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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148147/altered-n170-and-mood-symptoms-in-bipolar-disorder-an-electrophysiological-study-of-configural-face-processing
#1
Ivy F Tso, Tyler B Grove, Savanna A Mueller, Lisa O'Donnell, Jinsoo Chun, Melvin G McInnis, Patricia J Deldin
OBJECTIVES: Altered social behavior during mood episodes in bipolar disorder often has detrimental and long-lasting interpersonal consequences. Abnormal face processing may play a role in linking brain functions to clinical symptoms and behavior. This study aimed to understand configural face processing in bipolar disorder as a function of basic communicative attributes of the face and mood symptoms using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). METHODS: Forty-two participants with bipolar I disorder (BP) and 43 healthy controls (HC) viewed face stimuli varying in emotion (neutral or fearful), head orientation (forward or deviated), and gaze direction (direct or averted) while ERPs were recorded...
November 17, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147779/the-role-of-ants-in-north-temperate-grasslands-a-review
#2
REVIEW
B D Wills, D A Landis
Historic and current land-use changes have altered the landscape for grassland biota, with over 90% of grasslands and savannas converted to agriculture or some other use in north temperate regions. Reintegrating grasslands into agricultural landscapes can increase biodiversity while also providing valuable ecosystem services. In contrast to their well-known importance in tropical and subtropical ecosystems, the role of ants in temperate grasslands is often underappreciated. As consumers and ecosystem engineers, ants in temperate grasslands influence invertebrate, plant, and soil microbial diversity and potentially alter grassland productivity...
November 16, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143883/rooting-depth-varies-differentially-in-trees-and-grasses-as-a-function-of-mean-annual-rainfall-in-an-african-savanna
#3
Ricardo M Holdo, Jesse B Nippert, Michelle C Mack
A significant fraction of the terrestrial biosphere comprises biomes containing tree-grass mixtures. Forecasting vegetation dynamics in these environments requires a thorough understanding of how trees and grasses use and compete for key belowground resources. There is disagreement about the extent to which tree-grass vertical root separation occurs in these ecosystems, how this overlap varies across large-scale environmental gradients, and what these rooting differences imply for water resource availability and tree-grass competition and coexistence...
November 16, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140577/herbivory-and-drought-generate-short-term-stochasticity-and-long-term-stability-in-a-savanna-understory-community
#4
Corinna Riginos, Lauren M Porensky, Kari E Veblen, Truman P Young
Rainfall and herbivory are fundamental drivers of grassland plant dynamics, yet few studies have examined long-term interactions between these factors in an experimental setting. Understanding such interactions is important, as rainfall is becoming increasingly erratic and native wild herbivores are being replaced by livestock. Livestock grazing and episodic low rainfall are thought to interact, leading to greater community change than either factor alone. We examined patterns of change and stability in herbaceous community composition through four dry periods, or droughts, over 15 years of the Kenya Long-term Exclosure Experiment (KLEE), which consists of six different combinations of cattle, native wild herbivores (e...
November 15, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127867/effects-of-ashes-from-a-brazilian-savanna-wildfire-on-water-soil-and-biota-an-ecotoxicological-approach
#5
Eduardo C Oliveira-Filho, Darlan Q Brito, Zelia M B Dias, Mayara S Guarieiro, Esther L Carvalho, Maria L Fascineli, Cintia C Niva, Cesar K Grisolia
Wildfire is very common in Brazilian savannas, and its effects on water, soil and aquatic/soil organisms are poorly understood. In this study, we observed the effects of fire, especially of ashes, on surface soil and subsurface water in a typical Brazilian savanna (Cerrado sensu strictu) for one year. Soil analyses (pH, organic matter content, potential acidity, K, Ca, Mg and P) and subsurface water analyses (NO(3-), PO4(3-) Mg(2+), Ca(2+) and K(+)) were assessed. We evaluated the ecotoxicological effects of ashes on three different endpoints and species, in fish Danio rerio (embryonic development), aquatic snail Biomphalaria glabrata (reproduction) and a soil species Enchytraeus sp...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126192/effects-of-exyra-ridingsii-lepidoptera-noctuidae-on-sarracenia-flava-nepenthales-sarraceniaceae
#6
Christine A Ricci, Albert J Meier, Ouida W Meier, T Keith Philips
Exyra ridingsii (Riley) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a moth whose obligate host is the pitcher plant Sarracenia flava (L.) (Nepenthales: Sarraceniaceae). The entire life cycle of the moth is completed in the trumpets of this fire-dependent plant that is found throughout the southeastern United States in bogs, long-leaf pine savannas, and pocosins. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of E. ridingsii on S. flava, including the effect of herbivory on trumpet height in the year subsequent to feeding and whether moths select trumpets for oviposition based on height...
