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Caudas medullaris

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27258594/mobile-spinal-enterogenous-cyst-resulting-in-intermittent-paraplegia-in-a-child-case-report
#1
Satoko Kojima, Junichi Yoshimura, Tetsuro Takao, Tetsuro Tamura, Kenichi Nishiyama, Shigeru Maruyama, Masashi Suda, Yukihiko Fujii
The authors report the case of a mobile spinal enterogenous cyst in a 2-year-old boy, who was admitted to the hospital several times for intermittent paraplegia. Magnetic resonance imaging and CT revealed an isolated cyst in the lumbar spinal canal. The symptoms were caused by transient myelopathy of the conus medullaris and radiculopathy of the cauda equina due to the changing size and location of the cyst. The cyst was surgically extirpated, after which the symptoms resolved. The histopathological diagnosis was enterogenous cyst...
June 3, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27222131/a-ventral-root-avulsion-injury-model-for-neurogenic-underactive-bladder-studies
#2
REVIEW
Huiyi H Chang, Leif A Havton
Detrusor underactivity (DU) is defined as a contraction of reduced strength and/or duration during bladder emptying and results in incomplete and prolonged bladder emptying. The clinical diagnosis of DU is challenging when present alone or in association with other bladder conditions such as detrusor overactivity, urinary retention, detrusor hyperactivity with impaired contractility, aging, and neurological injuries. Several etiologies may be responsible for DU or the development of an underactive bladder (UAB), but the pathobiology of DU or UAB is not well understood...
November 2016: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27137647/thickening-of-the-cauda-equina-roots-a-common-finding-in-krabbe-disease
#3
Misun Hwang, Giulio Zuccoli, Ashok Panigrahy, David Rodriguez, Michele D Poe, Maria L Escolar
OBJECTIVES: Evaluation of Krabbe disease burden and eligibility for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation are often based on neuroimaging findings using the modified Loes scoring system, which encompasses central but not peripheral nervous system changes. We show that quantitative evaluation of thickened cauda equina nerve roots may improve the evaluation of Krabbe disease and therapeutic guidance. METHODS: Lumbar spine MRI scans of patients obtained between March 2013 and September 2013 were retrospectively evaluated and compared to those of controls...
October 2016: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27018608/idiopathic-spinal-epidural-lipomatosis-in-the-lumbar-spine
#4
Ali A Al-Omari, Rishabh D Phukan, Dana A Leonard, Tyler L Herzog, Kirkham B Wood, Christopher M Bono
Overgrowth of epidural fat, known as spinal epidural lipomatosis (SEL), can cause symptomatic compression of the spinal cord, conus medullaris, or cauda equina. Suggested predisposing factors such as obesity, steroid use, and diabetes mellitus have been based on a few reported cases, many of which were not surgically confirmed. There is a paucity of epidemiological data in surgically confirmed cases for this disorder. The purpose of this independently reviewed, retrospective, matched cohort analysis was to compare the demographics and incidence of comorbidities of patients who underwent lumbar decompression for SEL vs degenerative stenosis without SEL...
May 1, 2016: Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27015688/surgical-treatment-for-posttraumatic-hemorrhage-inside-a-filum-terminale-myxopapillary-ependymoma-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#5
Daijiro Morimoto, Toyohiko Isu, Kyongsong Kim, Masanori Isobe, Tatsuro Takahashi, Yusuke Ishida, Hidehiro Takei, Akio Morita
PURPOSE: Symptoms of cauda equina syndrome due to ependymoma in the conus medullaris or filum terminale develop slowly. However, hemorrhagic change inside spinal tumors can induce acute neurologic decline. Here, we report a case of posttraumatic hemorrhage inside a filum terminale myxopapillary ependymoma presenting as acute neurologic decline, which had a positive prognosis after surgical resection. METHODS: A 28-year-old man presented with buttock pain, sensory disturbance, and motor weakness of bilateral lower extremities after falling on ice during smelt fishing...
