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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738219/finding-features-figuratively
#1
Sarah H Solomon, Sharon L Thompson-Schill
Object concepts refer to unique clusters of properties that can be selectively activated or inhibited depending on what information is currently relevant. This conceptual "stretching" enables limitless new meanings to be generated, and figurative language provides a useful framework in which to study this conceptual flexibility. Here we probe the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying the comprehension of novel metaphors as a means of understanding the conceptual flexibility inherent to language processing more generally...
July 21, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737237/subcortical-shape-analysis-of-progressive-mild-cognitive-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Su Jin Chung, Jeong-Hyeon Shin, Kyoo Ho Cho, Yoonju Lee, Young H Sohn, Joon-Kyung Seong, Phil Hyu Lee
BACKGROUND: Cortical neural correlates of ongoing cognitive decline in Parkinson's disease (PD) have been suggested; however, the role of subcortical structures in longitudinal change of cognitive dysfunction in PD has not been fully investigated. Here, we used automatic analysis to explore subcortical brain structures in patients with PD with mild cognitive impairment that converts into PD with dementia. METHODS: One hundred eighty-two patients with PD with mild cognitive impairment were classified as PD with mild cognitive impairment converters (n = 74) or nonconverters (n = 108), depending on whether they were subsequently diagnosed with dementia in PD...
July 24, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736776/emojinet-building-a-machine-readable-sense-inventory-for-emoji
#3
Sanjaya Wijeratne, Lakshika Balasuriya, Amit Sheth, Derek Doran
Emoji are a contemporary and extremely popular way to enhance electronic communication. Without rigid semantics attached to them, emoji symbols take on different meanings based on the context of a message. Thus, like the word sense disambiguation task in natural language processing, machines also need to disambiguate the meaning or 'sense' of an emoji. In a first step toward achieving this goal, this paper presents EmojiNet, the first machine readable sense inventory for emoji. EmojiNet is a resource enabling systems to link emoji with their context-specific meaning...
November 2016: Proc Int Workshop Soc Inform
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736755/risky-decision-making-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1-an-exploratory-study
#4
Rachel K Jonas, EunJi Roh, Caroline A Montojo, Laura A Pacheco, Tena Rosser, Alcino J Silva, Carrie E Bearden
BACKGROUND: Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a monogenic disorder affecting cognitive function. About one third of children with NF1 have attentional disorders, and the cognitive phenotype is characterized by impairment in prefrontally-mediated functions. Mouse models of NF1 show irregularities in GABA release and striatal dopamine metabolism. We hypothesized that youth with NF1 would show abnormal behavior and neural activity on a task of risk-taking reliant on prefrontal-striatal circuits...
March 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735171/encoding-of-coordination-complexes-with-xml
#5
P Vinoth, P Sankar
An in-silico system to encode structure, bonding and properties of coordination complexes is developed. The encoding is achieved through a semantic XML markup frame. Composition of the coordination complexes is captured in terms of central atom and ligands. Structural information of central atom is detailed in terms of electron status of valence electron orbitals. The ligands are encoded with specific reference to the electron environment of ligand centre atoms. Behaviour of ligands to form low or high spin complexes is accomplished by assigning a Ligand Centre Value to every ligand based on the electronic environment of ligand centre atom...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735034/language-a-fresh-concept-to-integrate-syntactic-and-semantic-information-in-life-sciences
#6
Rémi Tournebize, Cédric Gaucherel
Several fields in biology tend to view the concept of information from one or the other of two extreme positions. Exclusionists base their stance of total rejection on gene-centrism and gene-determinism, typified by the recently-established endo-Darwinist school of life sciences. At the other end of the spectrum, there is total acceptance, as in the newly developed information-centred paradigms that populate biosemiotics. We propose in this paper to split the informational concepts into two irreducible (but linked) poles: the syntactic (concerned with the quantification of the information structure or complexity in a system), and the semantic (concerned with the organization rules and causality weights of interactions in a system)...
July 19, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734837/neural-reuse-of-action-perception-circuits-for-language-concepts-and-communication
#7
REVIEW
Friedemann Pulvermüller
Neurocognitive and neurolinguistics theories make explicit statements relating specialized cognitive and linguistic processes to specific brain loci. These linking hypotheses are in need of neurobiological explanation. Recent mathematical models of human language mechanisms constrained by fundamental neuroscience principles and established knowledge about comparative neuroanatomy offer explanations for where, when and how language is processed in the human brain. In these models, network structure and connectivity along with action- and perception-induced correlation of neuronal activity co-determine neurocognitive mechanisms...
