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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231477/effects-of-tdcs-on-motor-learning-and-memory-formation-a-consensus-and-critical-position-paper
#1
REVIEW
Ethan R Buch, Emiliano Santarnecchi, Andrea Antal, Jan Born, Pablo A Celnik, Joseph Classen, Christian Gerloff, Mark Hallett, Friedhelm C Hummel, Michael A Nitsche, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Walter J Paulus, Janine Reis, Edwin M Robertson, John C Rothwell, Marco Sandrini, Heidi M Schambra, Eric M Wassermann, Ulf Ziemann, Leonardo G Cohen
Motor skills are required for activities of daily living. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied in association with motor skill learning has been investigated as a tool for enhancing training effects in health and disease. Here, we review the published literature investigating whether tDCS can facilitate the acquisition, retention or adaptation of motor skills. Work in multiple laboratories is underway to develop a mechanistic understanding of tDCS effects on different forms of learning and to optimize stimulation protocols...
January 29, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230631/aerobic-exercise-and-its-effects-on-cognition-in-schizophrenia
#2
Peter Falkai, Berend Malchow, Andrea Schmitt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Schizophrenia is a severe neuropsychiatric disorder with incomplete remission because of negative and cognitive symptoms in a large proportion of patients. Antipsychotic medication is successful in modulating positive symptoms, but only to a lower extent negative symptoms including cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, development of innovative add-on treatment is highly needed. In this review, recent evidence from clinical studies reveals effects of aerobic exercise on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia patients...
February 21, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230528/biologically-plausible-learning-in-recurrent-neural-networks-reproduces-neural-dynamics-observed-during-cognitive-tasks
#3
Thomas Miconi
Neural activity during cognitive tasks exhibits complex dynamics that flexibly encode task-relevant variables. Chaotic recurrent networks, which spontaneously generate rich dynamics, have been proposed as a model of cortical computation during cognitive tasks. However, existing methods for training these networks are either biologically implausible, and/or require a continuous, real-time error signal to guide learning. Here we show that a biologically plausible learning rule can train such recurrent networks, guided solely by delayed, phasic rewards at the end of each trial...
February 23, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230107/regulation-of-visual-wulst-cell-responsiveness-by-imprinting-causes-stimulus-specific-activation-of-rostral-cells
#4
Tomoharu Nakamori, Tomomi Kato, Hiroyuki Sakagami, Kohichi Tanaka, Hiroko Ohki-Hamazaki
Imprinting behaviour in chicks can be induced exclusively during a short period after hatching. During this period, visual information on the imprinting stimulus is conveyed to the visual Wulst (VW) in the telencephalon, which corresponds to the visual cortex of mammals, and then to the memory-storing region known as the intermediate medial mesopallium. These two regions are indispensable for imprinting. We previously showed that imprinting training altered the response pattern of the VW to the imprinting stimulus; however, the precise distribution of cells and the mechanism involved with this altered response remains unclear...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229638/intranasal-insulin-treatment-improves-memory-and-learning-in-a-rat-amyloid-beta-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
S Farzampour, A Majdi, S Sadigh-Eteghad
Recently, insulin has been used as a pro-cognitive agent for the potential treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), because of its ability to cross the brain-blood barrier (BBB) by a saturable transport system. This study has been designed to evaluate the effects of intranasal insulin regimen, as a bypass system of BBB, on spatial memory in amyloid-beta (Aβ) model of AD in rat. Unilateral infusion of Aβ25-35 (10 nmol/2 µl/rat) into the lateral ventricular region of brain was used to produce a rat model of AD...
September 2016: Physiol Int
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228641/evaluation-of-trained-immunity-by-%C3%AE-1-3-d-glucan-on-murine-monocytes-in-vitro-and-duration-of-response-in-vivo
#6
Pablo Garcia-Valtanen, Ruth Marian Guzman-Genuino, David L Williams, John D Hayball, Kerrilyn R Diener
The β-1, 3 (D)-glucan (β-glucan) present in the cell wall of Candida albicans induces epigenetic changes in human monocytes resulting in primed macrophages exhibiting increased cytokine responsiveness to reinfection. This phenomenon is referred to as trained immunity or innate immune memory. However, whether β-glucan can reprogram murine monocytes in vitro or induce lasting effects in vivo has yet to be elucidated. Thus purified murine spleen-derived monocytes were primed with β-glucan in vitro and assessed for markers of differentiation and survival...
