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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813097/avian-communities-in-the-amazonian-cangas-vegetation-biogeographic-affinities-components-of-beta-diversity-and-conservation
#1
Sérgio H Borges, Marcos P D Santos, Leonardo M S Soares, Antonita S DA Silva
The Amazonian cangas is a vegetation type distributed as patches of open vegetation embedded in a matrix of tropical forest and that grows over iron-rich soils in the Serra dos Carajás region. To characterize cangas avifauna, we surveyed birds in eight patches varying from 43 to 1,366 hectares. Cangas avifauna has compositional affinities with savannas widespread throughout the Amazon and other biomes, and we estimate that more than 200 bird species occurs in this habitat. Species composition was relatively homogeneous, and the similarity among cangas patches was the dominant component of the beta-diversity...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811483/the-impact-of-human-population-pressure-on-flying-fox-niches-and-the-potential-consequences-for-hendra-virus-spillover
#2
Michael G Walsh, Anke Wiethoelter, M A Haseeb
Hendra virus (HeV) is an emerging pathogen of concern in Australia given its ability to spillover from its reservoir host, pteropid bats, to horses and further on to humans, and the severe clinical presentation typical in these latter incidental hosts. Specific human pressures over recent decades, such as expanding human populations, urbanization, and forest fragmentation, may have altered the ecological niche of Pteropus species acting as natural HeV reservoirs and may modulate spillover risk. This study explored the influence of inter-decadal net human local migration between 1970 and 2000 on changes in the habitat suitability to P...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808954/heavy-metal-pollutants-in-selected-organs-of-african-giant-rats-from-three-agro-ecological-zones-of-nigeria-evidence-for-their-role-as-an-environmental-specimen-bank
#3
Ifukibot Levi Usende, Benjamin O Emikpe, James Olukayode Olopade
An assessment of the concentration of heavy metals in the liver, brain, kidney, bone, and lungs of African giant rats (AGRs) from three agro-ecological zones of Nigeria having different industrial activities was carried out using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Twenty adult AGRs from cities in mangrove/freshwater swamp, rainforest, and woodland/tall grass savanna agro-ecological zones of Nigeria were used for this study. AGRs were euthanized, carefully dissected, and the brains, liver, lungs, bone, and kidneys were harvested, digested, and analyzed for concentrations of vanadium (V), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe)...
August 14, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752944/genomic-divergence-across-ecological-gradients-in-the-central-african-rainforest-songbird-andropadus-virens
#4
Ying Zhen, Ryan J Harrigan, Kristen C Ruegg, Eric C Anderson, Thomas C Ng, Sirena Lao, Kirk E Lohmueller, Thomas B Smith
The little greenbul, a common rainforest passerine from sub-Saharan Africa, has been the subject of long-term evolutionary studies to understand the mechanisms leading to rainforest speciation. Previous research found morphological and behavioral divergence across rainforest-savanna transition zones (ecotones), and a pattern of divergence with gene flow suggesting divergent natural selection has contributed to adaptive divergence and ecotones could be important areas for rainforests speciation. Recent advances in genomics and environmental modeling make it possible to examine patterns of genetic divergence in a more comprehensive fashion...
July 28, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746622/holocene-history-of-a-lake-filling-and-vegetation-dynamics-of-the-serra-sul-dos-caraj%C3%A3-s-southeast-amazonia
#5
José T F Guimarães, Prafulla K Sahoo, Pedro W M Souza-Filho, Mariana M J Costa DE Figueiredo, Luiza S Reis, Marcio S DA Silva, Tarcísio M Rodrigues
Down-core changes in sedimentary facies, elemental geochemistry, pollen, spore, δ13C, δ15N and radiocarbon records from a filled lake, named R4, of the Serra Sul dos Carajás were used to study the relationship between the paleomorphological and paleoecological processes and their significance for Holocene paleoclimatology of the southeast Amazonia. The sediment deposition of the R4 lake started around 9500 cal yr BP. Increase of detrital components from 9500 to 7000 cal yr BP suggests high weathering of surrounding catchment rocks and soils, and deposition into the lake basin under mudflows...
July 24, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737219/impacts-of-hydraulic-redistribution-on-grass-tree-competition-vs-facilitation-in-a-semi-arid-savanna
#6
Greg A Barron-Gafford, Enrique P Sanchez-Cañete, Rebecca L Minor, Sean M Hendryx, Esther Lee, Leland F Sutter, Newton Tran, Elizabeth Parra, Tony Colella, Patrick C Murphy, Erik P Hamerlynck, Praveen Kumar, Russell L Scott
A long-standing ambition in ecosystem science has been to understand the relationship between ecosystem community composition, structure and function. Differential water use and hydraulic redistribution have been proposed as one mechanism that might allow for the coexistence of overstory woody plants and understory grasses. Here, we investigated how patterns of hydraulic redistribution influence overstory and understory ecophysiological function and how patterns vary across timescales of an individual precipitation event to an entire growing season...
