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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520797/cytogenetic-studies-on-populations-of-camponotus-rufipes-fabricius-1775-and-camponotus-renggeri-emery-1894-formicidae-formicinae
#1
Hilton Jeferson Alves Cardoso de Aguiar, Luísa Antônia Campos Barros, Danúbia Rodrigues Alves, Cléa Dos Santos Ferreira Mariano, Jacques Hubert Charles Delabie, Silvia das Graças Pompolo
Two valid ant species, Camponotus rufipes and Camponotus renggeri, have recently been the subject of a broad discussion with reference to taxa synonymization. Both species are quite common among the Neotropical myrmecofauna and share some unique traits, such as the shape of the scape and the pilosity patterns of the tibiae and scapes. A single morphological trait can help distinguish these species; however, only a combination of different approaches can enlighten our view of the complex phylogenetic relationships prevailing in the different populations of these two taxa...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500284/hotspot-analyses-indicate-significant-conservation-gaps-for-evergreen-broadleaved-woody-plants-in-china
#2
Yue Xu, Zehao Shen, Lingxiao Ying, Zhiheng Wang, Jihong Huang, Runguo Zang, Youxu Jiang
Evergreen broadleaved woody plants (EBWPs) are dominant components in forests and savanna of the global tropic and subtropic regions. Southern China possesses the largest continuous area of subtropical EBWPs distribution, harboring a high proportion of endemic species. Hotspot and gap analyses are effective methods for analyzing the spatial pattern of biodiversity and conservation and were used here for EBWPs in China. Based on a distribution data set of 6,265 EBWPs with a spatial resolution of 50 × 50 km, we measured diversity of EBWPs in China using four indices: species richness, corrected weighted endemism, relative phylogenetic diversity, and phylogenetic endemism...
May 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492804/post-fire-reproduction-of-herbs-at-a-savanna-gallery-forest-boundary-in-distrito-federal-brazil
#3
K G Massi, C U O Eugênio, A C Franco
In Cerrado, studies of post-fire vegetation recovery show that some herbaceous species are able to flower shortly after fires. However, these were mainly short-term studies that focused on grasslands and savannas. Little is known about the effects of fire on ground layer of forests that border the savannas in Central Brazil. Thus, an accidental burning gave us the opportunity to describe the reproductive activity of the ground layer vegetation after a fire event along a savanna-forest boundary at the IBGE Ecological Reserve, Brasília, Brazil...
May 4, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489889/an-environmental-assessment-and-risk-map-of-ascaris-lumbricoides-and-necator-americanus-distributions-in-manufahi-district-timor-leste
#4
Rebecca Wardell, Archie C A Clements, Aparna Lal, David Summers, Stacey Llewellyn, Suzy J Campbell, James McCarthy, Darren J Gray, Susana V Nery
BACKGROUND: In Timor-Leste there have been intermittent and ineffective soil-transmitted helminth (STH) deworming programs since 2004. In a resource-constrained setting, having information on the geographic distribution of STH can aid in prioritising high risk communities for intervention. This study aimed to quantify the environmental risk factors for STH infection and to produce a risk map of STH in Manufahi district, Timor-Leste. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Georeferenced cross-sectional data and stool samples were obtained from 2,194 participants in 606 households in 24 villages in the Manufahi District as part of cross sectional surveys done in the context of the "WASH for Worms" randomised controlled trial...
May 10, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483041/homo-naledi-and-pleistocene-hominin-evolution-in-subequatorial-africa
#5
Lee R Berger, John Hawks, Paul Hgm Dirks, Marina Elliott, Eric M Roberts
New discoveries and dating of fossil remains from the Rising Star cave system, Cradle of Humankind, South Africa, have strong implications for our understanding of Pleistocene human evolution in Africa. Direct dating of Homo naledi fossils from the Dinaledi Chamber (Berger et al., 2015) shows that they were deposited between about 236 ka and 335 ka (Dirks et al., 2017), placing H. naledi in the later Middle Pleistocene. Hawks and colleagues (Hawks et al., 2017) report the discovery of a second chamber within the Rising Star system (Dirks et al...
May 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472113/modelling-seasonal-habitat-suitability-for-wide-ranging-species-invasive-wild-pigs-in-northern-australia
#6
Jens G Froese, Carl S Smith, Peter A Durr, Clive A McAlpine, Rieks D van Klinken
Invasive wildlife often causes serious damage to the economy and agriculture as well as environmental, human and animal health. Habitat models can fill knowledge gaps about species distributions and assist planning to mitigate impacts. Yet, model accuracy and utility may be compromised by small study areas and limited integration of species ecology or temporal variability. Here we modelled seasonal habitat suitability for wild pigs, a widespread and harmful invader, in northern Australia. We developed a resource-based, spatially-explicit and regional-scale approach using Bayesian networks and spatial pattern suitability analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468601/anticonvulsant-activity-of-caryocar-coriaceum-wittm-fixed-pulp-oil-against-pentylenetetrazol-induced-seizures
#7
Cleide Correia Oliveira, Clarissa Vasconcelos Oliveira, Jéssica Grigoletto, Leandro Rodrigo Ribeiro, Vinícius Rafael Funck, Letícia Meier, Michele Rechia Fighera, Luiz Fernando Freire Royes, Ana Flávia Furian, Irwin Rose Alencar Menezes, Mauro Schneider Oliveira
OBJECTIVES: Epilepsy is a common brain disease and a major worldwide public health problem. The seizures in a significant number of patients suffering from epilepsy remain inadequately controlled by currently available pharmacological treatments. Accordingly, there is a need for the discovery of new anticonvulsant approaches with improved efficacy and a better safety profile. In this context, natural products can be a valuable source of substances with potential anticonvulsant activity...
