepancies have been reported in the prevalence rate of restless legs syndrome (RLS) among different ethnic groups and geographic populations. Furthermore, there are disagreements on determinant factors and associated comorbidities of RLS. We aimed to estimate prevalence of RLS and investigate its associated comorbid conditions and risk factors in a large population-based door-to-door survey. METHODS: Following a multistage random sampling from the households lived in 22 urban districts of Tehran, Iran, 19176 participants with ≥30 years of age were recruited...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212196/prison-nursing-formation-of-a-stable-professional-identity
#4
Khurshid Choudhry, David Armstrong, Alexandru Dregan
AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze how working within prison environments can influence the self-identity and professional identity of nurses. BACKGROUND: The prison environment can be a difficult environment for nurses to deliver care within, with nurses having to carry out activities that seem to go against their professional role, while at the same time providing care to prisoners who have greater health needs than the general population. There is a lack of theoretical consideration of how prison nurses carry out their role in the face of such challenges...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211597/data-quality-assurance-and-control-in-cognitive-research-lessons-learned-from-the-predict-hd-study
#5
Holly James Westervelt, Rachel A Bernier, Melanie Faust, Mary Gover, H Jeremy Bockholt, Roland Zschiegner, Jeffrey D Long, Jane S Paulsen
We discuss the strategies employed in data quality control and quality assurance for the cognitive core of Neurobiological Predictors of Huntington's Disease (PREDICT-HD), a long-term observational study of over 1,000 participants with prodromal Huntington disease. In particular, we provide details regarding the training and continual evaluation of cognitive examiners, methods for error corrections, and strategies to minimize errors in the data. We present five important lessons learned to help other researchers avoid certain assumptions that could potentially lead to inaccuracies in their cognitive data...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210957/forced-treadmill-exercise-prevents-spatial-memory-deficits-in-aged-rats-probably-through-the-activation-of-na-k-atpase-in-the-hippocampus
#6
Cláudia Vanzella, Eduardo Farias Sanches, Felipe Kawa Odorcyk, Fabrício Nicola, Janaína Kolling, Aline Longoni, Tiago Marcon Dos Santos, Angela Terezinha de Souza Wyse, Carlos Alexandre Netto
Regular physical activity has shown to improve the quality of life and to prevent age-related memory deficits. Memory processing requires proper regulation of several enzymes such as sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na(+), K(+)-ATPase) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE), which have a pivotal role in neuronal transmission. The present study investigated the effects of a treadmill running protocol in young (3 months), mature (6 months) and aged (22 months) Wistar rats, on: (a) cognitive function, as assessed in the Water maze spatial tasks; (b) Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and AChE activities in the hippocampus following cognitive training alone or treadmill running combined with cognitive training...
February 16, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210643/perception-of-health-problems-among-competitive-runners-a-qualitative-study-of-cognitive-appraisals-and-behavioral-responses
#7
Sara Jelvegård, Toomas Timpka, Victor Bargoria, Håkan Gauffin, Jenny Jacobsson
BACKGROUND: Approximately 2 of every 3 competitive runners sustain at least 1 health problem each season. Most of these problems are nontraumatic injuries with gradual onset. The main known risk indicator for sustaining a new running-related injury episode is a history of a previous injury, suggesting that behavioral habits are part of the causal mechanisms. PURPOSE: Identification of elements associated with purposeful interpretations of body perceptions and balanced behavioral responses may supply vital information for prevention of health problems in runners...
