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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732406/quantifying-deforestation-and-forest-degradation-with-thermal-response
#1
Hua Lin, Yajun Chen, Qinghai Song, Peili Fu, James Cleverly, Vincenzo Magliulo, Beverly E Law, Christopher M Gough, Lukas Hörtnagl, Filippo Di Gennaro, Giorgio Matteucci, Leonardo Montagnani, Pierpaolo Duce, Changliang Shao, Tomomichi Kato, Damien Bonal, Eugénie Paul-Limoges, Jason Beringer, John Grace, Zexin Fan
Deforestation and forest degradation cause the deterioration of resources and ecosystem services. However, there are still no operational indicators to measure forest status, especially for forest degradation. In the present study, we analysed the thermal response number (TRN, calculated by daily total net radiation divided by daily temperature range) of 163 sites including mature forest, disturbed forest, planted forest, shrubland, grassland, savanna vegetation and cropland. TRN generally increased with latitude, however the regression of TRN against latitude differed among vegetation types...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712471/early-pliocene-anuran-fossils-from-kanapoi-kenya-and-the-first-fossil%C3%A2-record-for-the-african-burrowing-frog-hemisus-neobatrachia-hemisotidae
#2
Massimo Delfino
Isolated amphibian bones from the early Pliocene of Kanapoi (West Turkana, Kenya) help to improve the scarce fossil record of the late Neogene and Quaternary amphibians from East Africa. All currently available 579 bones are referable exclusively to the Anura (frogs and toads). More than half of the remains (366) are identified as Hemisus cf. Hemisus marmoratus, an extant species that still inhabits Kenya, but apparently not the northwest of the country and the Turkana area in particular. The rest of the remains are identified simply as Anura indet...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702039/ceres-maize-model-for-determining-the-optimum-planting-dates-of-early-maturing-maize-varieties-in-northern-nigeria
#3
Adnan A Adnan, Jibrin M Jibrin, Alpha Y Kamara, Bassam L Abdulrahman, Abdulwahab S Shaibu, Ismail I Garba
Field trials were carried out in the Sudan Savannah of Nigeria to assess the usefulness of CERES-maize crop model as a decision support tool for optimizing maize production through manipulation of plant dates. The calibration experiments comprised of 20 maize varieties planted during the dry and rainy seasons of 2014 and 2015 at Bayero University Kano and Audu Bako College of Agriculture Dambatta. The trials for model evaluation were conducted in 16 different farmer fields across the Sudan (Bunkure and Garun-Mallam) and Northern Guinea (Tudun-Wada and Lere) Savannas using two of the calibrated varieties under four different sowing dates...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701297/genomic-analysis-of-an-infant-with-intractable-diarrhea-and-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#4
Dale L Bodian, Thierry Vilboux, Suchitra K Hourigan, Callie L Jenevein, Haresh Mani, Kathleen C Kent, Alina Khromykh, Benjamin D Solomon, Natalie S Hauser
We describe a case of an infant presenting with intractable diarrhea who subsequently developed dilated cardiomyopathy, for whom a diagnosis was not initially achieved despite extensive clinical testing, including panel-based genetic testing. Research-based whole genome sequences of the proband and both parents were analyzed by the SAVANNA pipeline, a variant prioritization strategy integrating features of variants, genes, and phenotypes, which was implemented using publicly available tools. Although the intestinal morphological abnormalities characteristic of congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE) were not observed in the initial clinical gastrointestinal tract biopsies of the proband, an intronic variant, EPCAM c...
July 12, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699969/the-effect-of-size-and-density-on-nut-removal-in-syagrus-loefgrenii-glassman-arecaceae-in-the-brazilian-cerrado
#5
J Ragusa-Netto
In this study I tested the effect of Syagrus loefgrenii nut size and number on the intensity of removal by rodents across seasons. Trials were performed in which piles of either small or large endocarps (1, 3, 6, 12, and 25) were subjected to removal by rodents in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna). Despite of variations in the intensity of removal, always this process decrease conform endocarp number. Also, mean proportion of endocarp removal was unrelated to year period, initial number, and size of endocarps...
July 10, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698507/risk-assessment-of-mycotoxins-in-stored-maize-grains-consumed-by-infants-and-young-children-in-nigeria
#6
Modupeade C Adetunji, Olusegun O Atanda, Chibundu N Ezekiel
Maize is a major complimentary food for infants (0-4years) and young children (5-12years) in Nigeria. In this study, we assessed the risk of exposure of infants and young children (IYC) to some major mycotoxins in stored maize grains from five agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. The probable daily intake approach was employed to determine exposure to five mycotoxins while the margin of exposure (MOE) and population at risk of primary hepatocellular carcinoma approaches were used to characterize the risk of consuming aflatoxin contaminated maize...
