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Digital Pathology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932164/retzius-space-preservation-technique-for-robotic-assisted-laparoscopic-radical-prostatectomy-in-a-kidney-transplant-patient-first-case-in-thailand-and-our-first-experience
#1
P Jenjitranant, P Sangkum, P Sirisreetreerux, W Viseshsindh, S Patcharatrakul, W Kongcharoensombat
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this work was to report our experience in robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy for the treatment of localized prostate cancer in a kidney transplant recipient. METHODS: A 73-year-old man with chronic renal failure underwent living-donor kidney transplantation (KT) in 1993. His baseline creatinine after KT was ∼1.2 mg/dL. He developed lower urinary tract symptoms in 1999. He was diagnosed with benign prostatic hyperplasia and treated accordingly...
November 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924520/histopathological-features-of-middle-cerebral-artery-and-superficial-temporal-artery-from-patients-with-moyamoya-disease-and-enlightenments-on-clinical-treatment
#2
Shou-Jia Sun, Jian-Jian Zhang, Zheng-Wei Li, Zhong-Wei Xiong, Xiao-Lin Wu, Sheng Wang, Kai Shu, Jin-Cao Chen
The histopathological features of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and superficial temporal artery (STA) from moyamoya disease (MMD) and their relationships with gender, age, angiography stage were explored. The causes and the clinical significance of vasculopathy of STA were also discussed. The clinical data and specimens of MCA and STA from 30 MMD patients were collected. Twelve samples of MCA and STA from non-MMD patients served as control group. Histopathological examination was then performed by measuring the thickness of intima and media, and statistical analysis was conducted...
December 2016: Journal of Huazhong University of Science and Technology. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922852/hiv-associated-changes-in-the-enteric-microbial-community-potential-role-in-loss-of-homeostasis-and-development-of-systemic-inflammation
#3
David B Gootenberg, Jeffrey M Paer, Jesus-Mario Luevano, Douglas S Kwon
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite HIV therapy advances, average life expectancy in HIV-infected individuals on effective treatment is significantly decreased relative to uninfected persons, largely because of increased incidence of inflammation-related diseases, such as cardiovascular disease and renal dysfunction. The enteric microbial community could potentially cause this inflammation, as HIV-driven destruction of gastrointestinal CD4 T cells may disturb the microbiota-mucosal immune system balance, disrupting the stable gut microbiome and leading to further deleterious host outcomes...
December 2, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922627/blood-based-and-urinary-prostate-cancer-biomarkers-a-review-and-comparison-of-novel-biomarkers-for-detection-and-treatment-decisions
#4
REVIEW
R J Hendriks, I M van Oort, J A Schalken
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of prostate cancer (PCa) is currently based on serum PSA testing and/or abnormal digital rectal examination and histopathologic evaluation of prostate biopsies. The main drawback of PSA testing is the lack of specificity for PCa. To improve early detection of PCa more specific biomarkers are needed. In the past few years, many new promising biomarkers have been identified; however, to date, only a few have reached clinical practice. METHODS: In this review, we discuss new blood-based and urinary biomarker models that are promising for usage in PCa detection, follow-up and treatment decision-making...
December 6, 2016: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920631/invasive-lobular-carcinoma-of-the-breast-appearance-on-digital-breast-tomosynthesis
#5
Ahuva Grubstein, Yael Rapson, Sara Morgenstern, Itai Gadiel, Amit Haboosheh, Rinat Yerushalmi, Maya Cohen
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to characterize the signs of invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast on digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) imaging. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study group included 23 women with pathologically proven invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast for whom both digital mammography (DM) and DBT images were available. The images were read jointly by 2 experienced breast radiologists. Findings were recorded according to the descriptors in the Breast Imaging and Reporting Data System lexicon and correlated with the detailed pathology results...
October 2016: Breast Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913424/digital-3d-reconstructions-using-histological-serial-sections-of-lung-tissue-including-the-alveolar-capillary-network
#6
Roman Grothausmann, Lars Knudsen, Matthias Ochs, Christian Mühlfeld
The alveolar capillary network (ACN) provides an enormously large surface area that is necessary for pulmonary gas exchange. Changes of the ACN during normal or pathological development or in pulmonary diseases are of great functional impact and warrant further analysis. Due to the complexity of the three-dimensional (3D) architecture of the ACN, 2D approaches are limited in providing a comprehensive impression of the characteristics of the normal ACN or the nature of its alterations. Stereological methods offer a quantitative way to assess the ACN in 3D in terms of capillary volume, surface area or number but lack a 3D visualization to interpret the data...
December 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908228/detection-of-mutations-in-mitochondrial-dna-by-droplet-digital-pcr
#7
J K Sofronova, Y Y Ilinsky, K E Orishchenko, E G Chupakhin, E A Lunev, I O Mazunin
Mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may result in various pathological processes. Detection of mutant mtDNAs is a problem for diagnostic practice that is complicated by heteroplasmy - a phenomenon of the inferring presence of at least two allelic variants of the mitochondrial genome. Also, the level of heteroplasmy largely determines the profile and severity of clinical manifestations. Here we discuss detection of mutations in heteroplasmic mtDNA using up-to-date methods that have not yet been introduced as routine clinical assays...
