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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334265/evaluation-of-malaise-and-yellow-pan-trap-performance-to-assess-velvet-ant-hymenoptera-mutillidae-diversity-in-a-neotropical-savanna
#1
C R Vieira, C Waichert, K A Williams, J P Pitts
Given the global biodiversity crisis, it is crucial to identify methods best suited for conducting inventories. We evaluated the relative merits of Malaise traps (MT) and ground-level yellow pan traps (YPT) to sample male velvet ants (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae) in a Neotropical savanna biodiversity hotspot. We compared richness, number of captures, evenness, composition, and body size of male velvet ants (Hymenoptera: Mutillidae) sampled with both methods in four sites at Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Veadeiros, central Brazil, during 19 d...
March 6, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323541/3d-technology-of-sony-bloggie-has-no-advantage-in-decision-making-of-tennis-serve-direction-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-study
#2
Sicong Liu, Jason Ritchie, Camilo Sáenz-Moncaleano, Savanna K Ward, Cody Paulsen, Tyler Klein, Oscar Gutierrez, Gershon Tenenbaum
This study aimed at exploring whether 3D technology enhances tennis decision-making under the conceptual framework of human performance model. A 3 (skill-level: varsity, club, recreational) × 3 (experimental condition: placebo, weak 3D [W3D], strong 3D [S3D]) between-participant design was used. Allocated to experimental conditions by a skill-level stratified randomization, 105 tennis players judged tennis serve direction from video scenarios and rated their perceptions of enjoyment, flow, and presence during task performance...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303013/addressing-rainfall-data-selection-uncertainty-using-connections-between-rainfall-and-streamflow
#3
Morgan C Levy, Avery Cohn, Alan Vaz Lopes, Sally E Thompson
Studies of the hydroclimate at regional scales rely on spatial rainfall data products, derived from remotely-sensed (RS) and in-situ (IS, rain gauge) observations. Because regional rainfall cannot be directly measured, spatial data products are biased. These biases pose a source of uncertainty in environmental analyses, attributable to the choices made by data-users in selecting a representation of rainfall. We use the rainforest-savanna transition region in Brazil to show differences in the statistics describing rainfall across nine RS and interpolated-IS daily rainfall datasets covering the period of 1998-2013...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301475/multiple-ecosystem-services-in-a-working-landscape
#4
Danny J Eastburn, Anthony T O'Geen, Kenneth W Tate, Leslie M Roche
Policy makers and practitioners are in need of useful tools and models for assessing ecosystem service outcomes and the potential risks and opportunities of ecosystem management options. We utilize a state-and-transition model framework integrating dynamic soil and vegetation properties to examine multiple ecosystem services-specifically agricultural production, biodiversity and habitat, and soil health-across human created vegetation states in a managed oak woodland landscape in a Mediterranean climate. We found clear tradeoffs and synergies in management outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295840/climatic-changes-can-drive-the-loss-of-genetic-diversity-in-a-neotropical-savanna-tree-species
#5
Jacqueline S Lima, Liliana Ballesteros-Mejia, Matheus S Lima-Ribeiro, Rosane G Collevatti
The high rates of future climatic changes, compared with the rates reported for past changes, may hamper species adaptation to new climates or the tracking of suitable conditions, resulting in significant loss of genetic diversity. Trees are dominant species in many biomes and because they are long-lived, they may not be able to cope with ongoing climatic changes. Here, we coupled Ecological Niche Modelling (ENM) and genetic simulations to forecast the effects of climatic changes on the genetic diversity and the structure of genetic clusters...
March 13, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288942/endemic-palm-species-shed-light-on-habitat-shifts-and-the-assembly-of-the-cerrado-and-restinga-floras
#6
Christine D Bacon, Monica Moraes R, Carlos Jaramillo, Alexandre Antonelli
Species expansions into new habitats are often associated with physiological adaptations, for instance when rain forest lineages colonize dry habitats. Although such shifts have been documented for the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), little is known about the biogeographic origin of species occupying an extreme South American habitat type, the coastal dunes (Restinga). We examined the formation of this poorly known, endangered habitat by reconstructing the evolutionary history of two endemic species. Due to the proposed recency and uniqueness of this habitat, we hypothesized that Restinga species of the palm genus Allagoptera to be recently evolved and to present derived morphological characters...
March 10, 2017: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288755/anthelmintic-activity-of-plant-extracts-from-brazilian-savanna
#7
Andreia F Oliveira, Livio M Costa Junior, Aldilene S Lima, Carolina R Silva, Maria N S Ribeiro, José W C Mesquista, Cláudia Q Rocha, Marcelo M P Tangerina, Wagner Vilegas
Helminth infections represent a serious problem for the production of small ruminants that is currently aggravated by resistance to anthelmintic products and has induced a search for control alternatives, such as natural products. In this study, extracts of Turnera ulmifolia L. (leaves and roots), Parkia platycephala Benth. (leaves and seeds) and Dimorphandra gardneriana Tul. (leaves and bark), which have been cited in ethnoveterinary studies and selected naturally by goats in the cerrado (Brazilian savanna), were tested in vitro against Haemonchus contortus...
