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Conus medullaris

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816874/does-surgical-intervention-or-timing-of-surgery-have-an-effect-on-neurological-recovery-in-the-setting-of-a-thoracolumbar-burst-fracture
#1
So Kato, Jean-Christophe Murray, Brian K Kwon, Gregory D Schroeder, Alexander R Vaccaro, Michael G Fehlings
Traumatic thoracolumbar burst fractures are one of the most common forms of spinal trauma with the majority occurring at the junctional area where mechanical load is maximal (AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System Subtype A3 or A4). Burst fractures entail the involvement of the middle column, and therefore, they are typically associated with bone fragment in the spinal canal, which may cause compression of the spinal cord, conus medullaris, cauda equina, or a combination of these. Fortunately, approximately half of the patients with thoracolumbar burst fractures are neurologically intact due to the wide canal diameter...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762109/dual-lumbar-bronchogenic-and-arachnoid-cyst-presenting-with-sciatica-and-left-foot-drop
#2
Nicholas Candy, Adam Young, Abel Devadass, Andrew Dean, Jason McMillen, Rikin Trivedi
INTRODUCTION: Spinal bronchogenic cysts are rare findings, with only four cases of lumbar bronchogenic cysts reported in the literature. All of these bronchogenic cysts involved the conus medullaris. We present the first case of a lumbar bronchogenic cyst and arachnoid cyst arising from the cauda equina in a 68-year-old male. Uniquely, this bronchogenic cyst also contained components of an arachnoid cyst. METHODS: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a compressive cystic lesion at the level of the L3 vertebra splaying the cauda equina...
July 31, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761543/spinal-capillary-hemangiomas-two-cases-reports-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Thara Tunthanathip, Sanguansin Rattanalert, Thakul Oearsakul, Kanet Kanjanapradit
Hemangiomas have rarely been found in the spinal cord. A few cases of spinal capillary hemangioma have been reported since 1987. The authors reported the two cases of capillary hemangioma including the tumor at conus medullaris and the another mimicked von Hippel-Lindau disease. A 15-year-old man was presented with coccydynia and left leg pain. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed an intradural extramedullary enhancing mass at conus medullaris. Another case, a 31-year-old man was presented with a history of familial history of brain tumor, retinal hemangioma both eyes, multiple pancreatic cyst and syringobulbia with syringohydromyelia...
July 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736427/ultrasonographic-features-of-the-normal-filum-terminale
#4
Myoungae Kwon, Bo-Kyung Je, Doran Hong, Byung Min Choi
Purpose: The filum terminale (FT) is a fibrous band that connects the conus medullaris to the posterior body of the coccyx. Considering the advances of ultrasonography (US) technology and improvements in the resolution of US images, we aimed to re-establish the US features of the normal FT in infants younger than 6 months of age. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 30 spinal US scans, stored as video clips. The internal structure of the FT and the marginal echogenicity of the FT were assessed, and transverse and longitudinal US were compared...
June 8, 2017: Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716031/a-rare-case-of-intradural-and-extramedullary-epidermoid-cyst-after-repetitive-epidural-anesthesia-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#5
Haruki Funao, Norihiro Isogai, Kenshi Daimon, Yuichiro Mima, Hitoshi Sugiura, Takahiro Koyanagi, Masaya Nakamura, Morio Matsumoto, Ken Ishii
BACKGROUND: Spinal epidermoid cysts are benign tumors, which are rarely seen as an intradural extramedullary spinal cord tumor in the conus medullaris region. Acquired spinal epidermoid cysts are mostly caused by iatrogenic procedures, such as lumbar puncture, and the majority of acquired spinal epidermoid cysts have been reported below the L1 level, because lumbar puncture is usually performed around the iliac crest. Here, we report an extremely rare case of an epidermoid cyst that occurred as an intradural and extramedullary spinal cord tumor attached to the conus medullaris after repetitive epidural anesthesia...
July 17, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709890/a-novel-collaborative-protocol-for-successful-management-of-penile-pain-mediated-by-radiculitis-of-sacral-spinal-nerve-roots-from-tarlov-cysts
#6
Irwin Goldstein, Barry R Komisaruk, Rachel S Rubin, Sue W Goldstein, Stacy Elliott, Jennifer Kissee, Choll W Kim
INTRODUCTION: Since 14 years of age, the patient had experienced extreme penile pain within seconds of initial sexual arousal through masturbation. Penile pain was so severe that he rarely proceeded to orgasm or ejaculation. After 7 years of undergoing multiple unsuccessful treatments, he was concerned for his long-term mental health and for his future ability to have relationships. AIM: To describe a novel collaboration among specialists in sexual medicine, neurophysiology, and spine surgery that led to successful management...