July 10, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696321/how-large-herbivores-subsidize-aquatic-food-webs-in-african-savannas
#7
Robert M Pringle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690931/nectar-sampling-for-prairie-and-oak-savanna-butterfly-restoration
#8
Paige M Arnold, Helen J Michaels
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Understanding floral resources is vital for restoring pollinators in habitats affected by anthropogenic development and climate change. As the primary adult food, nectar can limit butterfly longevity and reproduction. For pollinator restoration, it would therefore be useful to examine nectar resources. However, because many flowers preferred by butterflies are too small for microcapillary sampling and the potential for nectar contamination can make accurate measurement difficult, we developed a modified centrifugation method to extract and separate nectar and pollen...
June 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688456/the-social-organization-of-homo-ergaster-inferences-from-anti-predator-responses-in-extant-primates
#9
Erik P Willems, Carel P van Schaik
Patterns of primate socioecology have been used to suggest that the first truly savanna-dwelling hominin, Homo ergaster, lived in sizeable groups. Here, we revisit these estimates and infer additional features of the social organization of these early hominins based on anti-predator responses observed across the primate taxon. We first show that the effect of habitat on primate group size, composition, and sexual dimorphism is negligible after controlling for substrate use and phylogeny: terrestrial species live in larger groups with more and bigger males than arboreal taxa...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681306/aquatic-ecotoxicity-of-ashes-from-brazilian-savanna-wildfires
#10
Darlan Q Brito, Carlos José S Passos, Daphne H F Muniz, Eduardo C Oliveira-Filho
In a global scenario of climate change, several studies have predicted an increase in fires in different parts of the world. With the occurrence of rains following the fires in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado biome), the compounds present in ashes may enter aquatic environments and cause adverse effects to these ecosystems. In this context, this study evaluated the potential toxicity of ashes from two areas of Cerrado and an area of pasture, through ecotoxicological bioassays and using three aquatic species from distinct trophic levels, which were exposed to different dilutions of ashes: the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia, the fish Danio rerio and the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674015/limits-of-brazil-s-forest-code-as-a-means-to-end-illegal-deforestation
#11
Andrea A Azevedo, Raoni Rajão, Marcelo A Costa, Marcelo C C Stabile, Marcia N Macedo, Tiago N P Dos Reis, Ane Alencar, Britaldo S Soares-Filho, Rayane Pacheco
The 2012 Brazilian Forest Code governs the fate of forests and savannas on Brazil's 394 Mha of privately owned lands. The government claims that a new national land registry (SICAR), introduced under the revised law, could end illegal deforestation by greatly reducing the cost of monitoring, enforcement, and compliance. This study evaluates that potential, using data from state-level land registries (CAR) in Pará and Mato Grosso that were precursors of SICAR. Using geospatial analyses and stakeholder interviews, we quantify the impact of CAR on deforestation and forest restoration, investigating how landowners adjust their behaviors over time...
July 3, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666649/-we-are-a-band-an-anthropological-vision-of-the-medical-community
#12
P Serrano Morón, M Delgado Galán
In this paper we try to explain, using an anthropological point of view, how the medical community behaves like a tribe like those who inhabit the Amazon forests or the African Savanna. The Family as fundamental unit of a band of hunter-gatherers also defines the Primary Care Centre and the professionals who work there, as an egalitarian group in which every member works for the good of the tribe. The leaders of the tribe, also called "Health Centre Managers", are also comparable to the "big men" of Polynesia or the aborigines, who leads hunting parties...
June 27, 2017: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663495/a-human-driven-decline-in-global-burned-area
#13
N Andela, D C Morton, L Giglio, Y Chen, G R van der Werf, P S Kasibhatla, R S DeFries, G J Collatz, S Hantson, S Kloster, D Bachelet, M Forrest, G Lasslop, F Li, S Mangeon, J R Melton, C Yue, J T Randerson
Fire is an essential Earth system process that alters ecosystem and atmospheric composition. Here we assessed long-term fire trends using multiple satellite data sets. We found that global burned area declined by 24.3 ± 8.8% over the past 18 years. The estimated decrease in burned area remained robust after adjusting for precipitation variability and was largest in savannas. Agricultural expansion and intensification were primary drivers of declining fire activity. Fewer and smaller fires reduced aerosol concentrations, modified vegetation structure, and increased the magnitude of the terrestrial carbon sink...