October 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901048/sparsity-based-multi-height-phase-recovery-in-holographic-microscopy
#8
Yair Rivenson, Yichen Wu, Hongda Wang, Yibo Zhang, Alborz Feizi, Aydogan Ozcan
High-resolution imaging of densely connected samples such as pathology slides using digital in-line holographic microscopy requires the acquisition of several holograms, e.g., at >6-8 different sample-to-sensor distances, to achieve robust phase recovery and coherent imaging of specimen. Reducing the number of these holographic measurements would normally result in reconstruction artifacts and loss of image quality, which would be detrimental especially for biomedical and diagnostics-related applications...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898852/horse-species-symposium-biomechanics-of-the-exercising-horse
#9
Hilary M Clayton
In spite of having large height and body mass, horses are cursorial animals with an extensive gait repertoire and considerable athletic abilities. The limbs have evolved so that the heavy musculature is confined to the proximal limbs while the distal limbs are light in weight with a single functional digit and long, lightweight tendons to move and support the distal joints. These adaptations reduce the moment of inertia and decrease the energy expended to protract and retract the limbs during locomotion. There is a division of labor between the forelimbs, which have a pillar-like construction specialized for weight bearing, and the hind limbs, in which the more angulated joints provide leverage for the generation of propulsion...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897454/considerations-for-standardizing-predictive-molecular-pathology-for-cancer-prognosis
#10
Michelangelo Fiorentino, Marina Scarpelli, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Liang Cheng, Rodolfo Montironi
Molecular tests that were once ancillary to the core business of cyto-histopathology are becoming the third most relevant workload in pathology departments after histopathology/cytopathology and before autopsies. This has resulted from innovations in molecular biology techniques, which have developed at an incredibly fast pace. Areas covered: Most of the current widely used techniques in molecular pathology such as FISH, direct sequencing, pyrosequencing, and allele-specific PCR will be replaced by massive parallel sequencing that will not be considered next generation, but rather, will be considered to be current generation sequencing...
November 29, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896471/contrast-enhanced-spectral-mammography-vs-mammography-and-mri-clinical-performance-in-a-multi-reader-evaluation
#11
Eva M Fallenberg, Florian F Schmitzberger, Heba Amer, Barbara Ingold-Heppner, Corinne Balleyguier, Felix Diekmann, Florian Engelken, Ritse M Mann, Diane M Renz, Ulrich Bick, Bernd Hamm, Clarisse Dromain
OBJECTIVES: To compare the diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced spectral mammography (CESM) to digital mammography (MG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a prospective two-centre, multi-reader study. METHODS: One hundred seventy-eight women (mean age 53 years) with invasive breast cancer and/or DCIS were included after ethics board approval. MG, CESM and CESM + MG were evaluated by three blinded radiologists based on amended ACR BI-RADS criteria...
November 28, 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896452/optimization-of-image-quality-and-dose-in-digital-mammography
#12
Agnes M F Fausto, M C Lopes, M C de Sousa, Tânia A C Furquim, Anderson W Mol, Fermin G Velasco
Nowadays, the optimization in digital mammography is one of the most important challenges in diagnostic radiology. The new digital technology has introduced additional elements to be considered in this scenario. A major goal of mammography is related to the detection of structures on the order of micrometers (μm) and the need to distinguish the different types of tissues, with very close density values. The diagnosis in mammography faces the difficulty that the breast tissues and pathological findings have very close linear attenuation coefficients within the energy range used in mammography...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Digital Imaging: the Official Journal of the Society for Computer Applications in Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891787/evaluation-of-the-western-australian-register-of-developmental-anomalies-thirty-five-years-of-surveillance
#13
Wendy N Nembhard, Carol Bower
BACKGROUND: The birth defects component of the Western Australian Register for Developmental Anomalies (WARDA-BD) was evaluated to assess its efficiency, effectiveness, and data quality. METHODS: WARDA-BD was evaluated using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems and Data Quality Standards from the National Birth Defects Prevention Network. The evaluation included interviews with Register staff, local community organizations, parents, clinicians, and researchers; process observation; and secondary data analyses...
November 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888024/performance-of-photon-counting-breast-computed-tomography-digital-mammography-and-digital-breast-tomosynthesis-in-evaluating-breast-specimens
#14
Ann-Christin Rößler, Willi Kalender, Daniel Kolditz, Christian Steiding, Veikko Ruth, Caroline Preuss, Sandra Christina Peter, Barbara Brehm, Matthias Hammon, Rüdiger Schulz-Wendtland, Evelyn Wenkel
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: This study compared a novel photon-counting breast computed tomography (pcBCT) system with digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) systems. For this reason, surgical specimens were examined with all three techniques and rated by three observers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 30 surgical specimens were investigated with DM, DBT, and pcBCT; the associated images were shown to three experienced radiologists. Findings (22 microcalcifications and 23 mass lesions) were recorded and compared to the results of the pathological examination...