September 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732406/quantifying-deforestation-and-forest-degradation-with-thermal-response
#7
Hua Lin, Yajun Chen, Qinghai Song, Peili Fu, James Cleverly, Vincenzo Magliulo, Beverly E Law, Christopher M Gough, Lukas Hörtnagl, Filippo Di Gennaro, Giorgio Matteucci, Leonardo Montagnani, Pierpaolo Duce, Changliang Shao, Tomomichi Kato, Damien Bonal, Eugénie Paul-Limoges, Jason Beringer, John Grace, Zexin Fan
Deforestation and forest degradation cause the deterioration of resources and ecosystem services. However, there are still no operational indicators to measure forest status, especially for forest degradation. In the present study, we analysed the thermal response number (TRN, calculated by daily total net radiation divided by daily temperature range) of 163 sites including mature forest, disturbed forest, planted forest, shrubland, grassland, savanna vegetation and cropland. TRN generally increased with latitude, however the regression of TRN against latitude differed among vegetation types...
July 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712471/early-pliocene-anuran-fossils-from-kanapoi-kenya-and-the-first-fossil%C3%A2-record-for-the-african-burrowing-frog-hemisus-neobatrachia-hemisotidae
#8
Massimo Delfino
Isolated amphibian bones from the early Pliocene of Kanapoi (West Turkana, Kenya) help to improve the scarce fossil record of the late Neogene and Quaternary amphibians from East Africa. All currently available 579 bones are referable exclusively to the Anura (frogs and toads). More than half of the remains (366) are identified as Hemisus cf. Hemisus marmoratus, an extant species that still inhabits Kenya, but apparently not the northwest of the country and the Turkana area in particular. The rest of the remains are identified simply as Anura indet...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702039/ceres-maize-model-for-determining-the-optimum-planting-dates-of-early-maturing-maize-varieties-in-northern-nigeria
#9
Adnan A Adnan, Jibrin M Jibrin, Alpha Y Kamara, Bassam L Abdulrahman, Abdulwahab S Shaibu, Ismail I Garba
Field trials were carried out in the Sudan Savannah of Nigeria to assess the usefulness of CERES-maize crop model as a decision support tool for optimizing maize production through manipulation of plant dates. The calibration experiments comprised of 20 maize varieties planted during the dry and rainy seasons of 2014 and 2015 at Bayero University Kano and Audu Bako College of Agriculture Dambatta. The trials for model evaluation were conducted in 16 different farmer fields across the Sudan (Bunkure and Garun-Mallam) and Northern Guinea (Tudun-Wada and Lere) Savannas using two of the calibrated varieties under four different sowing dates...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701297/genomic-analysis-of-an-infant-with-intractable-diarrhea-and-dilated-cardiomyopathy
#10
Dale L Bodian, Thierry Vilboux, Suchitra K Hourigan, Callie L Jenevein, Haresh Mani, Kathleen C Kent, Alina Khromykh, Benjamin D Solomon, Natalie S Hauser
We describe a case of an infant presenting with intractable diarrhea who subsequently developed dilated cardiomyopathy, for whom a diagnosis was not initially achieved despite extensive clinical testing, including panel-based genetic testing. Research-based whole genome sequences of the proband and both parents were analyzed by the SAVANNA pipeline, a variant prioritization strategy integrating features of variants, genes, and phenotypes, which was implemented using publicly available tools. Although the intestinal morphological abnormalities characteristic of congenital tufting enteropathy (CTE) were not observed in the initial clinical gastrointestinal tract biopsies of the proband, an intronic variant, EPCAM c...
July 12, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699969/the-effect-of-size-and-density-on-nut-removal-in-syagrus-loefgrenii-glassman-arecaceae-in-the-brazilian-cerrado
#11
J Ragusa-Netto
In this study I tested the effect of Syagrus loefgrenii nut size and number on the intensity of removal by rodents across seasons. Trials were performed in which piles of either small or large endocarps (1, 3, 6, 12, and 25) were subjected to removal by rodents in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna). Despite of variations in the intensity of removal, always this process decrease conform endocarp number. Also, mean proportion of endocarp removal was unrelated to year period, initial number, and size of endocarps...
July 10, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698507/risk-assessment-of-mycotoxins-in-stored-maize-grains-consumed-by-infants-and-young-children-in-nigeria
#12
Modupeade C Adetunji, Olusegun O Atanda, Chibundu N Ezekiel
Maize is a major complimentary food for infants (0-4years) and young children (5-12years) in Nigeria. In this study, we assessed the risk of exposure of infants and young children (IYC) to some major mycotoxins in stored maize grains from five agro-ecological zones of Nigeria. The probable daily intake approach was employed to determine exposure to five mycotoxins while the margin of exposure (MOE) and population at risk of primary hepatocellular carcinoma approaches were used to characterize the risk of consuming aflatoxin contaminated maize...