March 15, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286526/parasitological-indices-of-malaria-transmission-in-children-under-fifteen-years-in-two-ecoepidemiological-zones-in-southwestern-burkina-faso
#8
Aristide S Hien, Ibrahim Sangaré, Sanata Coulibaly, Moussa Namountougou, Léa Paré-Toé, Anicet Georges Ouédraogo, Abdoulaye Diabaté, Brian D Foy, Roch K Dabiré
Twenty years after the latest publications performed on the parasitological indices of malaria transmission in northwest of the second city of Burkina Faso, it was important to update the epidemiological profile of malaria in children under the age of 15 years. The objective of this study was to determine and compare the parasitological parameters of malaria transmission by season, area, and age in the two zones (rice and savanna) in the northwest of Bobo-Dioulasso, Burkina Faso. Overall, the results showed that there was no significant difference in the parasitological indices of malaria transmission within children under fifteen years between the rice site and the savannah site and whatever the season (P > 0...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273343/fire-disturbance-disrupts-an-acacia-ant-plant-mutualism-in-favor-of-a-subordinate-ant-species
#9
Ryan L Sensenig, Duncan K Kimuyu, Juan Carlos Ruiz Guajardo, Kari E Veblen, Corinna Riginos, Truman P Young
Although disturbance theory has been recognized as a useful framework in examining the stability of ant-plant mutualisms, very few studies have examined the effects of fire disturbance on these mutualisms. In myrmecophyte-dominated savannas, fire and herbivory are key drivers that could influence ant-plant mutualisms by causing complete colony mortality and/or decreasing colony size, which potentially could alter dominance hierarchies if subordinate species are more fire resilient. We used a large-scale, replicated fire experiment to examine long-term effects of fire on acacia-ant community composition...
March 8, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261468/water-land-fire-and-forest-multi-scale-determinants-of-rainforests-in-the-australian-monsoon-tropics
#10
Stefania Ondei, Lynda D Prior, Grant J Williamson, Tom Vigilante, David M J S Bowman
The small rainforest fragments found in savanna landscapes are powerful, yet often overlooked, model systems to understand the controls of these contrasting ecosystems. We analyzed the relative effect of climatic variables on rainforest density at a subcontinental level, and employed high-resolution, regional-level analyses to assess the importance of landscape settings and fire activity in determining rainforest density in a frequently burnt Australian savanna landscape. Estimates of rainforest density (ha/km(2)) across the Northern Territory and Western Australia, derived from preexisting maps, were used to calculate the correlations between rainforest density and climatic variables...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28251302/colleters-in-rubiaceae-from-forest-and-savanna-the-link-between-secretion-and-environment
#11
Fernanda Tresmondi, Yve Canaveze, Elza Guimarães, Silvia Rodrigues Machado
This study aims to investigate colleters' secretory function, on cellular level, in Rubiaceae species from contrasting environments looking to explore the association between secretion and environment. We collected samples from eight species of Rubiaceae growing in forest and savanna having standard-type colleters with diverse histochemistry (hydrophilic, lipophilic and mixed secretions) and processed for both conventional and cytochemical study under transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The standard colleters, although similar in morphology and anatomy, exhibited marked differences on cellular level, especially in the abundance and topology of Golgi bodies, endoplasmic reticulum and plastids when comparing forest and savanna species...
April 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242950/effect-of-low-temperature-long-time-and-high-temperature-short-time-blanching-and-frying-treatments-on-the-french-fry-quality-of-six-irish-potato-cultivars
#12
Nomali Ziphorah Ngobese, Tilahun Seyoum Workneh, Muthulisi Siwela
Processing conditions are an important determinant of French fry quality. However, the effect of low-temperature long-time (LTLT) and high-temperature short-time (HTST) blanching and frying treatments has not been investigated in many cultivars. The current study investigates the effect of the sequential application of these treatments on French fries processed from six Irish potato cultivars (Fianna, Innovator, Mondial, Navigator, Panamera and Savanna). Blanching was effected at 75 °C for 10 min or 85 °C for 5 min and frying was effected at 160 °C for 2 min or 180 °C for 1 min...
