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Integrated Pest Management

Saikat Kumar B Ghosh, Wayne B Hunter, Alexis L Park, Dawn E Gundersen-Rindal
Phloem and plant sap feeding insects invade the integrity of crops and fruits to retrieve nutrients, in the process damaging food crops. Hemipteran insects account for a number of economically substantial pests of plants that cause damage to crops by feeding on phloem sap. The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) and the Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) are hemipteran insect pests introduced in North America, where they are an invasive agricultural pest of high-value specialty, row, and staple crops and citrus fruits, as well as a nuisance pest when they aggregate indoors...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Belén Guijarro, Inmaculada Larena, Paloma Melgarejo, Antonieta De Cal
BACKGROUND: Penicillium frequentans could be approach to integrated pest management of brown rot, caused by Monilinia spp. Competition is primary mode of biocontrol activity of P. frequentans, and therefore, it must cover the entire fruit where the pathogen is acting. Our objective was to optimize P. frequentans efficacy, by maximizing fruit surface coverage and retention with the antagonist formulation by surfactant incorporation. RESULTS: Sixteen surfactants were assessed at 3-5 different concentrations and performance of disease-management of brown rot...
May 16, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Alejandra L Lutz, Isabel Bertolaccini, Roberto R Scotta, María C Curis, María A Favaro, Laura N Fernandez, Daniel E Sánchez
BACKGROUND: Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker, 1858) population has increased in Bt soybean crops in Argentina. As there are no registered products for its control, the recommended insecticides for S. frugiperda are used. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the lethal concentration (LC) and sublethal effects of chlorantraniliprole on the biological and reproductive functions of S. cosmioides, an emerging soybean pest in Argentina. RESULTS: An ingestion toxicity bioassay showed that chlorantraniliprole was active against larvae of the second instar, and after 48 h exposure LC50 was 0...
May 16, 2018: Pest Management Science
Kristian Brevik, Leena Lindström, Stephanie D McKay, Yolanda H Chen
Although pesticides are a major selective force in driving the evolution of insect pests, the evolutionary processes that give rise to insecticide resistance remain poorly understood. Insecticide resistance has been widely observed to increase with frequent and intense insecticide exposure, but can be lost following the relaxation of insecticide use. One possible but rarely explored explanation is that insecticide resistance may be associated with epigenetic modifications, which influence the patterning of gene expression without changing underlying DNA sequence...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
Jian Huang, HongFei Hao
Current evidence suggests that climate change has directly affected the phenology of many invertebrate species associated with agriculture. Such changes in phenology have the potential to cause temporal mismatches between predators and prey and may lead to a disruption in natural pest control ecosystem. Understanding the synchrony between pest insects and host plant responses to climate change is a key step to improve integrated pest management strategies. Cotton bollworm larvae damage cotton, and thus, data from Magaiti County, China, collected during the period of 1990-2015 were analyzed to assess the effects of climate change on cotton bollworm larvae and cotton flowering...
May 11, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Xia Ning, Tingting Ku, Rui Gao, Xiaotong Ji, Guangke Li, Nan Sang
The extensive use of chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSIs) in integrated pest management programs has a detrimental effect on the surrounding environment. Recent studies reveal that CSIs may affect non-target organisms at sublethal concentrations, highlighting the need for further ecological and health risk investigations of these compounds. In this study, we characterized the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonistic activity of fourteen CSIs in HepG2 cells using an in vitro reporter gene assay...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Cliff Zinyemba, Emma Archer, Hanna-Andrea Rother
Pesticides represent a potential public health hazard of note in farming communities. Accumulating evidence indicates that some pesticides used in agriculture act as hormone disrupters, with the potential to result in chronic health effects. Despite such a growing evidence base, pesticides remain the preferred method of pest control in agriculture worldwide. In many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa, usage is on the increase. This qualitative study assessed changes in the usage of pesticides by Zimbabwean smallholder cotton farmers in the past 30 years...
