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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921004/using-paleoecology-to-inform-land-management-as-climates-change-an-example-from-an-oak-savanna-ecosystem
#1
Jessica D Spencer, Andrea Brunelle, Tim Hepola
Oak savanna, a transitional ecosystem between open prairie and dense oak forest, was once widespread in Minnesota. Upon European settlement much of the oak savanna was destroyed. Recently, efforts to restore this ecosystem have increased and often include the reintroduction of fire. Though fire is known to serve an important role within oak savannas, there are currently few studies which address fire regimes on timescales longer than the last century. This research presents a paleoecological history of Sherburne National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) in MN, USA, spanning the last ~8000 years...
September 18, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916828/invasive-andropogon-gayanus-gamba-grass-alters-litter-decomposition-and-nitrogen-fluxes-in-an-australian-tropical-savanna
#2
N A Rossiter-Rachor, S A Setterfield, L B Hutley, D McMaster, S Schmidt, M M Douglas
The African grass Andropogon gayanus Kunth. is invading Australian savannas, altering their ecological and biogeochemical function. To assess impacts on nitrogen (N) cycling, we quantified litter decomposition and N dynamics of grass litter in native grass and A. gayanus invaded savanna using destructive in situ grass litter harvests and litterbag incubations (soil surface and aerial position). Only 30% of the A. gayanus in situ litter decomposed, compared to 61% of the native grass litter, due to the former being largely comprised of highly resistant A...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906052/forest-biomass-productivity-and-carbon-cycling-along-a-rainfall-gradient-in-west-africa
#3
Sam Moore, Stephen Adu-Bredu, Akwasi Duah-Gyamfi, Shalom D Addo-Danso, Forzia Ibrahim, Armel T Mbou, Agnès de Grandcourt, Riccardo Valentini, Giacomo Nicolini, Gloria Djagbletey, Kennedy Owusu-Afriyie, Agne Gvozdevaite, Imma Oliveras, Maria C Ruiz-Jaen, Yadvinder Malhi
Net primary productivity (NPP) is one of the most important parameters in describing the functioning of any ecosystem and yet it arguably remains a poorly quantified and understood component of carbon cycling in tropical forests, especially outside of the Americas. We provide the first comprehensive analysis of NPP and its carbon allocation to woody, canopy and root growth components at contrasting lowland West African forests spanning a rainfall gradient. Using a standardised methodology to study evergreen (EF), semi-deciduous (SDF), dry forests (DF) and woody savanna (WS), we find that (i) climate is more closely related with above and belowground C stocks than with NPP (ii) total NPP is highest in the SDF site, then the EF followed by the DF and WS and that (iii) different forest types have distinct carbon allocation patterns whereby SDF allocate in excess of 50% to canopy production and the DF and WS sites allocate 40-50% to woody production...
September 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883445/plant-litter-dynamics-in-the-forest-stream-interface-precipitation-is-a-major-control-across-tropical-biomes
#4
Alan M Tonin, José F Gonçalves, Paulino Bambi, Sheyla R M Couceiro, Lorrane A M Feitoza, Lucas E Fontana, Neusa Hamada, Luiz U Hepp, Vânia G Lezan-Kowalczuk, Gustavo F M Leite, Aurea L Lemes-Silva, Leonardo K Lisboa, Rafael C Loureiro, Renato T Martins, Adriana O Medeiros, Paula B Morais, Yara Moretto, Patrícia C A Oliveria, Evelyn B Pereira, Lidiane P Ferreira, Javier Pérez, Mauricio M Petrucio, Deusiano F Reis, Renan S Rezende, Nadia Roque, Luiz E P Santos, Ana E Siegloch, Gabriela Tonello, Luz Boyero
Riparian plant litter is a major energy source for forested streams across the world and its decomposition has repercussions on nutrient cycling, food webs and ecosystem functioning. However, we know little about plant litter dynamics in tropical streams, even though the tropics occupy 40% of the Earth's land surface. Here we investigated spatial and temporal (along a year cycle) patterns of litter inputs and storage in multiple streams of three tropical biomes in Brazil (Atlantic forest, Amazon forest and Cerrado savanna), predicting major differences among biomes in relation to temperature and precipitation regimes...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882542/applications-of-optobiology-in-intact-cells-and-multicellular-organisms
