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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161798/intrapartum-care-quality-indicators-a-literature-review
#1
Elisa Lazzaretto, Antonella Nespoli, Simona Fumagalli, Elisabetta Colciago, Sofia Perego, Anna Locatelli
BACKGROUND: Quality of care is increasingly recognized as a critical aspect of the maternal and newborn health, mainly with respect to care around labour and delivery and in the immediate postnatal period. The Aim of this Review is to identify the recommended intrapartum care indicators in order to measure the quality of Midwifery care. METHODS: A structured literature search was conducted in August 2017 incorporating English and Italian language studies from 1993 and onwards to identify published articles on quality standards of intrapartum care...
November 21, 2017: Minerva Ginecologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161358/neural-mechanisms-of-episodic-retrieval-support-divergent-creative-thinking
#2
Kevin P Madore, Preston P Thakral, Roger E Beaty, Donna Rose Addis, Daniel L Schacter
Prior research has indicated that brain regions and networks that support semantic memory, top-down and bottom-up attention, and cognitive control are all involved in divergent creative thinking. Kernels of evidence suggest that neural processes supporting episodic memory-the retrieval of particular elements of prior experiences-may also be involved in divergent thinking, but such processes have typically been characterized as not very relevant for, or even a hindrance to, creative output. In the present study, we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging with an experimental manipulation to test formally, for the first time, episodic memory's involvement in divergent thinking...
November 17, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161137/pragmatic-competence-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-impact-of-theory-of-mind-verbal-working-memory-adhd-symptoms-and-structural-language
#3
Inmaculada Baixauli-Fortea, Ana Miranda Casas, Carmen Berenguer-Forner, Carla Colomer-Diago, Belén Roselló-Miranda
The primary aim of this study is to increase the existing knowledge about the pragmatic skills of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Specifically, the study has two objectives. The first is to provide a profile of characteristics based on The Children's Communication Checklist (CCC-2) pragmatics scales (inappropriate initiation, stereotyped language, use of context, nonverbal communication, and general pragmatics) and narrative task indicators. To this end, children with ASD will be compared to children with typical development (TD), controlling the effects of sex and structural language (speech, syntax, semantics, coherence)...
November 21, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160118/the-effectiveness-of-a-classroom-based-phonological-awareness-program-for-4-5-year-olds
#4
Chrissy Kelly, Suze Leitão, Karen Smith-Lock, Brody Heritage
PURPOSE: Numerous studies have reported a robust relationship between early phonological awareness (PA) and subsequent reading achievement, in addition to the critical role of the alphabetic principle in predicting and supporting later reading and spelling development. Given this association, there has been an increasing push to teach these skills to young children prior to word level reading and spelling instruction. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the Cracking the Code (CtC) program with students aged 3;8-5;4...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160019/comparison-of-animal-action-and-phonemic-fluency-in-aphasia
#5
Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah, Lisa Milman
BACKGROUND: The ability to generate words that follow certain constraints, or verbal fluency, is a sensitive indicator of neurocognitive impairment, and is impacted by a variety of variables. AIMS: To investigate the effect of post-stroke aphasia, elicitation category and linguistic variables on verbal fluency performance. METHODS & PROCEDURES: Twenty-eight persons with aphasia (PWA) with a single left-hemisphere lesion and 40 age-matched neurotypical community-dwelling adults were administered three verbal fluency tasks: two semantic (animals and actions) and one phonemic (the letters F, A and S)...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159971/vocabulary-intervention-for-adolescents-with-language-disorder-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Hilary Lowe, Lucy Henry, Lisa-Maria Müller, Victoria L Joffe
BACKGROUND: Language disorder and associated vocabulary difficulties can persist into adolescence, and can impact on long-term life outcomes. Previous reviews have shown that a variety of intervention techniques can successfully enhance students' vocabulary skills; however, none has investigated vocabulary intervention specifically for adolescents with language disorder. AIMS: To carry out a systematic review of the literature on vocabulary interventions for adolescents with language disorder...