May 2016: European Spine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26807127/mechanical-properties-of-nerve-roots-and-rami-radiculares-isolated-from-fresh-pig-spinal-cords
#6
Norihiro Nishida, Tsukasa Kanchiku, Junji Ohgi, Kazuhiko Ichihara, Xian Chen, Toshihiko Taguchi
No reports have described experiments designed to determine the strength characteristics of spinal nerve roots and rami radiculares for the purpose of explaining the complexity of symptoms of medullary cone lesions and cauda equina syndrome. In this study, to explain the pathogenesis of cauda equina syndrome, monoaxial tensile tests were performed to determine the strength characteristics of spinal nerve roots and rami radiculares, and analysis was conducted to evaluate the stress-strain relationship and strength characteristics...
November 2015: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26806431/vertebral-level-and-measurements-of-conus-medullaris-and-dural-sac-termination-with-special-reference-to-the-apex-of-the-sacral-hiatus-anatomical-and-mri-radiologic-study
#7
Ashraf Youssef Nasr
Anatomical orientation of the caudal space and termination level of conus medullaris (CMT) and dural sac (DST) has great significance for anesthetists and neurosurgeons. This study aimed to explore the anatomical landmarks important to perform save spinal anaesthesia, lumber puncture and caudal analgesia through the correlation between the vertebral level of CMT, DST and sacral hiatus apex (SHA) in human cadavers and by using MR images. 60 adult cadavers (40 male and 20 females) and 200 (100 female & 100 male) MR lumbosacral images of 16 to 69 years-old persons were used in this study...
January 25, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26798606/can-mri-findings-help-to-predict-neurological-recovery-in-paraplegics-with-thoracolumbar-fracture
#8
Joonchul Lee, Seong-Eun Koh, Heeyoune Jung, Hye Yeon Lee, In-Sik Lee
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the usefulness of various magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings in the prognosis of neurological recovery in paraplegics with thoracolumbar fracture using association analysis with clinical outcomes and electrodiagnostic features. METHODS: This retrospective study involved 30 patients treated for paraplegia following thoracolumbar fracture. On axial and sagittal T2-weighted MRI scans, nerve root sedimentation sign, root aggregation sign, and signal intensity changes in the conus medullaris were independently assessed by two raters...
December 2015: Annals of Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26601808/anaplastic-extramedullary-cervical-ependymoma-with-leptomeningeal-metastasis
#9
I J Pomeraniec, R F Dallapiazza, H M Sumner, M B Lopes, C I Shaffrey, J S Smith
We present a rare extramedullary ependymoma with diffuse spinal metastatic disease, and review the previous reports of extramedullary spinal ependymomas. Ependymomas are the most common intramedullary spinal cord tumor in adults. These tumors rarely present as extramedullary masses. We treated a 23-year-old man with a history of progressive neck, shoulder and arm pain, with sensory and motor symptoms in the C7 dermatome. MRI of the cervical spine demonstrated a ventral contrast-enhancing lesion with evidence of enhancement along the dura and spinal cord of the upper cervical spine, thoracic spine, and cauda equina...
December 2015: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26321696/-radiotherapy-for-alleviation-of-paraparesis-due-to-leptomeningeal-and-cauda-equina-metastasis-of-her2-positive-breast-cancer-a-case-report
#10
Shutaro Fujimoto, Motoyuki Iwasaki, Masaki Ito, Yoshimasa Niiya, Hiroyuki Itosaka, Shouji Mabuchi, Takeshi Nishioka, Hayato Echizenya, Kiyoshi Kasai
Leptomeningeal metastasis is a rare entity and its diagnosis is often difficult. Moreover, evidence-based therapeutic strategies have not yet been established. A 52-year-old woman presented with high fever and was diagnosed with bacterial meningitis at first examination;although her fever was alleviated, she experienced motor weakness in both of her lower extremities. Ga scintigraphy highlighted the hot-spot areas of the disease in the cranial bone. She was then transferred to our department. Open biopsy of the skull showed metastasis of the cancer...
