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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351584/the-roles-of-left-versus-right-anterior-temporal-lobes-in-semantic-memory-a-neuropsychological-comparison-of-postsurgical-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-patients
#1
Grace E Rice, Helen Caswell, Perry Moore, Paul Hoffman, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
The presence and degree of specialization between the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) is a key issue in debates about the neural architecture of semantic memory. Here, we comprehensively assessed multiple aspects of semantic cognition in a large group of postsurgical temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with left versus right anterior temporal lobectomy (n = 40). Both subgroups showed deficits in expressive and receptive verbal semantic tasks, word and object recognition, naming and recognition of famous faces and perception of faces and emotions...
January 17, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351341/labeling-for-big-data-in-radiation-oncology-the-radiation-oncology-structures-ontology
#2
Jean-Emmanuel Bibault, Eric Zapletal, Bastien Rance, Philippe Giraud, Anita Burgun
PURPOSE: Leveraging Electronic Health Records (EHR) and Oncology Information Systems (OIS) has great potential to generate hypotheses for cancer treatment, since they directly provide medical data on a large scale. In order to gather a significant amount of patients with a high level of clinical details, multicenter studies are necessary. A challenge in creating high quality Big Data studies involving several treatment centers is the lack of semantic interoperability between data sources...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350572/semantic-language-deficit-developing-following-herpes-simplex-encephalitis-reorganization-cannibalising-language-centers
#3
Simone Mangelsdorf, Wendy Kelso, Dennis Velakoulis, Mark Walterfang
Herpes simplex virus encephalitis (HSVE) commonly presents with severe amnesia due to virus-mediated destruction of key regions in the temporal lobes, although language and executive impairment has been described. Little is known however of the long-term cognitive changes in these patients, including changes that may happen with cortical reorganization. We describe a patient with HSVE who presented with a highly unusual late-onset language syndrome, which may reflect distal cortical changes after her original injury...
January 19, 2018: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350328/uyghur-text-matching-in-graphic-images-for-biomedical-semantic-analysis
#4
Shancheng Fang, Hongtao Xie, Zhineng Chen, Yizhi Liu, Yan Li
How to read Uyghur text from biomedical graphic images is a challenge problem due to the complex layout and cursive writing of Uyghur. In this paper, we propose a system that extracts text from Uyghur biomedical images, and matches the text in a specific lexicon for semantic analysis. The proposed system possesses following distinctive properties: first, it is an integrated system which firstly detects and crops the Uyghur text lines using a single fully convolutional neural network, and then keywords in the lexicon are matched by a well-designed matching network...
January 19, 2018: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348485/motor-signatures-of-emotional-reactivity-in-frontotemporal-dementia
#5
Charles R Marshall, Chris J D Hardy, Lucy L Russell, Camilla N Clark, Rebecca L Bond, Katrina M Dick, Emilie V Brotherhood, Cath J Mummery, Jonathan M Schott, Jonathan D Rohrer, James M Kilner, Jason D Warren
Automatic motor mimicry is essential to the normal processing of perceived emotion, and disrupted automatic imitation might underpin socio-emotional deficits in neurodegenerative diseases, particularly the frontotemporal dementias. However, the pathophysiology of emotional reactivity in these diseases has not been elucidated. We studied facial electromyographic responses during emotion identification on viewing videos of dynamic facial expressions in 37 patients representing canonical frontotemporal dementia syndromes versus 21 healthy older individuals...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347997/openbiodiv-o-ontology-of-the-openbiodiv-knowledge-management-system
#6
Viktor Senderov, Kiril Simov, Nico Franz, Pavel Stoev, Terry Catapano, Donat Agosti, Guido Sautter, Robert A Morris, Lyubomir Penev
BACKGROUND: The biodiversity domain, and in particular biological taxonomy, is moving in the direction of semantization of its research outputs. The present work introduces OpenBiodiv-O, the ontology that serves as the basis of the OpenBiodiv Knowledge Management System. Our intent is to provide an ontology that fills the gaps between ontologies for biodiversity resources, such as DarwinCore-based ontologies, and semantic publishing ontologies, such as the SPAR Ontologies. We bridge this gap by providing an ontology focusing on biological taxonomy...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347969/miro-guidelines-for-minimum-information-for-the-reporting-of-an-ontology
#7
REVIEW
Nicolas Matentzoglu, James Malone, Chris Mungall, Robert Stevens
BACKGROUND: Creation and use of ontologies has become a mainstream activity in many disciplines, in particular, the biomedical domain. Ontology developers often disseminate information about these ontologies in peer-reviewed ontology description reports. There appears to be, however, a high degree of variability in the content of these reports. Often, important details are omitted such that it is difficult to gain a sufficient understanding of the ontology, its content and method of creation...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347877/part-set-cueing-impairment-facilitation-in-semantic-memory
#8
Matthew R Kelley, Sushmeena A Parihar
The present study explored the influence of part-set cues in semantic memory using tests of "free" recall, reconstruction of order, and serial recall. Nine distinct categories of information were used (e.g., Zodiac signs, Harry Potter books, Star Wars films, planets). The results showed part-set cueing impairment for all three "free" recall sets, whereas part-set cueing facilitation was evident for five of the six ordered sets. Generally, the present results parallel those often observed across episodic tasks, which could indicate that similar mechanisms contribute to part-set cueing effects in both episodic and semantic memory...