November 21, 2017: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159059/triangulation-of-language-cognitive-impairments-naming-errors-and-their-neural-bases-post-stroke
#7
Ajay D Halai, Anna M Woollams, Matthew A Lambon Ralph
In order to gain a better understanding of aphasia one must consider the complex combinations of language impairments along with the pattern of paraphasias. Despite the fact that both deficits and paraphasias feature in diagnostic criteria, most research has focused only on the lesion correlates of language deficits, with minimal attention on the pattern of patients' paraphasias. In this study, we used a data-driven approach (principal component analysis - PCA) to fuse patient impairments and their pattern of errors into one unified model of chronic post-stroke aphasia...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159036/eeg-oscillations-during-word-processing-predict-mci-conversion-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Ali Mazaheri, Katrien Segaert, John Olichney, Jin-Chen Yang, Yu-Qiong Niu, Kim Shapiro, Howard Bowman
Only a subset of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients progress to develop a form of dementia. A prominent feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive decline in language. We investigated if subtle anomalies in EEG activity of MCI patients during a word comprehension task could provide insight into the likelihood of conversion to AD. We studied 25 amnestic MCI patients, a subset of whom developed AD within 3-years, and 11 elderly controls. In the task, auditory category descriptions (e.g., 'a type of wood') were followed by a single visual target word either semantically congruent (i...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158399/nature-and-origins-of-the-lexicon-in-6-mo-olds
#9
Elika Bergelson, Richard N Aslin
Recent research reported the surprising finding that even 6-mo-olds understand common nouns [Bergelson E, Swingley D (2012) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 109:3253-3258]. However, is their early lexicon structured and acquired like older learners? We test 6-mo-olds for a hallmark of the mature lexicon: cross-word relations. We also examine whether properties of the home environment that have been linked with lexical knowledge in older children are detectable in the initial stage of comprehension. We use a new dataset, which includes in-lab comprehension and home measures from the same infants...
November 20, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158201/the-effect-of-prior-knowledge-on-post-encoding-brain-connectivity-and-its-relation-to-subsequent-memory
#10
Zhong-Xu Liu, Cheryl Grady, Morris Moscovitch
It is known that prior knowledge can facilitate memory acquisition. It is unclear, however, whether prior knowledge can affect post-encoding brain activity to facilitate memory consolidation. In this fMRI study, we asked participants to associate novel houses with famous/nonfamous faces and investigated how associative-encoding tasks with/without prior knowledge differentially affected post-encoding brain connectivity during rest. Besides memory advantages in the famous condition, we found that post-encoding hippocampal connectivity with the fusiform face area (FFA) and ventral-medial-prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was stronger following encoding of associations with famous than non-famous faces...
November 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157936/short-parietal-lobe-connections-of-the-human-and-monkey-brain
#11
Marco Catani, Naianna Robertsson, Ahmad Beyh, Vincent Huynh, Francisco de Santiago Requejo, Henrietta Howells, Rachel L C Barrett, Marco Aiello, Carlo Cavaliere, Tim B Dyrby, Kristine Krug, Maurice Ptito, Helen D'Arceuil, Stephanie J Forkel, Flavio Dell'Acqua
The parietal lobe has a unique place in the human brain. Anatomically, it is at the crossroad between the frontal, occipital, and temporal lobes, thus providing a middle ground for multimodal sensory integration. Functionally, it supports higher cognitive functions that are characteristic of the human species, such as mathematical cognition, semantic and pragmatic aspects of language, and abstract thinking. Despite its importance, a comprehensive comparison of human and simian intraparietal networks is missing...
November 2, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156216/covert-retrieval-in-working-memory-impacts-the-phenomenological-characteristics-remembered-during-episodic-memory
#12
Vanessa M Loaiza, Borislava M Borovanska
Much research has investigated the qualitative experience of retrieving events from episodic memory (EM). The present study investigated whether covert retrieval in WM increases the phenomenological characteristics that participants find memorable in EM using tasks that distract attention from the maintenance of memoranda (i.e., complex span; Experiment 1) relative to tasks that do not (i.e., short or long list lengths of simple span; Experiments 1 and 2). Participants rated the quality of the phonological, semantic, and temporal-contextual characteristics remembered during a delayed memory characteristics questionnaire (MCQ)...
November 17, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155996/hierarchical-attention-networks-for-information-extraction-from-cancer-pathology-reports
#13
Shang Gao, Michael T Young, John X Qiu, Hong-Jun Yoon, James B Christian, Paul A Fearn, Georgia D Tourassi, Arvind Ramanthan
Objective: We explored how a deep learning (DL) approach based on hierarchical attention networks (HANs) can improve model performance for multiple information extraction tasks from unstructured cancer pathology reports compared to conventional methods that do not sufficiently capture syntactic and semantic contexts from free-text documents. Materials and Methods: Data for our analyses were obtained from 942 deidentified pathology reports collected by the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program...