September 2015: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26296428/neural-involvement-in-endometriosis-review-of-anatomic-distribution-and-mechanisms
#11
REVIEW
Ana C Siquara De Sousa, Stepan Capek, Kimberly K Amrami, Robert J Spinner
Endometriosis (EM) is an infrequent cause of peripheral neuropathy, most commonly sciatic. Perineural spread has recently been introduced as an alternate explanation for cases of lumbosacral or sciatic nerve EM. We performed a literature review to collect all reported cases of peripheral and central nervous system EM in search of anatomic patterns of involvement; potentially to support the perineural spread theory. If available, intraneural invasion and presence of peritoneal EM were recorded. The search revealed 83 articles describing 365 cases of somatic peripheral nervous EM and 13 cases of central nervous EM...
November 2015: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26216730/heterogeneous-appearance-of-central-nervous-system-involvement-in-malignant-mixed-m%C3%A3-llerian-tumors
#12
Helen K Könnecke, Elisabeth J Rushing, Marian Christoph Neidert, Regina Reimann, Luca Regli, Oliver Bozinov, Jan-Karl Burkhardt
Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) is rarely described in malignant mixed Müllerian tumors (MMMTs). Only four intracranial and two spinal cases have been published to date. Here we report two more cases with heterogeneous clinical, radiologic and pathologic features and summarize the available contemporary literature. One patient presented with aphasia due to an intra-axial contrast-enhanced left temporal lesion with marked perifocal edema. After surgical resection, histology showed collections of small uniform tumor cells embedded in a myxoid matrix and compartmentalized by connective tissue septations, consistent with an MMMT...
September 2016: Journal of Neurological Surgery. Part A, Central European Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26165811/-a-case-of-conus-medullaris-infarction-expanding-to-the-vertebral-bodies-major-psoas-and-erector-spinae-muscles
#13
Takuya Konno, Tatsuya Suwabe, Sou Kasahara, Yoshitaka Umeda, Mutsuo Oyake, Nobuya Fujita
A 77-year-old woman presented with conus medullaris and cauda equina syndrome following a sudden pain in the bilateral lower abdomen and right buttock. Lumbar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed not only a conus medullaris lesion, but also several lesions in the vertebral bodies (L1, L2), right major psoas muscle, right multifidus muscle and bilateral erector spinae muscles. As these areas receive blood supply from each branch of the same segmental artery, we considered all of the lesions as infarctions that were a result of a single parent vessel occlusion...
2015: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25972716/complete-avulsion-of-spinal-cord-and-cauda-equina-a-case-report
#14
Grzegorz Miekisiak
Pure ligamentous flexion-distraction injuries of the lumbar spine are relatively rare and even less commonly associated with neurologic compromise. They are largely related to the use of lap belt restrains during motor vehicle accidents. We report a 19-year-old female backseat passenger wearing a lap belt who was involved in a head-on collision. On admission she was paraplegic, with a T12 sensory level and no motor and sensory function of S4-S5 (American Spinal Injury Association (ASIA) A). Plain X-ray and computerized axial tomography (CAT) spine showed a flexion-distraction injury at the L3-L4 level...
April 2015: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25628815/cauda-equina-syndrome-associated-with-dural-ectasia-in-chronic-anlylosing-spondylitis
#15
Sang-Woo Ha, Byung-Chul Son
Cauda equina syndrome (CES) associated with dural ectasia is a rare neurologic complication in patients with longstanding ankylosing spondylitis (AS). We report a 68-year-old male with a 30-year history of AS who presented a typical symptom and signs of progressive CES, urinary incontinence and neuropathic pain of the lumbosacral radiculopathy. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings showed the unique appearances of dural ectasia, multiple dural diverticula, erosion of posterior element of the lumbar spine, tethering of the conus medullaris and adhesion of the lumbosacral nerve roots to the posterior aspect of the dural ectasia...