February 23, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227926/a-fast-approximation-method-for-principal-component-analysis-applied-to-ecg-derived-respiration-for-osa-detection
#7
Nadi Sadr, Philip de Chazal, Nadi Sadr, Philip de Chazal, Nadi Sadr, Philip de Chazal
In this paper, we present an approximation method for principal component analysis (PCA) and apply it to estimating the respiration from the overnight ECG signal. The approximation method is computationally fast with low memory requirements. We compare it to a full PCA method which is applied to segments of the ECG. Features were calculated from the two ECG derived respiration signals (EDR) and classifiers trained to detect obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The Extreme Learning Machine and Linear Discriminant classifier were used to classify the recordings...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226620/predicting-local-field-potentials-with-recurrent-neural-networks
#8
Louis Kim, Jacob Harer, Akshay Rangamani, James Moran, Philip D Parks, Alik Widge, Emad Eskandar, Darin Dougherty, Sang Peter Chin, Louis Kim, Jacob Harer, Akshay Rangamani, James Moran, Philip D Parks, Alik Widge, Emad Eskandar, Darin Dougherty, Sang Peter Chin, Sang Peter Chin, Jacob Harer, Emad Eskandar, Darin Dougherty, Louis Kim, Philip D Parks, Akshay Rangamani, James Moran, Alik Widge
We present a Recurrent Neural Network using LSTM (Long Short Term Memory) that is capable of modeling and predicting Local Field Potentials. We train and test the network on real data recorded from epilepsy patients. We construct networks that predict multi-channel LFPs for 1, 10, and 100 milliseconds forward in time. Our results show that prediction using LSTM outperforms regression when predicting 10 and 100 millisecond forward in time.
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225479/long-lasting-training-in-the-barnes-maze-prompts-hippocampal-spinogenesis-and-habituation-in-rats
#9
Maia Uriarte, Olalekan M Ogundele, Joaquin Pardo
There is a constant need to assess spatial memory in small rodents to elucidate the basics of cognition in neuroscience experiments. Thus, the significance of the Barnes maze in the biology of hippocampal and cortical neural function cannot be overemphasized. Despite the wide use of the Barnes maze, the effect of maze task training on the structure of hippocampal neurons is yet to be elucidated. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to intense training on the Barnes maze (3 months). Subsequently, the hippocampus (cornus ammonis and dentate gyrus) of separate sets of rats was processed for Golgi Colonnier techniques (silver impregnation) and adenoviral-green fluorescent protein labeling (immunohistochemistry)...
February 20, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223948/how-is-working-memory-training-likely-to-influence-academic-performance-current-evidence-and-methodological-considerations
#10
REVIEW
Sissela Bergman Nutley, Stina Söderqvist
Working memory (WM) is one of our core cognitive functions, allowing us to keep information in mind for shorter periods of time and then work with this information. It is the gateway that information has to pass in order to be processed consciously. A well-functioning WM is therefore crucial for a number of everyday activities including learning and academic performance (Gathercole et al., 2003; Bull et al., 2008), which is the focus of this review. Specifically, we will review the research investigating whether improving WM capacity using Cogmed WM training can lead to improvements on academic performance...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223806/efficacy-of-a-short-cognitive-training-program-in-patients-with-multiple-sclerosis
#11
María Yaiza Pérez-Martín, Montserrat González-Platas, Pablo Eguía-Del Río, Cristina Croissier-Elías, Alejandro Jiménez Sosa
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is a common feature in multiple sclerosis (MS) and may have a substantial impact on quality of life. Evidence about the effectiveness of neuropsychological rehabilitation is still limited, but current data suggest that computer-assisted cognitive training improves cognitive performance. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of combined computer-assisted training supported by home-based neuropsychological training to improve attention, processing speed, memory and executive functions during 3 consecutive months...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222572/effects-of-exercise-on-learning-and-memory-oxidative-stress-and-nnos-expression-in-marginal-division-of-striatum-of-the-ovariectomized-rats
#12
Jianmei Cui, Yanlan Guo, Wenyan Yang, Xingrui Zhao, Fang Yu, Wei Tang, Bianhua Pang, Xiaoyun Su
BACKGROUND: Since previous studies have shown that ovariectomy impairs memory and cognition, we investigated whether 8-week treadmill exercise would affect ovariectomy-induced memory deficits and explore the possible mechanisms of physical exercise influencing spatial learning and memory of the ovariectomized rats by detecting the rat's brain free radical metabolism and counting nNOS expression in marginal division of the striatum(MrD). METHODS: 40 female rats were assigned to one of the following groups: SHAM, SHAM+E, OVX and OVX+E group...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222535/google-calendar-enhances-prospective-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a%C3%A2-case%C3%A2-report
#13
Mohamad El Haj, Karim Gallouj, Pascal Antoine
We investigated whether an external memory aid (i.e., Google Calendar) would alleviate prospective memory compromise in a patient with mild Alzheimer's disease. The patient was asked in the baseline phase to perform three prospective targeted events (e.g., attending her weekly bridge game at the community club) and three prospective control events (e.g., buying her weekly magazine). The same six prospective events were assessed in the intervention phase but the targeted-events were cued by Google Calendar while the control-events were not...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222127/unusual-pattern-of-chikungunya-virus-epidemic-in-the-americas-the-panamanian-experience
#14
Jean-Paul Carrera, Yamilka Díaz, Bernardino Denis, Itza Barahona de Mosca, Dennys Rodriguez, Israel Cedeño, Dimelza Arauz, Publio González, Lizbeth Cerezo, Lourdes Moreno, Lourdes García, Lisseth E Sáenz, María Aneth Atencio, Eddy Rojas-Fermin, Fernando Vizcaino, Nicolas Perez, Brechla Moreno, Sandra López-Vergès, Anayansi Valderrama, Blas Armién
BACKGROUND: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) typically causes explosive epidemics of fever, rash and polyarthralgia after its introduction into naïve populations. Since its introduction in Panama in May of 2014, few autochthonous cases have been reported; most of them were found within limited outbreaks in Panama City in 2014 and Puerto Obaldia town, near the Caribbean border with Colombia in 2015. In order to confirm that Panama had few CHIKV cases compared with neighboring countries, we perform an epidemiological analysis of chikungunya cases reported from May 2014 to July 2015...