November 4, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104437/structure-and-tree-species-composition-in-different-habitats-of-savanna-used-by-indigenous-people-in-the-northern-brazilian-amazon
#7
Rodrigo Leonardo Costa de Oliveira, Hugo Leonardo Sousa Farias, Ricardo de Oliveira Perdiz, Veridiana Vizoni Scudeller, Reinaldo Imbrozio Barbosa
Background: Woody plant diversity from the Amazonian savannas has been poorly quantified. In order to improve the knowledge on wood plants of these regional ecosystems, a tree inventory was carried out in four different habitats used by indigenous people living in the savanna areas of the Northern Brazilian Amazon. The habitats were divided into two types (or groups) of vegetation formations: forest (riparian forest, forest island, and buritizal = Mauritia palm formation) and non-forest (typical savanna)...
2017: Biodiversity Data Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104356/maize-grain-legume-intercropping-for-enhanced-resource-use-efficiency-and-crop-productivity-in-the-guinea-savanna-of-northern-ghana
#8
Michael Kermah, Angelinus C Franke, Samuel Adjei-Nsiah, Benjamin D K Ahiabor, Robert C Abaidoo, Ken E Giller
Smallholder farmers in the Guinea savanna practise cereal-legume intercropping to mitigate risks of crop failure in mono-cropping. The productivity of cereal-legume intercrops could be influenced by the spatial arrangement of the intercrops and the soil fertility status. Knowledge on the effect of soil fertility status on intercrop productivity is generally lacking in the Guinea savanna despite the wide variability in soil fertility status in farmers' fields, and the productivity of within-row spatial arrangement of intercrops relative to the distinct-row systems under on-farm conditions has not been studied in the region...
November 2017: Field Crops Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100686/carbon-exchanges-and-their-responses-to-temperature-and-precipitation-in-forest-ecosystems-in-yunnan-southwest-china
#9
Xuehai Fei, Qinghai Song, Yiping Zhang, Yuntong Liu, Liqing Sha, Guirui Yu, Leiming Zhang, Changqun Duan, Yun Deng, Chuansheng Wu, Zhiyun Lu, Kang Luo, Aiguo Chen, Kun Xu, Weiwei Liu, Hua Huang, Yanqiang Jin, Ruiwu Zhou, Jing Li, Youxing Lin, Liguo Zhou, Yane Fu, Xiaolong Bai, Xianhui Tang, Jinbo Gao, Wenjun Zhou, John Grace
Forest ecosystems play an increasingly important role in the global carbon cycle. However, knowledge on carbon exchanges, their spatio-temporal patterns, and the extent of the key controls that affect carbon fluxes is lacking. In this study, we employed 29-site-years of eddy covariance data to observe the state, spatio-temporal variations and climate sensitivity of carbon fluxes (gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Reco), and net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE)) in four representative forest ecosystems in Yunnan...
October 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091119/effects-of-an-accidental-dry-season-fire-on-the-reproductive-phenology-of-two-neotropical-savanna-shrubs
#10
P Dodonov, C B Zanelli, D M Silva-Matos
Fire is a recurrent disturbance in savanna vegetation and savanna species are adapted to it. Even so, fire may affect various aspects of plant ecology, including phenology. We studied the effects of a spatially heterogeneous fire on the reproductive phenology of two dominant woody plant species, Miconia albicans (Melastomataceae) and Schefflera vinosa (Araliaceae), in a savanna area in South-eastern Brazil. The study site was partially burnt by a dry-season accidental fire in August 2006, and we monitored the phenolology of 30 burnt and 30 unburnt individuals of each species between September 2007 and September 2008...
