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cognitive training

Cornelia Frank, Gian-Luca Linstromberg, Linda Hennig, Thomas Heinen, Thomas Schack
A team's cognitions of interpersonally coordinated actions are a crucial component for successful team performance. Here, we present an approach to practice team action by way of imagery and examine its impact on team cognitions in long-term memory. We investigated the impact of a 4-week team action imagery intervention on futsal players' mental representations of team-level tactics. Skilled futsal players were assigned to either an imagery training group or a no imagery training control group. Participants in the imagery training group practiced four team-level tactics by imagining team actions in specific game situations for three times a week...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Valérie Poulin, Deirdre R Dawson, Carolina Bottari, Cynthia Verreault, Samantha Turcotte, Alexandra Jean
PURPOSE: To identify and critically appraise the content, readability, reliability and usability of websites providing information for managing cognitive difficulties in everyday life for the families of adults with moderate to severe traumatic brain injury. METHOD: Systematic searches on the Internet for relevant websites were conducted using five search engines, and through consultation of the lists of resources published on websites of traumatic brain injury organizations...
March 22, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Joanna Morrison, Issarapa Chunsuwan, Petch Bunnag, Petra C Gronholm, Georgia Lockwood Estrin
Introduction: In low-income and middle-income countries, it is estimated that one in every three preschool-age children are failing to meet cognitive or socioemotional developmental milestones. Thailand has implemented a universal national developmental screening programme (DSPM) for young children to enable detection of developmental disorders and early intervention that can improve child health outcomes. DSPM implementation is being hampered by low attendance at follow-up appointments when children fail the initial screening...
2018: BMJ Global Health
Ummuhan Isoglu-Alkac, M Numan Ermutlu, Gökçer Eskikurt, İlker Yücesir, Sernaz Demirel Temel, Tan Temel
Physical exercise and the training effects of repeated practice of skills over an extended period of time may have additive effects on brain networks and functions. Various motor skills and attentional styles can be developed by athletes engaged in different sports. In this study, the effects of fast ball sports and dance training on attention were investigated by event related potentials (ERP). ERP were recorded in auditory and visual tasks in professional dancer, professional fast ball sports athlete (FBSA) and healthy control volunteer groups consisting of twelve subjects each...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
Kichang Kwak, Hyuk Jin Yun, Gilsoon Park, Jong-Min Lee
BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are age-related neurodegenerative diseases characterized by progressive loss of memory and irreversible cognitive functions. The hippocampus, a brain area critical for learning and memory processes, is especially susceptible to damage at early stages of AD. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to develop prediction model using a multi-modality sparse representation approach. METHODS: We proposed a sparse representation approach to the hippocampus using structural T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to distinguish AD/MCI from healthy control subjects (HCs)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Guillaume Huguet, Catherine Schramm, Elise Douard, Lai Jiang, Aurélie Labbe, Frédérique Tihy, Géraldine Mathonnet, Sonia Nizard, Emmanuelle Lemyre, Alexandre Mathieu, Jean-Baptiste Poline, Eva Loth, Roberto Toro, Gunter Schumann, Patricia Conrod, Zdenka Pausova, Celia Greenwood, Tomas Paus, Thomas Bourgeron, Sébastien Jacquemont
Importance;: Copy number variants (CNVs) classified as pathogenic are identified in 10% to 15% of patients referred for neurodevelopmental disorders. However, their effect sizes on cognitive traits measured as a continuum remain mostly unknown because most of them are too rare to be studied individually using association studies. Objective: To measure and estimate the effect sizes of recurrent and nonrecurrent CNVs on IQ. Design, Setting, and Participants: This study identified all CNVs that were 50 kilobases (kb) or larger in 2 general population cohorts (the IMAGEN project and the Saguenay Youth Study) with measures of IQ...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
A Lina Teichmann, Tijl Grootswagers, Thomas Carlson, Anina N Rich
Numerical format describes the way magnitude is conveyed, for example, as a digit ("3") or Roman numeral ("III"). In the field of numerical cognition, there is an ongoing debate of whether magnitude representation is independent of numerical format. Here, we examine the time course of magnitude processing when using different symbolic formats. We presented participants with a series of digits and dice patterns corresponding to the magnitudes of 1 to 6 while performing a 1-back task on magnitude...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Alexander V Lebedev, Jonna Nilsson, Martin Lövdén
Researchers have proposed that solving complex reasoning problems, a key indicator of fluid intelligence, involves the same cognitive processes as solving working memory tasks. This proposal is supported by an overlap of the functional brain activations associated with the two types of tasks and by high correlations between interindividual differences in performance. We replicated these findings in 53 older participants but also showed that solving reasoning and working memory problems benefits from different configurations of the functional connectome and that this dissimilarity increases with a higher difficulty load...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Merylin Monaro, Luciano Gamberini, Francesca Zecchinato, Giuseppe Sartori
The use of faked identities is a current issue for both physical and online security. In this paper, we test the differences between subjects who report their true identity and the ones who give fake identity responding to control, simple, and complex questions. Asking complex questions is a new procedure for increasing liars' cognitive load, which is presented in this paper for the first time. The experiment consisted in an identity verification task, during which response time and errors were collected. Twenty participants were instructed to lie about their identity, whereas the other 20 were asked to respond truthfully...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Amanda Rodrigues Vieira, Nayara Salles, Marco Borges, Theo Mota
For more than a century, visual learning and memory has been studied in the honeybee Apis mellifera using operant appetitive conditioning. Although honeybees show impressive visual learning capacities in this well-established protocol, operant training of free-flying animals can hardly be combined with invasive protocols for studying the neurobiological basis of visual learning. In view of that, different efforts have been made to develop new classical conditioning protocols for studying visual learning in harnessed honeybees, though learning performances remain considerably poorer than those obtained in free-flying animals...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Isabelle Yee Shan Chan, Mei-Yung Leung, Qi Liang
Driven by fast-growing economies worldwide, the number of international construction projects is booming, and employing expatriates has inevitably become a strategy used by construction firms. However, stress arising from expatriate assignments can lead to early return, assignment failure, and staff turnover, causing in significant losses to an organisation. Extensive research has focused on the effectiveness of coping behaviours in relation to stress. However, studies investigating the antecedents of coping are rare...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Marit Sørvoll, Aud Obstfelder, Britt Normann, Gunn Kristin Øberg
BACKGROUND: Physiotherapy from an early age is considered important for children with cerebral palsy (CP). In preschool, dedicated aides are responsible for the daily follow-up and training under the supervision of a physiotherapist (PT). Knowledge is sparse regarding what is created and achieved in clinical practice involving triads (i.e. the PT, aide, and child) with respect to the enhancement of practical skills in dedicated aides. The study purpose was to explore form and content in supervision...