#5
REVIEW
John S Khamo, Vishnu V Krishnamurthy, Savanna R Sharum, Payel Mondal, Kai Zhang
Temporal kinetics and spatial coordination of signal transduction in cells are vital for cell fate determination. Tools that allow for precise modulation of spatiotemporal regulation of intracellular signaling in intact cells and multicellular organisms remain limited. The emerging optobiological approaches use light to control protein-protein interaction in live cells and multicellular organisms. Optobiology empowers light-mediated control of diverse cellular and organismal functions such as neuronal activity, intracellular signaling, gene expression, cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and apoptosis...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877669/evaluating-the-role-of-pleistocene-refugia-rivers-and-environmental-variation-in-the-diversification-of-central-african-duikers-genera-cephalophus-and-philantomba
#6
Stephan Ntie, Anne R Davis, Katrin Hils, Patrick Mickala, Henri A Thomassen, Katy Morgan, Hadrien Vanthomme, Mary K Gonder, Nicola M Anthony
BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the role that Pleistocene refugia, rivers and local habitat conditions may have played in the evolutionary diversification of three central African duiker species (Cephalophus dorsalis, C. callipygus and Philantomba monticola). Genetic data from geo-referenced feces were collected from a wide range of sites across Central Africa. Historical patterns of population genetic structure were assessed using a ~ 650 bp fragment of the mitochondrial control region and contemporary patterns of genetic differentiation were evaluated using 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci...
September 6, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875567/influence-of-neighboring-plants-on-the-dynamics-of-an-ant-acacia-protection-mutualism
#7
Todd M Palmer, Corinna Riginos, Rachel E Damiani, Natalya Morgan, John S Lemboi, James Lengingiro, Juan Carlos Ruiz-Guajardo, Robert M Pringle
Ant-plant protection symbioses, in which plants provide food and/or shelter for ants in exchange for protection from herbivory, are model systems for understanding the ecology of mutualism. While interactions between ants, host plants, and herbivores have been intensively studied, we know little about how plant-plant interactions influence the dynamics of these mutualisms-despite strong evidence that plants compete for resources, that hosting ants can be costly, and that host-plant provisioning to ants can therefore be constrained by resource availability...
September 6, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875505/atlantic-bats-a-dataset-of-bat-communities-from-the-atlantic-forests-of-south-america
#8
Renata de Lara Muylaert, Richard D Stevens, Carlos Eduardo Lustosa Esbérard, Marco Aurelio Ribeiro Mello, Guilherme Siniciato Terra Garbino, Luiz H Varzinczak, Deborah Faria, Marcelo de Moraes Weber, Patricia Kerches Rogeri, André Luis Regolin, Hernani Fernandes Magalhães de Oliveira, Luciana de Moraes Costa, Marília A S Barros, Gilberto Sabino-Santos, Mara Ariane Crepaldi de Morais, Vinicius Silva Kavagutti, Fernando C Passos, Emma-Liina Marjakangas, Felipe Gonçalves Motta Maia, Milton Cezar Ribeiro, Mauro Galetti
Bats are the second most diverse mammal order and they provide vital ecosystem functions (e.g., pollination, seed dispersal, and nutrient flux in caves) and services (e.g., crop pest suppression). Bats are also important vectors of infectious diseases, harboring more than 100 different virus types. In the present study, we compiled information on bat communities from the Atlantic Forests of South America, a species-rich biome that are highly threatened by habitat loss and fragmentation. ATLANTIC BATS dataset comprises 135 quantitative studies carried out in 205 sites, which cover most vegetation types of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Forest: dense ombrophilous forest, mixed ombrophilous forest, semideciduous forest, deciduous forest, savanna, steppe, and open ombrophilous forest...