November 16, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154635/you-have-to-hear-this-using-tone-of-voice-to-motivate-others
#14
Netta Weinstein, Konstantina Zougkou, Silke Paulmann
The present studies explored the role of prosody in motivating others, and applied self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) to do so. Initial studies describe patterns of prosody that discriminate motivational speech. Autonomy support was expressed with lower intensity, slower speech rate and less voice energy in both motivationally laden and neutral (but motivationally primed) sentences. In a follow-up study, participants were able to recognize motivational prosody in semantically neutral sentences, suggesting prosody alone may carry motivational content...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154619/complementarity-in-false-memory-illusions
#15
C J Brainerd, V F Reyna
For some years, the DRM illusion has been the most widely studied form of false memory. The consensus theoretical interpretation is that the illusion is a reality reversal, in which certain new words (critical distractors) are remembered as though they are old list words rather than as what they are-new words that are similar to old ones. This reality-reversal interpretation is supported by compelling lines of evidence, but prior experiments are limited by the fact that their memory tests only asked whether test items were old...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154160/gender-identity-better-than-sex-explains-individual-differences-in-episodic-and-semantic-components-of-autobiographical-memory-and-future-thinking
#16
Laurie Compère, Eirini Rari, Thierry Gallarda, Adèle Assens, Marion Nys, Sandrine Coussinoux, Sébastien Machefaux, Pascale Piolino
A recently tested hypothesis suggests that inter-individual differences in episodic autobiographical memory (EAM) are better explained by individual identification of typical features of a gender identity than by sex. This study aimed to test this hypothesis by investigating sex and gender related differences not only in EAM but also during retrieval of more abstract self-knowledge (i.e., semantic autobiographical memory, SAM, and conceptual self, CS), and considering past and future perspectives. No sex-related differences were identified, but regardless of the sex, feminine gender identity was associated with clear differences in emotional aspects that were expressed in both episodic and more abstract forms of AM, and in the past and future perspectives, while masculine gender identity was associated with limited effects...
November 16, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154072/physiological-effects-of-viewing-fresh-red-roses
#17
Chorong Song, Miho Igarashi, Harumi Ikei, Yoshifumi Miyazaki
OBJECTIVES: The present study aimed to clarify the effects of viewing fresh roses on prefrontal cortex activity, autonomic nervous activity and subjective assessments of psychological relaxation. DESIGN: A crossover design, in which each experimental group crosses over from one treatment to another, was used. SETTING AND INTERVENTIONS: A total of 15 female university students (mean age 21.7±1.1years) viewed fresh roses for 3min; the control consisted of no experimental stimulus...
December 2017: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154028/listening-while-reading-promotes-word-learning-from-stories
#18
Alessandra Valentini, Jessie Ricketts, Rachel E Pye, Carmel Houston-Price
Reading and listening to stories fosters vocabulary development. Studies of single word learning suggest that new words are more likely to be learned when both their oral and written forms are provided, compared with when only one form is given. This study explored children's learning of phonological, orthographic, and semantic information about words encountered in a story context. A total of 71 children (8- and 9-year-olds) were exposed to a story containing novel words in one of three conditions: (a) listening, (b) reading, or (c) simultaneous listening and reading ("combined" condition)...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153448/evidence-of-disturbances-of-deep-levels-of-semantic-cohesion-within-personal-narratives-in-schizophrenia
#19
Jon A Willits, Timothy Rubin, Michael N Jones, Kyle S Minor, Paul H Lysaker
Since initial conceptualizations, schizophrenia has been thought to involve core disturbances in the ability to form complex, integrated ideas. Although this has been studied in terms of formal thought disorder, the level of involvement of altered latent semantic structure is less clear. To explore this question, we compared the personal narratives of adults with schizophrenia (n=200) to those produced by an HIV+ sample (n=55) using selected indices from Coh-Metrix. Coh-Metrix is a software system designed to compute various language usage statistics from transcribed written and spoken language documents...
November 16, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151821/streamqre-modular-specification-and-efficient-evaluation-of-quantitative-queries-over-streaming-data
#20
Konstantinos Mamouras, Mukund Raghothaman, Rajeev Alur, Zachary G Ives, Sanjeev Khanna
Real-time decision making in emerging IoT applications typically relies on computing quantitative summaries of large data streams in an efficient and incremental manner. To simplify the task of programming the desired logic, we propose StreamQRE, which provides natural and high-level constructs for processing streaming data. Our language has a novel integration of linguistic constructs from two distinct programming paradigms: streaming extensions of relational query languages and quantitative extensions of regular expressions...
June 2017: Proc ACM SIGPLAN Conf Program Lang Des Implement
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