December 2014: Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25192376/endometriosis-of-the-conus-medullaris-causing-cyclic-radiculopathy
#16
Jeffrey A Steinberg, David D Gonda, Karra Muller, Joseph D Ciacci
Intramedullary spinal cord hematomas are a rare neurosurgical pathological entity typically arising from vascular and neoplastic lesions. Endometriosis is an extremely rare cause of intramedullary spinal cord hematoma, with only 5 previously reported cases in the literature. Endometriosis is characterized by ectopic endometrial tissue, typically located in the female pelvic cavity, that causes a cyclical pain syndrome, bleeding, and infertility. In the rare case of intramedullary endometriosis of the spinal cord, symptoms include cyclical lower-extremity radiculopathies and voiding difficulties, and can acutely cause cauda equina syndrome...
November 2014: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25083842/intraoperative-recording-of-the-bulbocavernosus-reflex
#17
REVIEW
Stanley A Skinner, David B Vodušek
: The bulbocavernosus reflex (BCR) is mediated by the sacral somatic afferent/efferent periphery as well as the sacral cord. Unfortunately, the reflex has suffered from a partly deserved reputation as difficult to implement. However, recent stratagems have improved the test's reliability. Multipulse stimulation (enhanced by double trains as required) and exacting recording technique can yield positive and remarkably reproducible results in patients of all ages and either sex. In this review, we document a 94% baseline BCR acquisition rate among 100 consecutive cases in one institution...
August 2014: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25081961/intramedullary-spinal-cord-abscess-and-subsequent-granuloma-formation-a-rare-complication-of-vertebral-osteomyelitis-detected-by-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#18
Noriyoshi Takebe, Koichi Iwasaki, Hirokuni Hashikata, Hiroki Toda
An intramedullary spinal cord abscess, which is usually associated with discitis, is an uncommon but potentially important complication of vertebral osteomyelitis. The authors describe a rare case of an intramedullary conus medullaris abscess and lumbar osteomyelitis sparing the intervertebral discs and without discitis. The patient also developed a granuloma in the cauda equina during treatment. Diffusion-weighted MRI was useful for differentiating the granulomatous lesion from the relapse of infection. A 65-year-old immunocompetent man with moderately controlled diabetes presented with progressive lowerextremity numbness and weakness with urinary dysfunction...
August 2014: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25042298/sphincter-electromyography-in-diabetes-mellitus-and-multiple-system-atrophy
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Fan Jian, Hua Pan, Zaiqiang Zhang, Jinxi Lin, Na Chen, Lei Zhang, Qing Wu, Han Wang, Yongjun Wang, Liying Cui, Xiaofu Tang
AIMS: Abnormalities of external anal sphincter electromyography (EAS-EMG) characterize multiple system atrophy (MSA) and focal cauda equina or conus medullaris lesions. This study is designed to determine whether and how diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) affects EAS as compared to the abnormalities seen in MSA. METHODS: We conducted multi-motor unit potential (MUP) analysis of EAS in 22 healthy controls, 32 diabetes mellitus (DM) patients without neuropathy, 38 DPN patients, and 68 MSA patients...
September 2015: Neurourology and Urodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25013343/primary-paraganglioma-of-the-spine-a-clinicopathological-study-of-eight-cases
#20
Toshi Mishra, Naina A Goel, Atul H Goel
CONTEXT: Spinal paragangliomas are rare neuroendocrine tumors of the extra-adrenal paraganglionic system. AIMS: This study describes the clinicopathological features of eight cases of spinal paraganglioma and highlights the significance of important morphological features and immunohistochemistry in the diagnosis of paraganglioma at this unusual site. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All the cases of primary spinal paragangliomas diagnosed during the last six years (2008-2013) in the Department of Pathology at our hospital were reviewed...
January 2014: Journal of Craniovertebral Junction and Spine
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