February 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228667/three-new-species-of-the-killifish-genus-melanorivulus-from-the-central-brazilian-cerrado-savanna-cyprinodontiformes-aplocheilidae
#13
Wilson J E M Costa
Three new species are described from the Neotropical region comprising the Cerrado savannas of the central Brazilian plateaus, which is among the most important biodiversity centres in the world. These species are considered closely related to Melanorivulus dapazi from the same region, with which they share the presence of a rudimentary interarcual cartilage and a dark reddish brown distal margin on the male anal fin. The group comprising Melanorivulus dapazi and the three new species is here named as the Melanorivulus dapazi species group...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199273/strategic-plan-for-maximizing-shared-savings-in-accountable-care-organizations
#14
Savanna B Williams
One of the major benefits to a provider beginning or joining an accountable care organization (ACO) is the potential for achieving shared savings from the Medicare Shared Savings Program. This essay provides a strategic plan for ACO participants to maximize their shared savings through a physician-led structure and the creation of a high-value referral network. Physician-led ACOs are generally more flexible than those affiliated with a hospital and can implement more effective cost-saving initiatives, focus more intently on lowering the cost of delivering primary care, and achieve higher shared saving rates...
July 2016: Journal of Healthcare Management / American College of Healthcare Executives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150112/characterization-of-the-village-goat-production-systems-in-the-rural-communities-of-the-eastern-cape-kwazulu-natal-limpopo-and-north-west-provinces-of-south-africa
#15
Khanyisile Mdladla, Edgar Farai Dzomba, Farai Catherine Muchadeyi
Expansion of goat improvement programs requires exploration of the factors that influence the production system and breeding initiatives. Characterization of goat breeds or populations is crucial in providing information on prevalent goat types and their attributes and may suffice as a guideline on conservation, development, and selection for improved productivity. This study investigated the existing village goat production system and phenotypic diversity of the different village populations from four South African provinces...
March 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149693/effects-of-groundwater-abstraction-on-two-keystone-tree-species-in-an-arid-savanna-national-park
#16
Eleanor Shadwell, Edmund February
BACKGROUND: In arid systems with no surface water, deep boreholes in ephemeral river beds provide for humans and animals. With continually increasing infrastructure development for tourism in arid wildlife parks such as the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park in southern Africa, we ask what effects increased abstraction may have on large trees. Large trees in arid savannas perform essential ecosystem services by providing food, shade, nesting sites and increased nutrients for many other plant and animal species and for this are regarded as keystone species...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145459/eddy-covariance-and-biometric-measurements-show-that-a-savanna-ecosystem-in-southwest-china-is-a-carbon-sink
#17
Xuehai Fei, Yanqiang Jin, Yiping Zhang, Liqing Sha, Yuntong Liu, Qinghai Song, Wenjun Zhou, Naishen Liang, Guirui Yu, Leiming Zhang, Ruiwu Zhou, Jing Li, Shubin Zhang, Peiguang Li
Savanna ecosystems play a crucial role in the global carbon cycle. However, there is a gap in our understanding of carbon fluxes in the savanna ecosystems of Southeast Asia. In this study, the eddy covariance technique (EC) and the biometric-based method (BM) were used to determine carbon exchange in a savanna ecosystem in Southwest China. The BM-based net ecosystem production (NEP) was 0.96 tC ha(-1) yr(-1). The EC-based estimates of the average annual gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (Reco), and net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) were 6...
February 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138301/the-first-species-of-aplastodiscus-endemic-to-the-brazilian-cerrado-anura-hylidae
#18
Bianca V M Berneck, Ariovaldo A Giaretta, Reuber A Brandão, Carlos A G Cruz, Célio F B Haddad
The genus Aplastodiscus includes 14 nominal species in four monophyletic groups with occurrence in the Atlantic Forest and Brazilian Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) of South America. A recent study reviewed the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the genus and suggested a third species for the Aplastodiscus perviridis Group. Herein, on the basis of morphology and advertisement call, we describe this species and test its monophyly. The new species is the only Aplastodiscus with endemic occurrence in the Cerrado Biome...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124118/expanding-our-understanding-of-leaf-functional-syndromes-in-savanna-systems-the-role-of-plant-growth-form
#19
Davi Rodrigo Rossatto, Augusto Cesar Franco
The assessment of leaf strategies has been a common theme in ecology, especially where multiple sources of environmental constraints (fire, seasonal drought, nutrient-poor soils) impose a strong selection pressure towards leaf functional diversity, leading to inevitable tradeoffs among leaf traits, and ultimately to niche segregation among coexisting species. As diversification on leaf functional strategies is dependent on integration at whole plant level, we hypothesized that regardless of phylogenetic relatedness, leaf trait functional syndromes in a multivariate space would be associated with the type of growth form...
April 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116524/determinants-of-woody-encroachment-and-cover-in-african-savannas
#20
REVIEW
Aisling P Devine, Robbie A McDonald, Tristan Quaife, Ilya M D Maclean
Savanna ecosystems are an integral part of the African landscape and sustain the livelihoods of millions of people. Woody encroachment in savannas is a widespread phenomenon but its causes are widely debated. We review the extensive literature on woody encroachment to help improve understanding of the possible causes and to highlight where and how future scientific efforts to fully understand these causes should be focused. Rainfall is the most important determinant of maximum woody cover across Africa, but fire and herbivory interact to reduce woody cover below the maximum at many locations...
April 2017: Oecologia
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