March 20, 2018: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Li-Jung Lin, Hsin-Yen Yen
BACKGROUND: The rising population of older adults is transforming Taiwan society. Although many long-term care facilities now operate for older adults, the transition from the home environment to long-term facilities may cause multiple issues, including relocation stress syndrome, for new residents. Autonomy is a critical element of the human experience. Leisure, as an expression of autonomy, has been shown to enhance self-image and promote feelings of competence and mastery. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between participation in leisure activities and adjustment to residential care using the continuity theory...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Nursing Research: JNR
C Herrmann-Lingen
BACKGROUND: Depression is a frequent comorbidity in chronic heart failure. It can be triggered by the experience of suffering from heart disease, but it can also play a causal role in accelerated development and poor prognosis of heart failure. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the interrelationships between heart failure and depression and the psychophysiological and behavioral mechanisms involved in this association. The effects of comorbid depression on quality of life in patients with heart failure were also examined and therapeutic options reviewed...
March 20, 2018: Der Internist
Mariachiara Buonocore, Margherita Bechi, Paola Uberti, Marco Spangaro, Federica Cocchi, Carmelo Guglielmino, Laura Bianchi, Antonella Rita Mastromatteo, Marta Bosia, Roberto Cavallaro
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive reserve (CR), defined as individual differences in the ability to cope with brain damage, seem to be associated to the several psychopathological features in psychiatric patients, such as the functional outcome. This study aims to identify different profiles of CR by combining intelligence quotient (IQ) and premorbid functioning, two measures independently associated to CR in previous works, as well as to explore CR effect on both Theory of Mind (ToM) baseline performance and improvement after socio-cognitive trainings...
March 20, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Uros Marusic, Sidney Grosprêtre
Normal and pathological ageing are associated with several motor impairments that reduce quality of life and represent a general challenge for public healthcare systems. Consequently, over the past decades, many scientists and physiotherapists dedicated their research to the development and improvement of safe and costless methods to counteract the progressive decline of motor functions with age. The urgency of finding new and easy to implement methods is even more paramount in case of acute pathologies (e...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Maritta Välimäki, Kaisa Mishina, Johanna K Kaakinen, Suvi K Holm, Jukka Vahlo, Markus Kirjonen, Virve Pekurinen, Olli Tenovuo, Jyrki Korkeila, Heikki Hämäläinen, Jaana Sarajuuri, Pekka Rantanen, Tage Orenius, Aki Koponen
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health problem that often requires intensive and long-term rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine whether rehabilitative digital gaming facilitates cognitive functioning and general well-being in people with TBI. METHODS: A total of 90 Finnish-speaking adults with TBI (18-65 years) were recruited from an outpatient neuroscience clinic. The participants were randomly allocated to one of the three groups: a rehabilitation gaming group (n=29, intervention), an entertainment gaming group (n=29, active control), or a passive control group (n=32)...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Esther M J Bekkers, Kim Dockx, Surendar Devan, Sam Van Rossom, Sabine M P Verschueren, Bastiaan R Bloem, Alice Nieuwboer
BACKGROUND: Postural instability and freezing of gait (FOG) are major problems in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), and both contribute to falls. However, the interrelationship between these 2 deficits is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated whether dual-tasking influenced postural control differently in freezers (FOG+) and nonfreezers (FOG-). METHODS: Thirty-three patients with PD (19 FOG+, 14 FOG-, well-matched) and 28 healthy controls underwent 4 postural control tasks, consisting of standing on either stable or unstable surfaces with eyes open or closed...
February 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
Deirdre M J Walsh, Kieran Moran, Veronique Cornelissen, Roselien Buys, Jomme Claes, Paolo Zampognaro, Fabio Melillo, Nicos Maglaveras, Ioanna Chouvarda, Andreas Triantafyllidis, Dimitris Filos, Catherine B Woods
Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a leading cause of premature death worldwide. International guidelines recommend routine delivery of all phases of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Uptake of traditional CR remains suboptimal, as attendance at formal hospital-based CR programs is low, with community-based CR rates and individual long-term exercise maintenance even lower. Home-based CR programs have been shown to be equally effective in clinical and health-related quality of life outcomes and yet are not readily available...
March 15, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
Chinonso N Igwesi-Chidobe, Andre P Kengne, Isaac O Sorinola, Emma L Godfrey
Background: Physical activity improves physiological, cognitive and psychosocial functioning in chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). This study reviewed papers on the effects and patients' experiences of physical activity interventions for chronic NCDs in Africa. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of clinical and qualitative studies by searching eight bibliographic databases and grey literature until 19 April 2017. The mixed-methods appraisal and Cochrane Collaboration's tools were used for quality and risk of bias assessments...
March 15, 2018: International Health
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