July 19, 2017: Progress in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734550/verb-naming-fluency-in-hypokinetic-and-hyperkinetic-movement-disorders
#8
Ece Bayram, Muhittin C Akbostanci
Cortical motor regions are considered to play a role in action related language. These regions are affected differently in different types of movement disorders. Parkinson's disease, a hypokinetic movement disorder, has been shown to cause action language disruptions alongside movement deficits. Action language, however, has not been investigated in primary cervical dystonia, a hyperkinetic movement disorder. The aim of this study is to investigate whether action language is affected differently in hypokinetic and hyperkinetic movement disorders which have different effects on movements...
July 1, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733975/deep-convolutional-neural-network-and-3d-deformable-approach-for-tissue-segmentation-in-musculoskeletal-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#9
Fang Liu, Zhaoye Zhou, Hyungseok Jang, Alexey Samsonov, Gengyan Zhao, Richard Kijowski
PURPOSE: To describe and evaluate a new fully automated musculoskeletal tissue segmentation method using deep convolutional neural network (CNN) and three-dimensional (3D) simplex deformable modeling to improve the accuracy and efficiency of cartilage and bone segmentation within the knee joint. METHODS: A fully automated segmentation pipeline was built by combining a semantic segmentation CNN and 3D simplex deformable modeling. A CNN technique called SegNet was applied as the core of the segmentation method to perform high resolution pixel-wise multi-class tissue classification...
July 21, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733357/a-role-for-the-left-angular-gyrus-in-episodic-simulation-and-memory
#10
Preston P Thakral, Kevin P Madore, Daniel L Schacter
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies indicate that episodic simulation (i.e., imagining specific future experiences) and episodic memory (i.e., remembering specific past experiences) are associated with enhanced activity in a common set of neural regions, referred to as the core network. This network comprises the hippocampus, medial prefrontal cortex, and left angular gyrus, among other regions. Because fMRI data are correlational, it is unknown whether activity increases in core network regions are critical for episodic simulation and episodic memory...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733246/defective-recognition-and-naming-of-famous-people-from-voice-in-patients-with-unilateral-temporal-lobe-tumours
#11
C Papagno, G Mattavelli, A Casarotti, L Bello, G Gainotti
Twenty-nine patients who underwent surgery for a temporal glioma, either in the left (16 patients) or right (13 patients) hemisphere, were administered standardized tests of unknown voice discrimination (UVD) and of famous voice recognition (VO-REC), which included tasks of familiarity evaluation, semantic identification and naming of famous voices. The UVD consisted of twenty stimuli, in which two audio files were consecutively presented; the subject was requested to judge whether the voices belonged to the same or different persons...
July 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732468/nogoa-predicting-noisy-go-annotations-using-evidences-and-sparse-representation
#12
Guoxian Yu, Chang Lu, Jun Wang
BACKGROUND: Gene Ontology (GO) is a community effort to represent functional features of gene products. GO annotations (GOA) provide functional associations between GO terms and gene products. Due to resources limitation, only a small portion of annotations are manually checked by curators, and the others are electronically inferred. Although quality control techniques have been applied to ensure the quality of annotations, the community consistently report that there are still considerable noisy (or incorrect) annotations...