January 19, 2018: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346174/tonal-and-vowel-information-processing-in-chinese-spoken-word-recognition-an-event-related-potential-study
#9
Xianjun Huang, Xin Liu, Jin-Chen Yang, Quanwen Zhao, Jianshe Zhou
In the present study, the time course of tonal and vowel information processing of the spoken words in Mandarin Chinese was investigated using a delayed-response paradigm. Idiomatic materials, providing semantically highly constraining contexts, were utilized. Besides being presented normally, the terminal monosyllabic words in idioms were manipulated with Tonal, Vowel, or Triple violations (i.e. with consonantal, tonal, and vowel mismatches). Event-related potential results showed that all three violations elicited larger widespread negativities in comparison with the Control condition, with the Triple violation effect starting first from 150 ms, then the Vowel violation, and the Tonal violation being the latest...
January 17, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343736/establishing-a-mental-lexicon-with-cochlear-implants-an-erp-study-with-young-children
#10
Niki K Vavatzanidis, Dirk Mürbe, Angela D Friederici, Anja Hahne
In the present study we explore the implications of acquiring language when relying mainly or exclusively on input from a cochlear implant (CI), a device providing auditory input to otherwise deaf individuals. We focus on the time course of semantic learning in children within the second year of implant use; a period that equals the auditory age of normal hearing children during which vocabulary emerges and extends dramatically. 32 young bilaterally implanted children saw pictures paired with either matching or non-matching auditory words...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341785/total-sleep-deprivation-does-not-significantly-degrade-semantic-encoding
#11
K A Honn, D A Grant, J M Hinson, P Whitney, Hpa Van Dongen
Sleep deprivation impairs performance on cognitive tasks, but it is unclear which cognitive processes it degrades. We administered a semantic matching task with variable stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) and both speeded and self-paced trial blocks. The task was administered at the baseline and 24 hours later after 30.8 hours of total sleep deprivation (TSD) or matching well-rested control. After sleep deprivation, the 20% slowest response times (RTs) were significantly increased. However, the semantic encoding time component of the RTs remained at baseline level...
January 17, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341344/the-medial-temporal-lobe-functional-connectivity-patterns-associated-with-forming-different-mental-representations
#12
Signy Sheldon, Brian Levine
The medial temporal lobes (MTL), and more specifically the hippocampus, are critical for forming mental representations of past experiences - autobiographical memories - and for forming other 'non-experienced' types of mental representations, such as imagined scenarios. How the MTL coordinate with other brain areas to create these different types of representations is not well understood. To address this issue, we performed a task-based functional connectivity analysis on a previously published dataset in which fMRI data were collected as participants created different types of mental representations under three conditions...
January 17, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339960/which-differences-in-priming-effect-between-neglect-and-hemianopia-a-case-description-of-a-bilateral-brain-lesioned-patient
#13
Matteo Sozzi, Stefania Bianchi Marzoli, Lisa Melzi, Massimo Corbo, Irene Venturella, Michela Balconi
It is widely known that visuospatial neglect and hemianopia maybe superimposed. We considered the differences in implicit information processing which is effective in patients with neglect but not with hemianopia. We then hypothesize that a prime-word in the neglected field should determine a semantic activation effect but not in a blind hemifield. Moreover eye movements could provide further details. In this work we considered a patient with a bilateral with the presence of either a left visual neglect and a right homonymous hemianopia...
October 2017: Neuro-ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339514/flexibility-of-thought-in-high-creative-individuals-represented-by-percolation-analysis
#14
Yoed N Kenett, Orr Levy, Dror Y Kenett, H Eugene Stanley, Miriam Faust, Shlomo Havlin
Flexibility of thought is theorized to play a critical role in the ability of high creative individuals to generate novel and innovative ideas. However, this has been examined only through indirect behavioral measures. Here we use network percolation analysis (removal of links in a network whose strength is below an increasing threshold) to computationally examine the robustness of the semantic memory networks of low and high creative individuals. Robustness of a network indicates its flexibility and thus can be used to quantify flexibility of thought as related to creativity...