June 30, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662068/effects-of-anabolic-and-catabolic-nutrients-on-woody-plant-encroachment-after-long-term-experimental-fertilization-in-a-south-african-savanna
#14
Anthony J Mills, Antoni V Milewski, Dirk Snyman, Jorrie J Jordaan
The causes of the worldwide problem of encroachment of woody plants into grassy vegetation are elusive. The effects of soil nutrients on competition between herbaceous and woody plants in various landscapes are particularly poorly understood. A long-term experiment of 60 plots in a South African savanna, comprising annual applications of ammonium sulphate (146-1166 kg ha-1 yr-1) and superphosphate (233-466 kg ha-1 yr-1) over three decades, and subsequent passive protection over another three decades, during which indigenous trees encroached on different plots to extremely variable degrees, provided an opportunity to investigate relationships between soil properties and woody encroachment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654043/light-mediated-reversible-modulation-of-the-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-pathway-during-cell-differentiation-and-xenopus-embryonic-development
#15
Vishnu V Krishnamurthy, Aurora J Turgeon, John S Khamo, Payel Mondal, Savanna R Sharum, Wenyan Mei, Jing Yang, Kai Zhang
Kinase activity is crucial for a plethora of cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis. During early embryonic development, kinase activity is highly dynamic and widespread across the embryo. Pharmacological and genetic approaches are commonly used to probe kinase activities. Unfortunately, it is challenging to achieve superior spatial and temporal resolution using these strategies. Furthermore, it is not feasible to control the kinase activity in a reversible fashion in live cells and multicellular organisms...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649470/determinants-of-seasonal-changes-in-availability-of-food-patches-for-elephants-loxodonta-africana-in-a-semi-arid-african-savanna
#16
Bruce W Clegg, Timothy G O'Connor
Loss of biodiversity caused by impact of elephants (Loxodonta africana) on African woodlands may require a management response, but any action should be based on an understanding of why elephants choose to utilise trees destructively. Comprehension of elephant feeding behaviour requires consideration of the relative value of the plant groups they may potentially consume. Profitability of available food is partly determined by the time to locate a food patch and, therefore, as a foundation for understanding the influence of food availability on diet selection, key controls on the density of grass, forb, and browse patches were investigated across space and time in a semi-arid African savanna...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649349/stochastic-losses-of-fire-dependent-endemic-herbs-revealed-by-a-65-year-chronosequence-of-dispersal-limited-woody-plant-encroachment
#17
John Stephen Brewer
The factors responsible for maintaining diverse groundcover plant communities of high conservation value in frequently burned wet pine savannas are poorly understood. While most management involves manipulating extrinsic factors important in maintaining species diversity (e.g., fire regimes), most ecological theory (e.g., niche theory and neutral theory) examines how traits exhibited by the species promote species coexistence. Furthermore, although many ecologists focus on processes that maintain local species diversity, conservation biologists have argued that other indices (e...
June 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644376/monitoring-effect-of-fire-on-ant-assemblages-in-brazilian-rupestrian-grasslands-contrasting-effects-on-ground-and-arboreal-fauna
#18
Diego Anjos, Ricardo Campos, Renata Campos, Sérvio Ribeiro
Fire is one of the most relevant ecological disturbances in nature. Little is known about the effects of fire on biodiversity in ecosystems like rupestrian grasslands, which share characteristics with savanna and forest biomes. Brazilian rupestrian grasslands are part of an endangered ecosystem that has been modified by anthropogenic fire events that have become more intense in recent decades. In this study, we evaluated the effects of fire on ground and arboreal ant assemblages through a two-year monitoring program (24 monthly samplings)...
June 23, 2017: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610330/catalogue-of-distribution-of-lizards-reptilia-squamata-from-the-brazilian-amazonia-iv-alopoglossidae-gymnophthalmidae
#19
Marco A Ribeiro-Júnior, Silvana Amaral
We present distribution data of all Alopoglossidae and Gymnophthalmidae lizards known from the Brazilian Amazonia, totaling 54 species-level taxa, belonging to 17 genera and two families. This represents 22 more species-level taxa than previously reported. Data were based on 17,431 specimens deposited in three North American and eight Brazilian museums, including the main collections harboring Amazonian material. Most species (~80%) are endemic to Amazonia; non-endemic species are mainly associated with open vegetation (savanna) enclaves or open dry (semideciduous) forest in Amazonia, with a few exceptions...
May 22, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591179/a-systematic-review-of-elephant-impact-across-africa
#20
Robert A R Guldemond, Andrew Purdon, Rudi J van Aarde
Contradictory findings among scientific studies that address a particular issue may impede the conversion of science to management implementation. A systematic review of peer-reviewed studies to generate a single outcome may overcome this problem. The contentious topic of the impact that a megaherbivore such as the savanna elephant have for other species and their environment can benefit from such an approach. After some 68 years, 367 peer-reviewed papers covered the topic and 51 of these papers provided sufficient data to be included in a meta-analysis...
2017: PloS One
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