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memory training

Petr Zach, Petra Zimmelová, Jana Mrzílková, Martina Kutová
We present here significant difference in the evocation capability between sensory memories (visual, taste, and olfactory) throughout certain categories of the population. As object for this memory recall we selected French fries that are simple and generally known. From daily life we may intuitively feel that there is much better recall of the visual and auditory memory compared to the taste and olfactory ones. Our results in young (age 12-21 years) mostly females and some males show low capacity for smell and taste memory recall compared to far greater visual memory recall...
2018: BioMed Research International
Hwan-Hee Kim, Nam-Hae Jung
[Purpose] In this study, we investigated the effects of combining exercise with a cognitive-enhancement group program on cognition and depression in a group of community-dwelling elderly people. [Subjects and Methods] The study's subjects consisted of 30 community-dwelling elderly people of both genders, whose average age was 78 years. They participated in a program of physical exercise combined with a cognitive-enhancement group training program. This consisted of sessions lasting 60 minutes that took place once a week over 3 months...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Alessio Travaglia, Adam B Steinmetz, Janelle M Miranda, Cristina M Alberini
Episodic memories in early childhood are rapidly forgotten, a phenomenon that is associated with "infantile amnesia," the inability of adults to remember early-life experiences. We recently showed that early aversive contextual memory in infant rats, which is in fact rapidly forgotten, is actually not lost, as reminders presented later in life reinstate a long-lasting and context-specific memory. We also showed that the formation of this infantile memory recruits in the hippocampus mechanisms typical of developmental critical periods...
April 2018: Learning & Memory
James Rourke, Danielle O'Keefe, Mohamed Ravalia, Scott Moffatt, Wanda Parsons, Norah Duggan, Katherine Stringer, Michael Jong, Kristin Harris Walsh, Janelle Hippe
OBJECTIVE: To assess Memorial University of Newfoundland's (MUN's) commitment to a comprehensive pathways approach to rural family practice, and to determine the national and provincial effects of applying this approach. DESIGN: Analysis of anonymized secondary data. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: Memorial's medical degree (MD) graduates practising family medicine in Newfoundland and Labrador as of January 2015 (N = 305), MUN's 2011 and 2012 MD graduates (N = 120), and physicians who completed family medicine training programs in Canada between 2004 and 2013 and who were practising in Canada 2 years after completion of their postgraduate training (N = 8091)...
March 2018: Canadian Family Physician Médecin de Famille Canadien
Vessela Stamenova, Brian Levine
Our objective was to review the literature and quantitatively summarise the effectiveness of Goal Management Training® (GMT) (alone or in combination with other training approaches) in improving executive functions in adult populations. Ovid, Scopus, Web of Science, and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses Global were searched for articles citing "goal management training". Any group trials (n > 3) in adults that used multiple-session GMT programmes were included in the analyses. Outcome variables were extracted and classified into one of nine cognitive measures domains: executive functioning tasks, everyday executive functioning tasks, subjective executive tasks rated by the patient, subjective executive tasks rated by proxy, working memory, speed of processing, long-term memory, instrumental activities of daily living and general mental health status questionnaires...
March 14, 2018: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
Janna N Vrijsen, Justin Dainer-Best, Sara M Witcraft, Santiago Papini, Paula Hertel, Christopher G Beevers, Eni S Becker, Jasper A J Smits
Memory bias is a risk factor for depression. In two independent studies, the efficacy of one CBM-Memory session on negative memory bias and depressive symptoms was tested in vulnerable samples. We compared positive to neutral (control) CBM-Memory trainings in highly-ruminating individuals (N = 101) and individuals with elevated depressive symptoms (N = 100). In both studies, participants studied positive, neutral, and negative Swahili words paired with their translations. In five study-test blocks, they were then prompted to retrieve either only the positive or neutral translations...