July 10, 2017: Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696321/how-large-herbivores-subsidize-aquatic-food-webs-in-african-savannas
#13
Robert M Pringle
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690931/nectar-sampling-for-prairie-and-oak-savanna-butterfly-restoration
#14
Paige M Arnold, Helen J Michaels
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Understanding floral resources is vital for restoring pollinators in habitats affected by anthropogenic development and climate change. As the primary adult food, nectar can limit butterfly longevity and reproduction. For pollinator restoration, it would therefore be useful to examine nectar resources. However, because many flowers preferred by butterflies are too small for microcapillary sampling and the potential for nectar contamination can make accurate measurement difficult, we developed a modified centrifugation method to extract and separate nectar and pollen...
June 2017: Applications in Plant Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688456/the-social-organization-of-homo-ergaster-inferences-from-anti-predator-responses-in-extant-primates
#15
Erik P Willems, Carel P van Schaik
Patterns of primate socioecology have been used to suggest that the first truly savanna-dwelling hominin, Homo ergaster, lived in sizeable groups. Here, we revisit these estimates and infer additional features of the social organization of these early hominins based on anti-predator responses observed across the primate taxon. We first show that the effect of habitat on primate group size, composition, and sexual dimorphism is negligible after controlling for substrate use and phylogeny: terrestrial species live in larger groups with more and bigger males than arboreal taxa...
August 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681306/aquatic-ecotoxicity-of-ashes-from-brazilian-savanna-wildfires
#16
Darlan Q Brito, Carlos José S Passos, Daphne H F Muniz, Eduardo C Oliveira-Filho
In a global scenario of climate change, several studies have predicted an increase in fires in different parts of the world. With the occurrence of rains following the fires in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado biome), the compounds present in ashes may enter aquatic environments and cause adverse effects to these ecosystems. In this context, this study evaluated the potential toxicity of ashes from two areas of Cerrado and an area of pasture, through ecotoxicological bioassays and using three aquatic species from distinct trophic levels, which were exposed to different dilutions of ashes: the microcrustacean Ceriodaphnia dubia, the fish Danio rerio and the mollusc Biomphalaria glabrata...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674015/limits-of-brazil-s-forest-code-as-a-means-to-end-illegal-deforestation
#17
Andrea A Azevedo, Raoni Rajão, Marcelo A Costa, Marcelo C C Stabile, Marcia N Macedo, Tiago N P Dos Reis, Ane Alencar, Britaldo S Soares-Filho, Rayane Pacheco
The 2012 Brazilian Forest Code governs the fate of forests and savannas on Brazil's 394 Mha of privately owned lands. The government claims that a new national land registry (SICAR), introduced under the revised law, could end illegal deforestation by greatly reducing the cost of monitoring, enforcement, and compliance. This study evaluates that potential, using data from state-level land registries (CAR) in Pará and Mato Grosso that were precursors of SICAR. Using geospatial analyses and stakeholder interviews, we quantify the impact of CAR on deforestation and forest restoration, investigating how landowners adjust their behaviors over time...
July 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666649/-we-are-a-band-an-anthropological-vision-of-the-medical-community
#18
P Serrano Morón, M Delgado Galán
In this paper we try to explain, using an anthropological point of view, how the medical community behaves like a tribe like those who inhabit the Amazon forests or the African Savanna. The Family as fundamental unit of a band of hunter-gatherers also defines the Primary Care Centre and the professionals who work there, as an egalitarian group in which every member works for the good of the tribe. The leaders of the tribe, also called "Health Centre Managers", are also comparable to the "big men" of Polynesia or the aborigines, who leads hunting parties...
June 27, 2017: Semergen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663495/a-human-driven-decline-in-global-burned-area
#19
N Andela, D C Morton, L Giglio, Y Chen, G R van der Werf, P S Kasibhatla, R S DeFries, G J Collatz, S Hantson, S Kloster, D Bachelet, M Forrest, G Lasslop, F Li, S Mangeon, J R Melton, C Yue, J T Randerson
Fire is an essential Earth system process that alters ecosystem and atmospheric composition. Here we assessed long-term fire trends using multiple satellite data sets. We found that global burned area declined by 24.3 ± 8.8% over the past 18 years. The estimated decrease in burned area remained robust after adjusting for precipitation variability and was largest in savannas. Agricultural expansion and intensification were primary drivers of declining fire activity. Fewer and smaller fires reduced aerosol concentrations, modified vegetation structure, and increased the magnitude of the terrestrial carbon sink...
June 30, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662068/effects-of-anabolic-and-catabolic-nutrients-on-woody-plant-encroachment-after-long-term-experimental-fertilization-in-a-south-african-savanna
#20
Anthony J Mills, Antoni V Milewski, Dirk Snyman, Jorrie J Jordaan
The causes of the worldwide problem of encroachment of woody plants into grassy vegetation are elusive. The effects of soil nutrients on competition between herbaceous and woody plants in various landscapes are particularly poorly understood. A long-term experiment of 60 plots in a South African savanna, comprising annual applications of ammonium sulphate (146-1166 kg ha-1 yr-1) and superphosphate (233-466 kg ha-1 yr-1) over three decades, and subsequent passive protection over another three decades, during which indigenous trees encroached on different plots to extremely variable degrees, provided an opportunity to investigate relationships between soil properties and woody encroachment...
2017: PloS One
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