July 21, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731915/cross-cultural-adaptation-of-the-self-care-of-hypertension-inventory-into-brazilian-portuguese
#13
Luana Claudia Jacoby Silveira, Eneida Rejane Rabelo-Silva, Christiane Whast Ávila, Leila Beltrami, Victoria Vaughan Dickson, Barbara Riegel
BACKGROUND: Lifestyle changes and treatment adherence still constitute a challenge to healthcare providers involved in the care of persons with hypertension. The lack of validated instruments measuring the ability of hypertensive patients to manage their disease has slowed research progress in this area. The Self-care of Hypertension Inventory, originally developed in the United States, consists of 23 items divided across 3 scales: Self-care Maintenance, Self-care Management, and Self-care Confidence...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731453/topological-alterations-and-symptom-relevant-modules-in-the-whole-brain-structural-network-in-semantic-dementia
#14
Junhua Ding, Keliang Chen, Weibin Zhang, Ming Li, Yan Chen, Qing Yang, Yingru Lv, Qihao Guo, Zaizhu Han
BACKGROUND: Semantic dementia (SD) is characterized by a selective decline in semantic processing. Although the neuropsychological pattern of this disease has been identified, its topological global alterations and symptom-relevant modules in the whole-brain anatomical network have not been fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to explore the topological alteration of anatomical network in SD and reveal the modules associated with semantic deficits in this disease...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729738/human-hippocampal-pre-activation-predicts-behavior
#15
Anna Jafarpour, Vitoria Piai, Jack J Lin, Robert T Knight
The response to an upcoming salient event is accelerated when the event is expected given the preceding events - i.e. a temporal context effect. For example, naming a picture following a strongly constraining temporal context is faster than naming a picture after a weakly constraining temporal context. We used sentences as naturalistic stimuli to manipulate expectations on upcoming pictures without prior training. Here, using intracranial recordings from the human hippocampus we found more power in the high-frequency band prior to high-expected pictures than weakly expected ones...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729063/eeg-source-reconstruction-evidence-for-the-noun-verb-neural-dissociation-along-semantic-dimensions
#16
Bin Zhao, Jianwu Dang, Gaoyan Zhang
One of the long-standing issues in neurolinguistic research is about the neural basis of word representation, concerning whether grammatical classification or semantic difference causes neural dissociation of the brain activity patterns when processing different word categories, especially nouns and verbs. To disentangle the puzzle, four orthogonalized word categories in Chinese: unambiguous nouns (UN), unambiguous verbs (UV), ambiguous words with noun-biased semantics (AN), and ambiguous words with verb-biased semantics (AV) were applied in auditory tasks for recording electroencephalographic (EEG) signals from 128 electrodes on the scalps of twenty-two subjects...
July 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728080/neural-correlates-underlying-the-comprehension-of-deceitful-and-ironic-communicative-intentions
#17
Francesca M Bosco, Alberto Parola, Maria C Valentini, Rosalba Morese
Neuroimaging studies have shown that a left fronto-temporo-parietal cerebral network is recruited in the comprehension of both deceitful and ironic speech acts. However, no studies to date have directly compared neural activation during the comprehension of these pragmatic phenomena. We used fMRI to investigate the existence of common and specific neural circuits underlying the comprehension of the same speech act, uttered with different communicative intentions, i.e., of being sincere, deceitful or ironic...
June 27, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727776/language-related-differences-of-the-sustained-response-evoked-by-natural-speech-sounds
#18
Christina Siu-Dschu Fan, Xingyu Zhu, Hans Günter Dosch, Christiane von Stutterheim, André Rupp
In tonal languages, such as Mandarin Chinese, the pitch contour of vowels discriminates lexical meaning, which is not the case in non-tonal languages such as German. Recent data provide evidence that pitch processing is influenced by language experience. However, there are still many open questions concerning the representation of such phonological and language-related differences at the level of the auditory cortex (AC). Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we recorded transient and sustained auditory evoked fields (AEF) in native Chinese and German speakers to investigate language related phonological and semantic aspects in the processing of acoustic stimuli...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727543/non-small-cell-lung-cancer-radiogenomics-map-identifies-relationships-between-molecular-and-imaging-phenotypes-with-prognostic-implications
#19
Mu Zhou, Ann Leung, Sebastian Echegaray, Andrew Gentles, Joseph B Shrager, Kristin C Jensen, Gerald J Berry, Sylvia K Plevritis, Daniel L Rubin, Sandy Napel, Olivier Gevaert
Purpose To create a radiogenomic map linking computed tomographic (CT) image features and gene expression profiles generated by RNA sequencing for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods A cohort of 113 patients with NSCLC diagnosed between April 2008 and September 2014 who had preoperative CT data and tumor tissue available was studied. For each tumor, a thoracic radiologist recorded 87 semantic image features, selected to reflect radiologic characteristics of nodule shape, margin, texture, tumor environment, and overall lung characteristics...
July 20, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726811/knowledge-base-and-mini-expert-platform-for-the-diagnosis-of-inborn-errors-of-metabolism
#20
Jessica J Y Lee, Wyeth W Wasserman, Georg F Hoffmann, Clara D M van Karnebeek, Nenad Blau
PurposeRecognizing individuals with inherited diseases can be difficult because signs and symptoms often overlap those of common medical conditions. Focusing on inborn errors of metabolism (IEMs), we present a method that brings the knowledge of highly specialized experts to professionals involved in early diagnoses. We introduce IEMbase, an online expert-curated IEM knowledge base combined with a prototype diagnosis support (mini-expert) system.MethodsDisease-characterizing profiles of specific biochemical markers and clinical symptoms were extracted from an expert-compiled IEM database...
July 20, 2017: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
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