January 16, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339310/distant-from-input-evidence-of-regions-within-the-default-mode-network-supporting-perceptually-decoupled-and-conceptually-guided-cognition
#15
Charlotte Murphy, Elizabeth Jefferies, Shirley-Ann Rueschemeyer, Mladen Sormaz, Hao-Ting Wang, Daniel S Margulies, Jonathan Smallwood
The default mode network supports a variety of mental operations such as semantic processing, episodic memory retrieval, mental time travel and mind-wandering, yet the commonalities between these functions remains unclear. One possibility is that this system supports cognition that is independent of the immediate environment; alternatively or additionally, it might support higher-order conceptual representations that draw together multiple features. We tested these accounts using a novel paradigm that separately manipulated the availability of perceptual information to guide decision-making and the representational complexity of this information...
January 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337133/cathodal-tdcs-of-the-bilateral-anterior-temporal-lobes-facilitates-semantically-driven-verbal-fluency
#16
Richard J Binney, Bonnie M Zuckerman, Hilary N Waller, Jinyi Hung, Sameer A Ashaie, Jamie Reilly
In a verbal fluency task, a person is required to produce as many exemplars of a given category (e.g., 'animals', or words starting with 'f') as possible within a fixed duration. Successful verbal fluency performance relies both on the depth of search within semantic/phonological neighborhoods ('clustering') and the ability to flexibly disengage between exhausted clusters ('switching'). Convergent evidence from functional imaging and neuropsychology suggests that cluster-switch behaviors engage dissociable brain regions...
January 11, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335040/does-a-cognitive-stress-test-predict-progression-from-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-dementia-equally-well-in-clinical-versus-population-based-settings
#17
Joanne C Beer, Beth E Snitz, Chung-Chou H Chang, David A Loewenstein, Mary Ganguli
BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that semantic interference may be a sensitive indicator of early dementia. We examined the utility of the Semantic Interference Test (SIT), a cognitive stress memory paradigm which taps proactive and retroactive semantic interference, for predicting progression from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to dementia in both a clinical and a population-based sample. METHODS: Participants with MCI in the clinical (n = 184) and population-based (n = 435) samples were followed for up to four years...
January 16, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334837/more-expertise-for-a-better-perspective-task-and-strategy-driven-adaptive-neurofunctional-reorganization-for-word-production-in-high-performing-older-adults
#18
Ikram Methqal, Yannick Marsolais, Maximiliano A Wilson, Oury Monchi, Yves Joanette
The suggestion that neurofunctional reorganization may contribute to preserved language abilities is still emerging in aging studies. Some of these abilities, such as verbal fluency (VF), are not unitary but instead rely on different strategic processes that are differentially changed with age. Younger (n = 13) and older adults (n = 13) carried out an overt self-paced semantic and orthographic VF tasks within mixed fMRI design. Our results suggest that patterns of brain activation sustaining equivalent performances could be underpinned by different strategies facing brain changes during healthy aging...
January 16, 2018: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334640/not-single-brain-areas-but-a-network-is-involved-in-language-applications-in-presurgical-planning
#19
Razieh Alemi, Seyed Amir Hossein Batouli, Ebrahim Behzad, Mitra Ebrahimpoor, Mohammad Ali Oghabian
OBJECTIVES: Language is an important human function, and is a determinant of the quality of life. In conditions such as brain lesions, disruption of the language function may occur, and lesion resection is a solution for that. Presurgical planning to determine the language-related brain areas would enhance the chances of language preservation after the operation; however, availability of a normative language template is essential. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In this study, using data from 60 young individuals who were meticulously checked for mental and physical health, and using fMRI and robust imaging and data analysis methods, functional brain maps for the language production, perception and semantic were produced...
January 10, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330764/the-failing-measurement-of-attitudes-how-semantic-determinants-of-individual-survey-responses-come-to-replace-measures-of-attitude-strength
#20
Jan Ketil Arnulf, Kai Rune Larsen, Øyvind Lund Martinsen, Thore Egeland
The traditional understanding of data from Likert scales is that the quantifications involved result from measures of attitude strength. Applying a recently proposed semantic theory of survey response, we claim that survey responses tap two different sources: a mixture of attitudes plus the semantic structure of the survey. Exploring the degree to which individual responses are influenced by semantics, we hypothesized that in many cases, information about attitude strength is actually filtered out as noise in the commonly used correlation matrix...
January 12, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
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