October 30, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077763/spatial-temporal-dynamics-of-neotropical-velvet-ant-hymenoptera-mutillidae-communities-along-a-forest-savanna-gradient
#11
Júlio Miguel Alvarenga, Cecília Rodrigues Vieira, Leandro Braga Godinho, Pedro Henrique Campelo, James Purser Pitts, Guarino Rinaldi Colli
Understanding how and why biological communities are organized over space and time is a major challenge and can aid biodiversity conservation in times of global changes. Herein, spatial-temporal variation in the structure of velvet ant communities was examined along a forest-savanna gradient in the Brazilian Cerrado to assess the roles of environmental filters and interspecific interactions upon community assembly. Velvet ants were sampled using 25 arrays of Y-shaped pitfall traps with drift fences for one year along an environmental gradient from cerrado sensu stricto (open canopy, warmer, drier) to cerradão (closed canopy, cooler, moister)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073193/body-size-structure-of-central-iberian-mammal-fauna-reveals-semidesertic-conditions-during-the-middle-miocene-global-cooling-event
#12
Iris Menéndez, Ana R Gómez Cano, Blanca A García Yelo, Laura Domingo, M Soledad Domingo, Juan L Cantalapiedra, Fernando Blanco, Manuel Hernández Fernández
We developed new quantitative palaeoclimatic inference models based on the body-size structure of mammal faunas from the Old World tropics and applied them to the Somosaguas fossil site (middle Miocene, central Iberian Peninsula). Twenty-six mammal species have been described at this site, including proboscideans, ungulates, carnivores, insectivores, lagomorphs and rodents. Our analyses were based on multivariate and bivariate regression models correlating climatic data and body-size structure of 63 modern mammal assemblages from Sub-Saharan Africa and the Indian subcontinent...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072970/dipteryx-alata-vogel-may-improve-lipid-profile-and-atherogenic-indices-in-wistar-rats-dipteryx-alata-and-atherogenic-indices
#13
Adriana Maria Ragassi Fiorini, Sandra Maria Barbalho, Élen Landgraf Guiguer, Marie Oshiiwa, Claudemir Gregório Mendes, Rogério Lopes Vieites, Agnaldo Bruno Chies, Priscilla Bianca de Oliveira, Maricelma da Silva Soares de Souza, Claudia Cristina T Nicolau
Worldwide prevalence of noncommunicable chronic degenerative diseases is among the main causes of death worldwide. The consumption of some foods such as nuts and seeds may be beneficial in preventing these diseases. Dipteryx alata Vogel (DA), known popularly as Baru, belongs to the family Fabaceae and is a native fruit tree from the Brazilian savanna. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of seeds of DA on the metabolic and oxidative profile of Wistar rats. Animals were divided randomly into four groups (n = 10): G1 (control group), and G2 (treated with DA 20%), G3 (treated with DA 30%), and G4 (treated with DA 40%)...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069536/unexpectedly-high-genetic-diversity-and-divergence-among-populations-of-the-apomictic-neotropical-tree-miconia-albicans
#14
Ana Carolina Cordeiro Dias, Annelise C Serra, Diana S Sampaio, Eduardo L Borba, Ana M Bonetti, Paulo E Oliveira
• Since tropical trees often have long generation time and relatively small reproductive populations, breeding systems and genetic variation are important for population viability and have consequences for conservation. Miconia albicans is an obligate, diplosporous, apomictic species widespread in the Brazilian Cerrado, the savanna areas in Central Brazil, and elsewhere in the Neotropics. The genetic variability would be, theoretically, low within these male sterile and possibly clonal populations, although some variation would be expected due to recombination during restitutional meiosis...
October 25, 2017: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064742/seasonal-effects-on-the-sleep-wake-cycle-the-rest-activity-rhythm-and-quality-of-life-for-japanese-and-thai-older-people
#15
Yu Kume, Sachiko Makabe, Naruemol Singha-Dong, Patama Vajamun, Hataichanok Apikomonkon, Jiranan Griffiths
BACKGROUND: The sleep-wake cycle and the rest-activity rhythm are known to change with aging, and such changes have been implicated in higher levels of depression as well as an increased incidence of dementia. However, information supporting seasonal changes in the sleep-wake cycle, the rest-activity rhythm and quality of life in older community-dwelling people remains insufficient. The aim of the present study was to prospectively investigate seasonal effects on the sleep-wake cycle, the rest-activity rhythm and quality of life among older people living in areas of Japan or Thailand with different climate classifications...