September 6, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875172/the-biodiversity-cost-of-carbon-sequestration-in-tropical-savanna
#9
Rodolfo C R Abreu, William A Hoffmann, Heraldo L Vasconcelos, Natashi A Pilon, Davi R Rossatto, Giselda Durigan
Tropical savannas have been increasingly viewed as an opportunity for carbon sequestration through fire suppression and afforestation, but insufficient attention has been given to the consequences for biodiversity. To evaluate the biodiversity costs of increasing carbon sequestration, we quantified changes in ecosystem carbon stocks and the associated changes in communities of plants and ants resulting from fire suppression in savannas of the Brazilian Cerrado, a global biodiversity hotspot. Fire suppression resulted in increased carbon stocks of 1...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869055/corrigendum-to-factors-influencing-local-ecological-knowledge-of-forage-resources-ethnobotanical-evidence-from-west-africa-s-savannas-j-environ-manag-188-1-march-2017-297-307
#10
John-Baptist S N Naah, Reginald T Guuroh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864172/do-patients-understand-the-role-of-resident-physicians-in-the-operating-room-a-survey-of-gynaecology-patients
#11
Arielle Cantor, Catherine Flood, Savanna Boutin, Shauna Regan, Sue Ross
OBJECTIVE: Studies from disciplines outside gynaecology have found that most patients do not understand the clinical responsibilities allocated to physicians-in-training. No research on this topic has been published in gynaecology, despite litigation against gynaecological surgeons regarding the role of residents in surgery. The goal of this research was to explore what gynaecological surgery patients understand about the role of resident doctors. METHODS: A questionnaire was distributed to female patients in gynaecological surgery pre-admission clinics in Edmonton, Alberta...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860500/adaptation-of-soil-nitrifiers-to-very-low-nitrogen-level-jeopardizes-the-efficiency-of-chemical-fertilization-in-west-african-moist-savannas
#12
Féline L Assémien, Thomas Pommier, Jean T Gonnety, Jonathan Gervaix, Xavier Le Roux
The moist savanna zone covers 0.5 × 10(6) km(2) in West Africa and is characterized by very low soil N levels limiting primary production, but the ecology of nitrifiers in these (agro)ecosystems is largely unknown. We compared the effects of six agricultural practices on nitrifier activity, abundance and diversity at nine sites in central Ivory Coast. Treatments, including repeated fertilization with ammonium and urea, had no effect on nitrification and crop N status after 3 to 5 crop cycles. Nitrification was actually higher at low than medium ammonium level...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856421/co-circulation-of-araraquara-and-juquitiba-hantavirus-in-brazilian-cerrado
#13
Alexandro Guterres, Renata Carvalho de Oliveira, Jorlan Fernandes, Renata Malachini Maia, Bernardo Rodrigues Teixeira, Flávio César Gomes Oliveira, Cibele Rodrigues Bonvicino, Paulo Sergio D'Andrea, Carlos Guerra Schrago, Elba Regina Sampaio de Lemos
Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging serious disease in the Americas, transmitted from wild rodents to humans through inhalation of aerosol containing virus. Herein, we characterized two distinct hantaviruses circulating in rodent species form Central Plateau, Midwestern region of Brazil in the Cerrado (savanna-like) biome, an area characterized by small trees and grasses adapted to climates with long dry periods. In this study, we identified the co-circulation of the Araraquara virus and a possible new lineage of the Juquitiba virus (JUQV) in Oligoryzomys nigripes...
August 31, 2017: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840610/soils-and-fire-jointly-determine-vegetation-structure-in-an-african-savanna
#14
A Carla Staver, Judith Botha, Lars Hedin
Savanna vegetation is variable, and predicting how water, nutrients, and chronic disturbances interact to determine vegetation structure in savannas represents a challenge. Here, we examined in situ interactions among rainfall, soils, grasses, fire, and elephants that determine tree layer responses to resource gradients in Kruger National Park in South Africa, using 363 long-term monitoring sites throughout the park. Grass biomass increased with rainfall and on nutrient-rich clay soils. Fire frequency, too, increased with rainfall...