February 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222075/a-pilot-study-of-a-cognitive-behavioral-intervention-for-breast-cancer-survivors
#15
Heather Becker, Ashley M Henneghan, Deborah L Volker, Sabrina Q Mikan
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To test combining a group intervention to build self-efficacy for using compensatory strategies and lifestyle adjustments with brain-training practice to improve cognition.
. DESIGN: A quasiexperimental design.
. SETTING: Texas Oncology, a community oncology practice in Austin.
. SAMPLE: 20 women aged 35-65 years, who had finished chemotherapy at least three months before the study, were within five years of completing all treatment, and had self-reported cognitive concerns...
March 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219086/first-report-of-awake-craniotomy-of-a-famous-musician-suprasellar-tumor-surgery-of-pianist-clara-haskil-in-1942
#16
Elena Romana Gasenzer, Ayhan Kanat, Edmund A M Neugebauer
Clara Haskil (January 7, 1895-December 7, 1960) was one of the most famous female pianists of the 20th century. In her life and work she set new standards in piano playing. However, her career was beset by poor health and the adversities of two world wars. In her lifetime Haskil had three major disorders: juvenile scoliosis requiring treatment in her adolescence, a tumor of the sellar region requiring surgery at age 47 years, and a traumatic brain injury causing her death at the age of 65. Her medical history illustrates the development of surgical methods and rehabilitation in medicine before and after World War II...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218706/environmental-criteria-in-the-spanish-public-works-procurement-process
#17
José Luis Fuentes-Bargues, Mª Carmen González-Cruz, Cristina González-Gaya
Green Public Procurement (GPP) is defined as a process of contracting products, services, and works with the least possible damage to the environment during their life cycle. In order to improve the knowledge about GPP, a study of the use of environmental tendering criteria in the Spanish public construction sector has been performed. The results of this study show that the use of environmental criteria in Spanish public sector construction procurement is low in comparison to a certain group of countries, known as "Green 7", in the European Union...
February 18, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216861/poverty-reduction-in-india-through-palliative-care-a-pilot-project
#18
Cathy Ratcliff, Ann Thyle, Savita Duomai, Manju Manak
INTRODUCTION: EMMS International and Emmanuel Hospital Association (EHA) implemented a pilot project, poverty reduction in India through palliative care (PRIPCare). A total of 129 interviews with patients and family enrolled in palliative care at three EHA hospitals (in Fatehpur, Lalitpur and Utraula) and staff discussions established that 66% of palliative care patients had lost livelihoods due to illness, 26% of patients' families had members who had lost livelihoods due to the illness, 98% of enrolled households had debts, 59% had loans for which they had sold assets, 69% of households took out debt after their family member fell ill, many patients do not know about government benefits and lack necessary documents, many village headmen require bribes to give people access to benefits, and many bereaved women and children lose everything...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216334/crocins-the-active-constituents-of-crocus-sativus-l-counteracted-apomorphine-induced-performance-deficits-in-the-novel-object-recognition-task-but-not-novel-object-location-task-in-rats
#19
Nikolaos Pitsikas, Petros A Tarantilis
Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disease that affects nearly 1% of the population worldwide. Several lines of evidence suggest that the dopaminergic (DAergic) system might be compromised in schizophrenia. Specifically, the mixed dopamine (DA) D1/D2 receptor agonist apomorphine induces schizophrenia-like symptoms in rodents, including disruption of memory abilities. Crocins are among the active components of saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. plant) and their implication in cognition is well documented...
February 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215279/about-training-and-memory-nk-cell-adaptation-to-viral-infections
#20
Q Hammer, C Romagnani
Viral infections continuously challenge and shape our immune system. Due to their fine antigen recognition ability, adaptive lymphocytes protect against pathogen reencounter by generating specific immunological memory. Innate cells such as macrophages also adapt to pathogen challenge and mount resistance to reinfection, a phenomenon termed trained immunity. As part of the innate immunity, natural killer (NK) cells can display rapid effector functions and play a crucial role in the control of viral infections, especially by the β-herpesvirus cytomegalovirus (CMV)...
2017: Advances in Immunology
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