November 22, 2016: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882179/acroosteolysis-in-systemic-sclerosis-an-insight-into-hypoxia-related-pathogenesis
#15
Simon Siao-Pin, Laura-Otilia Damian, Laura Mirela Muntean, Simona Rednic
Acro-osteolysis, or bony resorption of the terminal digital tufts, is a well-recognized, but under-researched, feature of systemic sclerosis. The mechanisms that disturbs local homeostatic balance of bone formation and resorption in favor of osteoclast activation and pathological bone loss remain to be established. Vascular alterations and reduced capillary density impair tissue oxygenation in systemic sclerosis, and the resulting hypoxia might contribute directly to the disease progression. In this paper we summarize the current evidence for hypoxia as the common pathophysiological denominator of digital vasculopathy and enhanced osteoclastic activity in systemic sclerosis-associated acroosteolysis...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878426/the-differential-effects-of-alzheimer-s-disease-and-lewy-body-pathology-on-cognitive-performance-a-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Ashita S Gurnani, Brandon E Gavett
Differential diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) from normal aging and other dementia etiologies is imperative for disease specific treatment options and long-term care planning. Neuropathological confirmation is the gold standard for neurodegenerative disease diagnosis, yet most published studies examining the use of neuropsychological tests in the differential diagnosis of dementia rely upon clinical diagnostic outcomes. The present study undertook a meta-analytic review of the literature to identify cognitive tests and domains that allow for the differentiation of individuals with AD pathology from individuals with dementia with Lewy Bodies (DLB) pathology and pathology-free individuals...
November 22, 2016: Neuropsychology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875510/facial-evaluation-in-holoprosencephaly
#17
Valentina Pucciarelli, Simona Bertoli, Marina Codari, Pierangelo Veggiotti, Alberto Battezzati, Chiarella Sforza
Holoprosencephaly (HPE) is a malformation of the brain, occurring during the first weeks of pregnancy, that may be associated with several craniofacial alterations and different pathological conditions.The authors describe a 2-year-old girl with lobar HPE, epilepsy, but with a roughly normal face. Despite the macroscopic, clinical appearance, a facial morphometric analysis, performed through a stereophotogrammetric system, showed features that diverge from reference subjects and that are considered typical of HPE...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870337/breast-cancers-found-with-digital-breast-tomosynthesis-a-comparison-of-pathology-and-histologic-grade
#18
Wei-Shin Wang, Lara Hardesty, James Borgstede, Jayme Takahashi, Sharon Sams
To compare the pathology and histologic grading of breast cancers detected with digital breast tomosynthesis to those found with conventional digital mammography. The institutional review board approved this study. A database search for all breast cancers diagnosed from June 2012 through December 2013 was performed. Imaging records for these cancers were reviewed and patients who had screening mammography with tomosynthesis as their initial examination were selected. Five dedicated breast imaging radiologists reviewed each of these screening mammograms to determine whether the cancer was visible on conventional digital mammography or whether tomosynthesis was needed to identify the cancer...
November 2016: Breast Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858704/comparison-of-bipolar-radiofrequency-ablation-zones-in-an-in-vivo-porcine-model-correlation-of-histology-and-gross-pathological-findings
#19
Ole Gemeinhardt, Franz G M Poch, Bernhard Hiebl, Urte Kunz-Zurbuchen, Giuliano M Corte, Stefan F Thieme, Janis L Vahldiek, Stefan M Niehues, Martin E Kreis, Robert Klopfleisch, Kai S Lehmann
BACKGROUND: Continuing research ex vivo and in vivo with animal models is performed to advance the oncological safety of radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of liver tumors. In these experiments, frequently imaging modalities (e.g. MRI or CT) or macro-morphological measurements are used to determine the full extent of the different ablation zones inside of RFA lesions. However, no systematic study has been performed so far, which verified the accuracy of the macro-morphological findings. Therefore, the present study aimed to correlate histological and gross pathological findings of bipolar radiofrequency ablation zones of pig livers with regard to cell viability in vivo...
November 18, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856335/examining-the-impact-of-grape-consumption-on-brain-metabolism-and-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-mild-decline-in-cognition-adouble-blinded-placebo-controlled-pilot-study
#20
Jooyeon Lee, Nare Torosyan, Daniel H Silverman
BACKGROUND: Natural compounds in grapes such as resveratrol are known for their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Some studies have shown a potential role for grapes or wine in slowing cognitive decline and other effects of aging. However, well-controlled experimental data obtained in human subjects are still in need of further development. Here we aimed to systemically assess effects of grapes on regional cerebral metabolism. METHODS: Ten subjects with mild decline in cognition (mean, 72...
November 14, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
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