May 3, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448932/seasonal-changes-of-fructans-in-dimorphic-roots-of-ichthyothere-terminalis-spreng-blake-asteraceae-growing-in-cerrado
#8
Lorrayne Veloso de Almeida, Pedro Henrique Ferri, José Carlos Seraphin, Moemy Gomes de Moraes
Cerrado is a floristically rich savanna in Brazil, whose vegetation consists of a physiognomic mosaic, influenced by rainfall seasonality. In the dry season rainfall is substantially lower and reduces soil water supply, mainly for herbs and subshrubs. Climatic seasonal variations may well define phenological shifts and induce fluctuations of plant reserve pools. Some Cerrado native species have thickened underground organs that bear buds and store reserves, as adaptive features to enable plant survival following environmental stresses...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434541/phytoliths-indicate-significant-arboreal-cover-at-sahelanthropus-type-locality-tm266-in-northern-chad-and-a-decrease-in-later-sites
#9
Alice Novello, Doris Barboni, Florence Sylvestre, Anne-Elisabeth Lebatard, Christine Paillès, Didier L Bourlès, Andossa Likius, Hassane Taisso Mackaye, Patrick Vignaud, Michel Brunet
We analyzed phytolith and diatom remains preserved at 45 Miocene and Pliocene localities dated between 8 and 1 Ma in northern Chad (16-17°N). Some of these localities yielded cranial remains, lower jaws, and teeth of the hominin species Australopithecus bahrelghazali (∼3.6 Ma) and Sahelanthropus tchadensis (∼7 Ma). Of the 111 sediment samples analyzed, 41 yielded phytoliths, 20 yielded diatoms, and seven yielded both phytoliths and diatoms. Freshwater planktonic and tychoplanktonic diatom species, indicative of lacustrine conditions, are dominant (>91%) in the samples...
May 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425424/spatial-distribution-of-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-in-south-american-caecilians
#10
Carolina Lambertini, C Guilherme Becker, Cecilia Bardier, Domingos da Silva Leite, Luís Felipe Toledo
The amphibian-killing fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is linked to population declines in anurans and salamanders globally. To date, however, few studies have attempted to screen Bd in live caecilians; Bd-positive caecilians have only been reported in Africa and French Guiana. Here, we performed a retrospective survey of museum preserved specimens to (1) describe spatial patterns of Bd infection in Gymnophiona across South America and (2) test whether areas of low climatic suitability for Bd in anurans predict Bd spatial epidemiology in caecilians...
April 20, 2017: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425026/photosynthetic-responses-to-temperature-across-leaf-canopy-ecosystem-scales-a-15-year-study-in-a-californian-oak-grass-savanna
#11
Siyan Ma, Jessica L Osuna, Joseph Verfaillie, Dennis D Baldocchi
Ecosystem CO2 fluxes measured with eddy-covariance techniques provide a new opportunity to retest functional responses of photosynthesis to abiotic factors at the ecosystem level, but examining the effects of one factor (e.g., temperature) on photosynthesis remains a challenge as other factors may confound under circumstances of natural experiments. In this study, we developed a data mining framework to analyze a set of ecosystem CO2 fluxes measured from three eddy-covariance towers, plus a suite of abiotic variables (e...
April 19, 2017: Photosynthesis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414784/savanna-elephant-numbers-are-only-a-quarter-of-their-expected-values
#12
Ashley S Robson, Morgan J Trimble, Andrew Purdon, Kim D Young-Overton, Stuart L Pimm, Rudi J van Aarde
Savannas once constituted the range of many species that human encroachment has now reduced to a fraction of their former distribution. Many survive only in protected areas. Poaching reduces the savanna elephant, even where protected, likely to the detriment of savanna ecosystems. While resources go into estimating elephant populations, an ecological benchmark by which to assess counts is lacking. Knowing how many elephants there are and how many poachers kill is important, but on their own, such data lack context...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403506/parasite-responses-to-large-mammal-loss-in-an-african-savanna
#13
Sara Weinstein, Georgia Titcomb, Bernard Agwanda, Corinna Riginos, Hillary Young
Biodiversity loss can alter disease transmission; however, the magnitude and direction of these effects vary widely across ecosystems, scales, and pathogens. Here we experimentally examine the effects of one of the most globally pervasive patterns of biodiversity decline, the selective loss of large wildlife, on infection probability, intensity and population size of a group of common rodent-borne parasites - macroparasitic helminths. Consistent with previous work on vector-borne pathogens, we found that large wildlife removal causes strong and systematic increases of rodent-borne parasites, largely due to increases in rodent density, as rodents are released from competition with larger herbivores...