December 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210347/assessing-cognitive-performance-in-badminton-players-a-reproducibility-and-validity-study
#8
Tanja van de Water, Barbara Huijgen, Irene Faber, Marije Elferink-Gemser
Fast reaction and good inhibitory control are associated with elite sports performance. To evaluate the reproducibility and validity of a newly developed Badminton Reaction Inhibition Test (BRIT), fifteen elite (25 ± 4 years) and nine non-elite (24 ± 4 years) Dutch male badminton players participated in the study. The BRIT measured four components: domain-general reaction time, badminton-specific reaction time, domain-general inhibitory control and badminton-specific inhibitory control. Five participants were retested within three weeks on the badminton-specific components...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210339/anger-management-evaluation-of-a-cognitive-behavioral-training-program-for-table-tennis-players
#9
Georges Steffgen
Based on a systematic review of the literature on anger and anger management in sport, there is evidence that anger might be dysfunctional, especially in sports requiring selective attention and fine-tuned motor skills. The research literature suggests that cognitive-behavioral intervention programs can be fruitful in helping athletes to understand and control dysfunctional anger. Therefore, the main goal of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief training program for table tennis players in cognitive-behavioral anger management that aimed at changing their noneffective anger reactions...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210220/mri-based-classification-models-in-prediction-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-dementia-in-late-life-depression
#10
Aleksandra K Lebedeva, Eric Westman, Tom Borza, Mona K Beyer, Knut Engedal, Dag Aarsland, Geir Selbaek, Asta K Haberg
Objective: Late-life depression (LLD) is associated with development of different types of dementia. Identification of LLD patients, who will develop cognitive decline, i.e., the early stage of dementia would help to implement interventions earlier. The purpose of this study was to assess whether structural brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in LLD patients can predict mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia 1 year prior to the diagnosis. Methods: LLD patients underwent brain MRI at baseline and repeated clinical assessment after 1-year...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209634/cognitive-decline-in-prostate-cancer-patients-undergoing-adt
#11
Niamh Liana Mundell, Robin M Daly, Helen Macpherson, Steve F Fraser
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is an effective and widely prescribed treatment for prostate cancer (PCa), but it is associated with multiple treatment induced adverse effects that impact on various musculoskeletal and cardiometabolic health outcomes. Emerging research has shown that ADT is also associated with cognitive impairment, which has been linked to a loss of independence, increased falls and fracture risk and greater use of medical services. The aim of this review is to outline the evidence related to the effect of ADT use on cognitive function, and propose a role for exercise training as part of usual care to prevent and/or manage cognitive impairments for PCa survivors on ADT...
February 16, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208604/reducing-fall-risk-with-combined-motor-and-cognitive-training-in-elderly-fallers
#12
Francesco Barban, Roberta Annicchiarico, Matteo Melideo, Alessia Federici, Maria Giovanna Lombardi, Simone Giuli, Claudia Ricci, Fulvia Adriano, Ivo Griffini, Manuel Silvestri, Massimo Chiusso, Sergio Neglia, Sergio Ariño-Blasco, Raquel Cuevas Perez, Yannis Dionyssiotis, Georgios Koumanakos, Milo Kovačeić, Nuria Montero-Fernández, Oscar Pino, Niels Boye, Ulises Cortés, Cristian Barrué, Atia Cortés, Peter Levene, Stelios Pantelopoulos, Roberto Rosso, José Antonio Serra-Rexach, Angelo Maria Sabatini, Carlo Caltagirone
BACKGROUND: Falling is a major clinical problem in elderly people, demanding effective solutions. At present, the only effective intervention is motor training of balance and strength. Executive function-based training (EFt) might be effective at preventing falls according to evidence showing a relationship between executive functions and gait abnormalities. The aim was to assess the effectiveness of a motor and a cognitive treatment developed within the EU co-funded project I-DONT-FALL...
February 10, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207841/barriers-and-enablers-to-the-implementation-of-the-6-pack-falls-prevention-program-a-pre-implementation-study-in-hospitals-participating-in-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#13
Darshini R Ayton, Anna L Barker, Renata T Morello, Caroline A Brand, Jason Talevski, Fiona S Landgren, Mayer M Melhem, Evelyn Bian, Sandra G Brauer, Keith D Hill, Patricia M Livingston, Mari Botti
Evidence for effective falls prevention interventions in acute wards is limited. One reason for this may be suboptimal program implementation. This study aimed to identify perceived barriers and enablers of the implementation of the 6-PACK falls prevention program to inform the implementation in a randomised controlled trial. Strategies to optimise successful implementation of 6-PACK were also sought. A mixed-methods approach was applied in 24 acute wards from 6 Australian hospitals. Participants were nurses working on participating wards and senior hospital staff including Nurse Unit Managers; senior physicians; Directors of Nursing; and senior personnel involved in quality and safety or falls prevention...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207604/memory-rehabilitation-strategies-in-nonsurgical-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-a-review
#14
Alessandra Del Felice, Marzia Alderighi, Matteo Martinato, Davide Grisafi, Anna Bosco, Pamela J Thompson, Josemir W Sander, Stefano Masiero
People with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) who have not undergone epilepsy surgery often complain of memory deficits. Cognitive rehabilitation is employed as a remedial intervention in clinical settings, but research is limited and findings concerning efficacy and the criteria for choosing different approaches have been inconsistent. We aimed to appraise existing evidence on memory rehabilitation in nonsurgical individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy and to ascertain the effectiveness of specific strategies. A scoping review was preferred given the heterogeneous nature of the interventions...