July 12, 2017: Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708311/prenatal-assessment-of-the-position-of-fetal-conus-medullaris-as-a-predictor-of-fetal-spinal-lesions
#7
Dan Zhao, Qiuju Wei, Ailu Cai, Limei Xie, Bing Wang, Xiaoguang Wang
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to compare two different methods in assessment of the position of fetal conus medullaris (CM) and to explore the significance for assessment of CM. METHODS: This study included both normal fetuses and those with the diagnosis of fetal spinal lesions. The position of fetal CM was performed sonographically using two methods: location of CM in relation to the vertebral body (CM level) and measurement of the conus sacrum (CS) distance...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686126/impact-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-urodynamic-studies-on-the-management-of-sacrococcygeal-dimples
#8
Goichiro Tamura, Nobuhito Morota, Satoshi Ihara
OBJECTIVE Sacrococcygeal dimples in neonates and infants are of uncertain pathological import. Previously they were believed to be rarely associated with intraspinal anomalies. Recent studies using MRI, however, revealed that 6%-7% of pediatric cases of sacrococcygeal dimples were associated with anatomical tethered spinal cord (TSC). Because the prevalence of tethered cord syndrome is still unclear, there is no consensus among pediatric neurosurgeons on the management of children with sacrococcygeal dimples...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680728/intradural-extramedullary-cavernous-malformation-with-extensive-superficial-siderosis-of-the-neuraxis-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#9
Pedram Golnari, Sameer A Ansari, Ali Shaibani, Michael C Hurley, Matthew B Potts, Missia E Kohler, Patrick A Sugrue, Babak S Jahromi
BACKGROUND: Spinal cavernous malformations usually affect the vertebral bodies and are seldom intradural. Here, we report a rare spinal intradural-extramedullary cavernous malformation associated with extensive superficial siderosis along the neuraxis in a patient with radicular complaints. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 60-year-old male presented with subacute headaches, intermittent fever, and acute back and radicular leg pain for 1-2 weeks. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intradural-extramedullary lesion just below the conus medullaris (at the L2 level)...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670404/role-of-anatomical-landmarks-in-identifying-normal-and-transitional-vertebra-in-lumbar-spine-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#10
Devimeenal Jagannathan, Venkatraman Indiran, Fouzal Hithaya, M Alamelu, S Padmanaban
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. PURPOSE: Identification of transitional vertebra is important in spine imaging, especially in presurgical planning. Pasted images of the whole spine obtained using high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are helpful in counting vertebrae and identifying transitional vertebrae. Counting vertebrae and identifying transitional vertebrae is challenging in isolated studies of lumbar spine and in studies conducted in low-field MRI...
June 2017: Asian Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618974/cystic-dilation-of-a-ventriculus-terminalis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#11
Masoud Zeinali, Hosein Safari, Saleh Rasras, Reza Bahrami, Mahdi Arjipour, Nima Ostadrahimi
The ventriculus terminalis (VT) is a small ependyma-lined cavity within the conus medullaris that is in direct continuity with the central canal of the spinal cord. Cystic dilatation of the ventriculus terminalis on its own is an extremely rare pathological event in adults whose pathogenesis is uncertain. VT has been described in children as a normal developmental phenomenon. These lesions are often diagnosed incidentally during imaging and are in most cases asymptomatic, especially in children. Symptomatic dilatation of VT in adults is a rare condition with 61cases being reported to date...
June 15, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552139/endovascular-treatment-of-spinal-arteriovenous-malformations
#12
Waleed Brinjikji, Giuseppe Lanzino
Spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are a rare but treatable cause of myelopathy and spinal cord hemorrhage. The clinical presentation and ideal treatment of these lesions vary widely, primarily due to differences in anatomic and angioarchitectural features. Six well-defined types of fistula have been defined: (1) intradural dorsal AVM; (2) intramedullary AVM; (3) extradural-intradural AVM; (4) intradural ventral AVF; (5) extradural/epidural AVF; and (6) conus medullaris AVM. Each of these lesions have unique clinical presentations and variable natural histories and endovascular treatment options...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552136/epidemiology-clinical-presentation-diagnostic-evaluation-and-prognosis-of-spinal-arteriovenous-malformations
#13
Alp Ozpinar, Gregory M Weiner, Andrew F Ducruet
Spinal arteriovenous malformations (sAVM) are rare vascular pathologies whose natural history remains incompletely understood. Advances in diagnostic imaging, coupled with the evolution of endovascular and microsurgical techniques have led to the description of a number of classification schemes for these lesions. An updated method has changed AVM classification from five categories of lesion based on source and location of feeder vessels to three categories based on pathophysiology. These categories include extradural arteriovenous fistulae (AVFs), intradural AVFs, extradural-intradural AVFs, intramedullary AVMs, and conus medullaris AVM each with individual subclassifications...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546867/tethered-cord-syndrome-with-spina-bifida-aperta-in-cats-two-case-reports-of-different-types
#14
Masahiro Tamura, Takashi Oji, Satoshi Une, Makiko Mukaino, Tatsuro Bekki, Masaki Tado, Hiromi Koyama, Yumiko Kagawa, Mutsumi Kawata
CASE SUMMARY: Two castrated male cats, aged 8 months old (case 1) and 10 months old (case 2), showed a history of progressive paraparesis, an over-reaching pelvic limb gait, urinary incontinence and a palpable dermoid fistula. In case 1, the fistula was connected to the dural sac on the conus medullaris, and the tethered spinal cord was retracted caudally. In case 2, the tubular structure was connected to the dural sac on the thoracic spinal cord, and the tethered spinal cord was retracted dorsally...