April 12, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396440/floodplains-as-an-achilles-heel-of-amazonian-forest-resilience
#14
Bernardo M Flores, Milena Holmgren, Chi Xu, Egbert H van Nes, Catarina C Jakovac, Rita C G Mesquita, Marten Scheffer
The massive forests of central Amazonia are often considered relatively resilient against climatic variation, but this view is challenged by the wildfires invoked by recent droughts. The impact of such fires that spread from pervasive sources of ignition may reveal where forests are less likely to persist in a drier future. Here we combine field observations with remotely sensed information for the whole Amazon to show that the annually inundated lowland forests that run through the heart of the system may be trapped relatively easily into a fire-dominated savanna state...
April 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394937/the-brazilian-freshwater-wetscape-changes-in-tree-community-diversity-and-composition-on-climatic-and-geographic-gradients
#15
Florian Wittmann, Márcia C M Marques, Geraldo Damasceno Júnior, Jean Carlos Budke, Maria T F Piedade, Astrid de Oliveira Wittmann, Juan Carlos Montero, Rafael L de Assis, Natália Targhetta, Pia Parolin, Wolfgang J Junk, J Ethan Householder
Wetlands harbor an important compliment of regional plant diversity, but in many regions data on wetland diversity and composition is still lacking, thus hindering our understanding of the processes that control it. While patterns of broad-scale terrestrial diversity and composition typically correlate with contemporary climate it is not clear to what extent patterns in wetlands are complimentary, or conflicting. To elucidate this, we consolidate data from wetland forest inventories in Brazil and examine patterns of diversity and composition along temperature and rainfall gradients spanning five biomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390027/insects-associated-with-pig-carrion-in-two-environments-of-the-brazilian-savanna
#16
L S de Faria, M L Paseto, M S Couri, C A Mello-Patiu, J Mendes
Studies of carrion fauna have increased in Brazil and have contributed to the knowledge of this fauna in the national territory. Brazil has continental dimensions and presents various biomes in its territorial area. Most of the carrion fauna have seldom been studied, and this is especially true for the Savanna or "Cerrado." The present research examined the fauna visiting carrion in two environments and two seasons in a rural area situated in a region of Cerrado in southeastern Brazil. The two environments studied were a pasture and a fragment of semi-deciduous forest...
April 8, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388640/a-savanna-response-to-precipitation-intensity
#17
Ryan S Berry, Andrew Kulmatiski
As the atmosphere warms, precipitation events are becoming less frequent but more intense. A three-year experiment in Kruger National Park, South Africa, found that fewer, more intense precipitation events encouraged woody plant encroachment. To test whether or not these treatment responses persisted over time, here, we report results from all five years of that experiment. Grass growth, woody plant growth, total fine root number and area and hydrologic tracer uptake by grasses and woody plants were measured in six treated plots (8 m by 8 m) and six control plots...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369906/the-effects-of-ant-nests-on-soil-fertility-and-plant-performance-a-meta-analysis
#18
Alejandro G Farji-Brener, Victoria Werenkraut
Ants are recognized as one of the major sources of soil disturbance worldwide. However, this view is largely based on isolated studies and qualitative reviews. Here, for the first time, we quantitatively determined whether ant nests affect soil fertility and plant performance, and identified the possible sources of variation of these effects. Using Bayesian mixed-models meta-analysis we tested the hypotheses that ant effects on soil fertility and plant performance depend on the substrate sampled, ant feeding type, latitude, habitat and the plant response variable measured...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369733/feeding-in-fear-how-adult-male-western-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes-verus-adjust-to-predation-and-savanna-habitat-pressures
#19
Stacy Lindshield, Brent J Danielson, Jessica M Rothman, Jill D Pruetz
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated risk-sensitive foraging in adult male western chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes verus) occupying a savanna environment at Fongoli, Senegal. The aim of this study was to determine how the risks of predation and heat stress influenced their behavior while feeding on a key food, fruit of the baobab tree (Adansonia digitata). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Proximity of fruiting baobab trees to anthropogenic landmarks were compared to food intake, feeding rate, and behavioral indicators of fear in adult males (N = 11) at Fongoli...
March 28, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28357641/-distribution-of-species-and-kdr-gene-frequency-among-anopheles-gambiae-s-s-and-anopheles-coluzzii-populations-in-five-agricultural-sites-in-c%C3%A3-te-d-ivoire
#20
E Tia, M Chouaibou, C N G Gbalégba, A M O Boby, M Koné, A K Kadjo
The resistance of Anopheles gambiae s.l. to insecticides constitutes a concern for the programs of malaria control because it can be an obstacle to effective control of the vectors. The follow-up of this resistance is a priority to work out strategies of management and to preserve the means of that major malaria vector control activities. The general objective of this study is to identify the species within An. gambiae s.l., and to determine the frequency of the Kdr gene in An. gambiae s.s. and An. coluzzii in five agricultural sites in Ivory Coast: an urban site, two semirural sites (coffee-trees/cacao-trees, orchard) and two rural sites (rice site and a traditional village without agricultural insecticide)...
May 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
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