February 15, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206800/perspectives-of-veterans-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-on-community-reintegration-making-sense-of-unplanned-separation-from-service
#15
Alexander V Libin, Manon Maitland Schladen, Ellen Danford, Samantha Cichon, Dwan Bruner, Joel Scholten, Maria Llorente, Slavomir Zapata, Alexander W Dromerick, Marc R Blackman, Kathryn M Magruder
For veterans separated from the military as a result of acquired mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), the transition from a military identity to a civilian one is complicated by health, cognitive, and psychosocial factors. We conducted in-depth interviews with 8 veterans with mTBI to understand how they perceived the experience of departure from the military, rehabilitation services provided at a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) Polytrauma Network Site, and reentry into civilian life. Two distinct patterns of thinking about community reintegration emerged...
2017: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205186/optimisation-of-cognitive-performance-in-rodent-operant-touchscreen-testing-evaluation-and-effects-of-reinforcer-strength
#16
Benjamin U Phillips, Christopher J Heath, Zofia Ossowska, Timothy J Bussey, Lisa M Saksida
Operant testing is a widely used and highly effective method of studying cognition in rodents. Performance on such tasks is sensitive to reinforcer strength. It is therefore advantageous to select effective reinforcers to minimize training times and maximize experimental throughput. To quantitatively investigate the control of behavior by different reinforcers, performance of mice was tested with either strawberry milkshake or a known powerful reinforcer, super saccharin (1.5% or 2% (w/v) saccharin/1.5% (w/v) glucose/water mixture)...
February 15, 2017: Learning & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204984/musical-competence-and-phoneme-perception-in-a-foreign-language
#17
Swathi Swaminathan, E Glenn Schellenberg
We investigated whether musical competence was associated with the perception of foreign-language phonemes. The sample comprised adult native-speakers of English who varied in music training. The measures included tests of general cognitive abilities, melody and rhythm perception, and the perception of consonantal contrasts that were phonemic in Zulu but not in English. Music training was associated positively with performance on the tests of melody and rhythm perception, but not with performance on the phoneme-perception task...
February 15, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203607/epigallocatechin-gallate-a-useful-therapy-for-cognitive-disability-in-down-syndrome
#18
Fiorenza Stagni, Andrea Giacomini, Marco Emili, Sandra Guidi, Elisabetta Ciani, Renata Bartesaghi
Neurodevelopmental alterations and cognitive disability are constant features of Down syndrome (DS), a genetic condition due to triplication of chromosome 21. DYRK1A is one of the triplicated genes that is thought to be strongly involved in brain alterations. Treatment of Dyrk1A transgenic mice with epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), an inhibitor of DYRK1A, improves cognitive performance, suggesting that EGCG may represent a suitable treatment of DS. Evidence in the Ts65Dn mouse model of DS shows that EGCG restores hippocampal development, although this effect is ephemeral...
2017: Neurogenesis (Austin, Tex.)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203246/generalization-of-context-specific-training-in-individuals-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-an-event-related-potential-study
#19
Sam C C Chan, Tommy L H Lam, Kenneth N K Fong, Marco Y C Pang, Chetwyn C H Chan
BACKGROUND: This study examined the neural processes associated with the generalization of the effect of context-specific (CS) training to noncontextual situations among individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS: Fourteen and 16 participants with MCI were randomly allocated to a Chinese calligraphy writing (CW) training or a control group, respectively. The CW participants learned how to write Chinese strokes in a semicursive style to construct characters, tapping on working memory functions...
September 2016: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203220/proof-of-concept-of-an-online-emg-based-decoding-of-hand-postures-and-individual-digit-forces-for-prosthetic-hand-control
#20
Alycia Gailey, Panagiotis Artemiadis, Marco Santello
INTRODUCTION: Options currently available to individuals with upper limb loss range from prosthetic hands that can perform many movements, but require more cognitive effort to control, to simpler terminal devices with limited functional abilities. We attempted to address this issue by designing a myoelectric control system to modulate prosthetic hand posture and digit force distribution. METHODS: We recorded surface electromyographic (EMG) signals from five forearm muscles in eight able-bodied subjects while they modulated hand posture and the flexion force distribution of individual fingers...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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