January 2017: JFMS open reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542104/reduced-spinal-cord-movement-with-the-straight-leg-raise-test-in-patients-with-lumbar-intervertebral-disc-herniation
#15
Marinko Rade, Janne Pesonen, Mervi Könönen, Jarkko Marttila, Michael Shacklock, Ritva Vanninen, Markku Kankaanpää, Olavi Airaksinen
STUDY DESIGN: Controlled radiological study. OBJECTIVE: To explore whether impairment of neural excursion during the straight leg raise test occurs in patients with sciatic symptoms secondary to lumbar intervertebral disc herniation (LIDH). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Earlier studies have shown that during the straight leg raise (SLR) test in asymptomatic volunteers tensile forces are consistently transmitted throughout the neural system and the thoracolumbar spinal cord slides distally...
August 1, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534496/definitions-of-traumatic-conus-medullaris-and-cauda-equina-syndrome-a-systematic-literature-review
#16
E Brouwers, H van de Meent, A Curt, B Starremans, A Hosman, R Bartels
STUDY DESIGN: A systematic review. OBJECTIVES: Conus medullaris syndrome (CMS) and cauda equina syndrome (CES) are well-known neurological entities. It is assumed that these syndromes are different regarding neurological and functional prognosis. However, literature concerning spinal trauma is ambiguous about the exact definition of the syndromes. METHODS: A MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane literature search was performed. We included original articles in which clinical descriptions of CMS and/or CES were mentioned in patients following trauma to the thoracolumbar spine...
May 23, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512052/cystic-dilation-of-the-ventriculus-terminalis-report-of-6-surgical-cases-treated-with-cyst-subarachnoid-shunting-using-a-t-catheter
#17
Liang Zhang, Zhifeng Zhang, Wuyang Yang, Wenqing Jia, Yulun Xu, Jun Yang
BACKGROUND: Cystic dilation of the ventriculus terminalis (CDVT) is a rare anatomic variation that and may become symptomatic. Literature regarding CDVT is limited, and thus the clinical characteristics and management strategy of CDVT are unclear. Here we report 6 cases of CDVT seen in our institution, and provide a review of the current literature. METHODS: The study cohort comprised 6 patients with CDVT seen at Beijing Tiantan Hospital between September 2010 and June 2015...
August 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425761/adult-pilocytic-astrocytoma-of-conus-medullaris-clinical-considerations-and-review-of-the-literature
#18
José Pedro Lavrador, Edson Oliveira, José Pimentel, Sérgio Livraghi
Astrocytomas are responsible for 30% of all primitive intramedullary tumors with cervicothoracic predominance. However, only about one hundred cases of intramedullary pilocytic astrocytomas were described. The authors described the case of a 69 year-old patient presenting with a broad-base gait, bilateral pain and dysesthesia of inferior limbs with a diagnosis of an intra-axial cystic lesion centered to the conus medullaris, diagnosed as pilocytic astrocytoma of conus medullaris (PACM) after surgery. To the best of our knowledge, only two previous reports concerning PACM were made...
April 2017: CNS Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420330/anti-mog-antibody-positive-adem-following-infectious-mononucleosis-due-to-a-primary-ebv-infection-a-case-report
#19
Yoshitsugu Nakamura, Hideto Nakajima, Hiroki Tani, Takafumi Hosokawa, Shimon Ishida, Fumiharu Kimura, Kimihiko Kaneko, Toshiyuki Takahashi, Ichiro Nakashima
BACKGROUND: Anti-Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies are detected in various demyelinating diseases, such as pediatric acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), recurrent optic neuritis, and aquaporin-4 antibody-seronegative neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. We present a patient who developed anti-MOG antibody-positive ADEM following infectious mononucleosis (IM) due to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. CASE PRESENTATION: A 36-year-old healthy man developed paresthesia of bilateral lower extremities and urinary retention 8 days after the onset of IM due to primary EBV infection...
April 19, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405532/spinal-schwannoma-with-intradural-intramedullary-hemorrhage
#20
Muhammad Nadeem, Salman Mansoor, Salman Assad, Fariha Ilyas, Ahmed H Qavi, Shoab Saadat
Patients with spinal abnormalities infrequently present with intradural intramedullary bleeding. The more common causes include spinal trauma, arteriovenous malformations and saccular aneurysms of spinal arteries. On occasion, spinal cord tumors either primary or metastatic may cause intramedullary bleed with ependymoma of the conus medullaris. Spinal nerve sheath tumors such as schwannomas only rarely cause intradural intramedullary bleed, especially in the absence of spinal cord or nerve root symptoms. We report a case of spinal intradural schwannoma presenting with acute onset of quadriparesis...
March 6, 2017: Curēus
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