March 15, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
J F Tornero-Aguilera, José Juan Robles-Pérez, Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
Previous studies have shown that actuate stress have a negative effect on working memory, visio-spatial ability and symptoms of disassociation. We conducted the present research with the aim of to analyse the effect of experience and training in psychophysiological response, attention and memory of soldiers in combat. Variables of blood lactate, blood glucose, blood oxygen saturation, body temperature, heart rate, lower body muscular strength manifestation, autonomic modulation, cortical arousal, cognitive and somatic anxiety, and memory by a post mission questionnaire were analysed before and after a combat simulation in 49 soldiers of Spanish Army...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Sarah E Snider, Harshawardhan U Deshpande, Jonathan M Lisinski, Mikhail N Koffarnus, Stephen M LaConte, Warren K Bickel
BACKGROUND: Episodic thinking, whether past or future, uses similar neural machinery, and individuals with alcohol dependence have clear challenges with both. Moreover, alcohol-dependent individuals' narrowed temporal window likely gives rise to greater valuation of immediate rewards. We aimed to strengthen working memory (WM) in alcohol-dependent individuals and measure performance on near-transfer (novel WM) and far-transfer delay discounting (DD) tasks, including episodic future thinking (EFT) performance...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Alison Ward, Kim Alberg Sorensen, Helle Kousgaard, Diana Schack Thoft, Jacqueline Parkes
The provision of lifelong learning for older people is often promoted as a way of engaging socially and maintaining cognitive function. The concept is also used with people with dementia, but is often limited to short-term programmes. Innovative practice from Denmark takes this concept further, offering people with early stage dementia the opportunity to return to school to attend classes in cognitive training, music, art and woodcraft. A pilot study conducted by the school of teaching and communication (Voksenskolen For Undervisning og Kommunikation) offers evidence for the benefits of prolonged educational programmes for people with dementia in maintaining decision-making, cognitive function and social interactions, with limited evidence of the impact on memory...
January 1, 2018: Dementia
Nuria Mendoza Laiz, Sagrario Del Valle Díaz, Natalia Rioja Collado, Javier Gomez-Pilar, Roberto Hornero
BACKGROUND: Dementia is a disease that is constantly evolving in older people. Its diverse symptoms appear with varying degrees of severity affecting the daily life of those who suffer from it. The rate in which dementia progresses depends on different aspects of the treatment, chosen to try to control and slow down the development of the illness. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of cognitive training through a Brain Computer Interface (BCI) and the NeuronUp platform in two age groups whose MMSE is between 18-23 MCI (mild dementia)...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
Synthia Guimond, Shezal Padani, Olivia Lutz, Shaun Eack, Heidi Thermenos, Matcheri Keshavan
Schizophrenia (SZ) patients exhibit deficits in emotion regulation that affect their daily functioning. There is evidence that the prefrontal cortex plays an important role in emotion regulation. However, it remains unclear how this brain region is involved in emotion regulation deficits in SZ, and how such deficits impact performance on cognitively demanding tasks. We examined how happy and fearful emotional distractors impact performance on working memory (WM) tasks of varying difficulty (0-back, 2-back), and brain activity using fMRI...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Jessica Lee, Amanda S Russo, Ryan G Parsons
Classical fear conditioning is perhaps the premier model system used to study the neurobiological basis of memory formation. Prior work has resulted in a good understanding of both the molecular mechanisms and neural circuits supporting this form of learning. However, much of what is known about these mechanisms comes from studies in which fear memory is acquired using a single, isolated training session. Given that we cannot divorce the acquisition of new information from the backdrop on which it occurs, studies are needed to determine how the acquisition of fear memory is affected by other learning events...
March 7, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Michael J Boivin, Noeline Nakasujja, Alla Sikorskii, Horacio Ruiseñor-Escudero, Itziar Familiar-Lopez, Kimberley Walhof, Esther M van der Lugt, Robert O Opoka, Bruno Giordani
BACKGROUND: Computerized cognitive rehabilitation training (CCRT) may be beneficial for alleviating persisting neurocognitive deficits in Ugandan severe malaria survivors. We completed a randomized controlled trial of CCRT for both severe malaria and non-malaria cohorts of children. METHODS: 150 school-age severe malaria and 150 non-malaria children were randomized to three treatment arms: 24 sessions of Captain's Log CCRT for attention, working memory and nonverbal reasoning, in which training on each of 9 tasks difficulty increased with proficiency; a limited CCRT arm that did not titrate to proficiency but randomly cycled across the simplest to moderate level of training; and a passive control arm...