October 24, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054812/the-impact-of-inter-annual-rainfall-variability-on-african-savannas-changes-with-mean-rainfall
#16
Alexis D Synodinos, Britta Tietjen, Dirk Lohmann, Florian Jeltsch
Savannas are mixed tree-grass ecosystems whose dynamics are predominantly regulated by resource competition and the temporal variability in climatic and environmental factors such as rainfall and fire. Hence, increasing inter-annual rainfall variability due to climate change could have a significant impact on savannas. To investigate this, we used an ecohydrological model of stochastic differential equations and simulated African savanna dynamics along a gradient of mean annual rainfall (520-780 mm/year) for a range of inter-annual rainfall variabilities...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053428/dust-bathing-behaviors-of-african-herbivores-and-the-potential-risk-of-inhalational-anthrax
#17
Zoe R Barandongo, John K E Mfune, Wendy C Turner
Anthrax in herbivorous wildlife and livestock is generally assumed to be transmitted via ingestion or inhalation of Bacillus anthracis spores. Although recent studies have highlighted the importance of the ingestion route for anthrax transmission, little is known about the inhalational route in natural systems. Dust bathing could aerosolize soilborne pathogens such as B. anthracis, exposing dust-bathing individuals to inhalational infections. We investigated the potential role of dust bathing in the transmission of inhalational anthrax to herbivorous wildlife in Etosha National Park, Namibia, an area with endemic seasonal anthrax outbreaks...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050949/high-frequency-of-trypanosomatids-in-gallery-forest-bats-of-a-neotropical-savanna
#18
João Lucas M Lourenço, Thaís T C Minuzzi-Souza, Larissa R Silva, Amanda C Oliveira, Vagner J Mendonça, Nadjar Nitz, Ludmilla M S Aguiar, Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves
Bats are well-known hosts of trypanosomatids, though information about their role as reservoirs of these protozoans in the Brazilian savanna is poorly known. We aimed to analyze the occurrence of trypanosomatid species in bats occurring in remnants of gallery forests of Brasília, Federal District of Brazil. We sampled bats using mist nets in six sites, and we collected blood, wing fragments and oral swab samples from all captured individuals. Trypanosomatids were identified in the captured bats through sequencing of the SSUrRNA region and kDNA qPCR...
October 16, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044840/impacts-of-climate-and-land-use-on-n2-o-and-ch4-fluxes-from-tropical-ecosystems-in-the-mt-kilimanjaro-region-tanzania
#19
Adrian Gütlein, Friederike Gerschlauer, Imani Kikoti, Ralf Kiese
In this study, we quantify the impacts of climate and land use on soil N2 O and CH4 fluxes from tropical forest, agroforest, arable and savanna ecosystems in Africa. To do so, we measured GHG fluxes from twelve different ecosystems along climate and land-use gradients at Mt. Kilimanjaro, combining long-term in situ chamber and laboratory soil-core incubation techniques. Both methods showed similar patterns of GHG exchange. Although there were distinct differences from ecosystem to ecosystem, soils generally functioned as net sources and sinks for N2 O and CH4 , respectively...
October 17, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037414/chimpanzee-vertebrate-consumption-savanna-and-forest-chimpanzees-compared
#20
Jim Moore, Jessica Black, R Adriana Hernandez-Aguilar, Gen'ichi Idani, Alex Piel, Fiona Stewart
There is broad consensus among paleoanthropologists that meat-eating played a key role in the evolution of Homo, but the details of where, when, and why are hotly debated. It has been argued that increased faunivory was causally connected with hominin adaptation to open, savanna habitats. If savanna-dwelling chimpanzees eat meat more frequently than do forest chimpanzees, it would support the notion that open, dry, seasonal habitats promote hunting or scavenging by hominoids. Here we present observational and fecal analysis data on vertebrate consumption from several localities within the dry, open Ugalla region of Tanzania...
November 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
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