August 25, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840340/trait-shifts-associated-with-the-subshrub-life-history-strategy-in-a-tropical-savanna
#15
A B Giroldo, A Scariot, W A Hoffmann
Over the past 10 million years, tropical savanna environments have selected for small growth forms within woody plant lineages. The result has been the evolution of subshrubs (geoxyles), presumably as an adaptation to frequent fire. To evaluate the traits associated with the shift from tree to subshrub growth forms, we compared seed biomass, germination, survival, resprouting, biomass allocation, and photosynthesis between congeneric trees and subshrubs, and quantified phylogenetic conservatism. Despite large differences in adult morphology between trees and subshrub species, the differences are modest in seedlings, and most of the variation in traits was explained by genus, indicating considerable phylogenic conservatism...
August 24, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839285/metastability-for-discontinuous-dynamical-systems-under-l%C3%A3-vy-noise-case-study-on-amazonian-vegetation
#16
Larissa Serdukova, Yayun Zheng, Jinqiao Duan, Jürgen Kurths
For the tipping elements in the Earth's climate system, the most important issue to address is how stable is the desirable state against random perturbations. Extreme biotic and climatic events pose severe hazards to tropical rainforests. Their local effects are extremely stochastic and difficult to measure. Moreover, the direction and intensity of the response of forest trees to such perturbations are unknown, especially given the lack of efficient dynamical vegetation models to evaluate forest tree cover changes over time...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839224/alien-plant-invasions-of-protected-areas-in-java-indonesia
#17
Michael Padmanaba, Kyle W Tomlinson, Alice C Hughes, Richard T Corlett
Alien plants are invading protected areas worldwide, but there is little information from tropical Asia. Java has the longest record of human occupation in Asia and today supports 145 m people. Remnants of natural ecosystems survive in 12 small National Parks surrounded by dense human populations, making them highly vulnerable to invasions. We surveyed eight of these, along a rainfall gradient from lowland rainforest with >3000 mm annual rainfall to savanna with <1500 mm, and a 0-3158 m altitudinal gradient, using 403 10 × 5 m plots along trails...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836041/a-glimpse-at-short-term-controls-of-evapotranspiration-along-the-southern-slopes-of-kilimanjaro
#18
Florian Detsch, Insa Otte, Tim Appelhans, Thomas Nauss
Future climate characteristics of the southern Kilimanjaro region, Tanzania, are mainly determined by local land-use and global climate change. Reinforcing increasing dryness throughout the twentieth century, ongoing land transformation processes emphasize the need for a proper understanding of the regional-scale water budget and possible implications on related ecosystem functioning and services. Here, we present an analysis of scintillometer-based evapotranspiration (ET) covering seven distinct habitat types across a massive climate gradient from the colline savanna woodlands to the upper-mountain Helichrysum zone (940 to 3960 m...
August 23, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823069/current-status-of-cattle-production-system-in-nyagatare-district-rwanda
#19
Eugene Mazimpaka, Francis Mbuza, Tukei Michael, Eugene N Gatari, E M Bukenya, Okwee-Acai James
A study was conducted to characterize the cattle production systems in Nyagatare District, Eastern Province of Rwanda using pre-tested questionnaires, interviews with key informants as well as focus group discussions in a period of 2 months. The respondents were selected by multi-stage sampling at sector and cell levels. Based on the procedure of Krejcie and Morgan (Educational and Psychological Measurement 30:607-610, 1970) to determine the overall sample size, the result indicated that the majority (98.3%) of farms were privately owned by large families of five to seven members, and most farmers (53...
August 19, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813097/avian-communities-in-the-amazonian-cangas-vegetation-biogeographic-affinities-components-of-beta-diversity-and-conservation
#20
Sérgio H Borges, Marcos P D Santos, Leonardo M S Soares, Antonita S DA Silva
The Amazonian cangas is a vegetation type distributed as patches of open vegetation embedded in a matrix of tropical forest and that grows over iron-rich soils in the Serra dos Carajás region. To characterize cangas avifauna, we surveyed birds in eight patches varying from 43 to 1,366 hectares. Cangas avifauna has compositional affinities with savannas widespread throughout the Amazon and other biomes, and we estimate that more than 200 bird species occurs in this habitat. Species composition was relatively homogeneous, and the similarity among cangas patches was the dominant component of the beta-diversity...
August 14, 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
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