March 6, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Cameron M Bye, Nancy S Hong, Kevin Moore, Scott H Deibel, Robert J McDonald
The Morris water maze is a popular task for examining spatial navigation and memory in rats. Historically, emphasis has been put on extramaze cues as the primary environmental feature guiding navigation and spatial memory formation. However, other features of the environment may also be involved. In this experiment, we trained rats on the spatial version of the Morris water maze over four days. A probe test was given 24 h after training, in which the shape of the pool either remained the same as during training or was changed to a different shape...
March 8, 2018: Learning & Behavior
Jocelyn Breton, Edwin M Robertson
Our brains are constantly processing past events [1]. These off-line processes consolidate memories, leading in the case of motor skill memories to an enhancement in performance between training sessions. A similar magnitude of enhancement develops over a night of sleep following an implicit task, when a sequence of movements is acquired unintentionally, or following an explicit task, when the same sequence is acquired intentionally [2]. What remains poorly understood, however, is whether these similar offline improvements are supported by similar circuits, or through distinct circuits...
June 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
Philip A Huebner, Jon A Willits
Previous research has suggested that distributional learning mechanisms may contribute to the acquisition of semantic knowledge. However, distributional learning mechanisms, statistical learning, and contemporary "deep learning" approaches have been criticized for being incapable of learning the kind of abstract and structured knowledge that many think is required for acquisition of semantic knowledge. In this paper, we show that recurrent neural networks, trained on noisy naturalistic speech to children, do in fact learn what appears to be abstract and structured knowledge...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Michael M Bannert, Andreas Bartels
Color is special among basic visual features in that it can form a defining part of objects that are engrained in our memory. Whereas most neuroimaging research on human color vision has focused on responses related to external stimulation, the present study investigated how sensory-driven color vision is linked to subjective color perception induced by object imagery. We recorded fMRI activity in male and female volunteers during viewing of abstract color stimuli that were red, green, or yellow in half of the runs...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Musetta C Fu, Basia Belza, Huong Nguyen, Rebecca Logsdon, Steven Demorest
PURPOSE: Participating in a group-singing program may be beneficial to healthy aging through engaging in active music-making activities and breathing exercises. The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and impact of a 12-week group singing program on cognitive function, lung health and quality of life (QoL) of older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A pre and post-test quasi-experimental design evaluated the impact of a group-singing program on older adult health...
February 23, 2018: Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics
Nura W Lingawi, Nathan M Holmes, R Fredrick Westbrook, Vincent Laurent
Evidence indicates that the infralimbic cortex (IL) encodes and retrieves the inhibitory memory produced by fear extinction. Recently, we have shown that the IL is also involved in the inhibitory memory generated by stimulus pre-exposure that causes latent inhibition. These results are surprising because a stimulus undergoing fear extinction carries aversive motivational value, whereas a pre-exposed stimulus is neutral. The present experiments tested the hypothesis that the IL encodes inhibition irrespective of the motivational information about the stimulus...
March 5, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Mirelle A Casagrande, Josué Haubrich, Lizeth K Pedraza, Bruno Popik, Jorge A Quillfeldt, Lucas de Oliveira Alvares
Memories are not instantly created in the brain, requiring a gradual stabilization process called consolidation to be stored and persist in a long-lasting manner. However, little is known whether this time-dependent process is dynamic or static, and the factors that might modulate it. Here, we hypothesized that the time-course of consolidation could be affected by specific learning parameters, changing the time window where memory is susceptible to retroactive interference. In the rodent contextual fear conditioning paradigm, we compared weak and strong training protocols and found that in the latter memory is susceptible to post-training hippocampal inactivation for a shorter period of time...
March 5, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
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