2018: PloS One
Adriano M Lourenço, Khalid Haddi, Bergman M Ribeiro, Roberto F T Corrêia, Hudson V V Tomé, Oscar Santos-Amaya, Eliseu J G Pereira, Raul N C Guedes, Gil R Santos, Eugênio E Oliveira, Raimundo W S Aguiar
Although the cultivation of transgenic plants expressing toxins of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) represents a successful pest management strategy, the rapid evolution of resistance to Bt plants in several lepidopteran pests has threatened the sustainability of this practice. By exhibiting a favorable safety profile and allowing integration with pest management initiatives, plant essential oils have become relevant pest control alternatives. Here, we assessed the potential of essential oils extracted from a Neotropical plant, Siparuna guianensis Aublet, for improving the control and resistance management of key lepidopteran pests (i...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
Steven C Haring, Michael L Flessner
Problems associated with simplified weed management motivate efforts for diversification. Integrated weed management uses fundamentals of weed biology and applied ecology to provide a framework for diversified weed management programs; the soil seed bank comprises a necessary part of this framework. By targeting seeds, growers can inhibit the propagule pressure on which annual weeds depend for agricultural invasion. Some current management practices affect weed seed banks, such as crop rotation and tillage, but these tools are often used without specific intention to manage weed seeds...
May 8, 2018: Pest Management Science
F T Hata, M U Ventura, V L Béga, I M Camacho, M T de Paula
Strawberry is affected by several pests and diseases. Neopamera bilobata is an emerging pest that has been reported by several strawberry growers, usually associated with catfacing symptoms in fruits. We evaluated intercropping garlic or Chinese chives on N. bilobata populations on strawberry crops grown in high tunnels in two experiments. In the first experiment, we evaluated N. bilobata populations on strawberry intercropping with garlic plants (three densities: 8, 16, 24 GP - garlic plant per plot) on the bags by taking 12 samples from December 2015 to April 2017...
May 8, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Jhones Luiz de Oliveira, Estefania Vangelie Ramos Campos, Anderson E S Pereira, Lucas E S Nunes, Camila C L da Silva, Tatiane Pasquoto, Renata Lima, Giovani Smaniotto, Ricardo Antonio Polanczyk, Leonardo F Fraceto
The nanoencapsulation of botanical compounds (such as geraniol) is an important strategy that can be used to increase the stability and efficiency of these substances in integrated pest management. In this study, chitosan/gum arabic nanoparticles containing geraniol were prepared and characterized. In addition, evaluation was made of the biological activity of geraniol encapsulated in chitosan/gum arabic nanoparticles towards whitefly (Bemisia tabaci). The optimized formulation showed a high encapsulation efficiency (>90%) and remained stable for about 120 days...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
D M Kirkpatrick, L J Gut, J R Miller
Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is currently one of the most serious invasive pests for berry crops and cherries worldwide. The development of an effective monitoring trap that is reliable at detecting small populations to guide management decisions is greatly needed. To develop a novel dry trapping system, D. suzukii were trapped under field conditions in cherry orchards and raspberry high tunnels using various baited dry trap designs that were compared with the currently available deli-cup style traps that utilize a liquid bait or drowning solution...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Güler Demirbas-Uzel, Henry M Kariithi, Andrew G Parker, Marc J B Vreysen, Robert L Mach, Adly M M Abd-Alla
Salivary gland hytrosaviruses (SGHVs, family Hytrosaviridae ) are non-occluded dsDNA viruses that are pathogenic to some dipterans. SGHVs primarily replicate in salivary glands (SG), thereby inducing overt salivary gland hypertrophy (SGH) symptoms in their adult hosts. SGHV infection of non-SG tissues results in distinct pathobiologies, including reproductive dysfunctions in tsetse fly, Glossina pallidipes (Diptera: Glossinidae) and house fly. Infection with the G. pallidipes virus (GpSGHV) resulted in the collapse of several laboratory colonies, which hindered the implementation of area wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) programs that had a sterile insect technique (SIT) component...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Benjamin D Jaffe, Christelle Guédot, Peter J Landolt
Codling moth Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is a major pest of pome fruits worldwide. Fruit is damaged by larval feeding, and numbers of larvae are directly related to the numbers of females in the preceding generation. In Pacific Northwest, apple orchards, C. pomonella are generally managed with insecticides and mating disruption. However, additional control methods are needed when these treatments fail or are undesirable. Using a three-component kairomone lure that attracts both sexes, we mass-trapped C...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Dong H Cha, Gregory M Loeb, Charles E Linn, Stephen P Hesler, Peter J Landolt
Fermentation volatiles attract a wide variety of insects and are used for integrated pest management. However, identification of the key behavior modifying chemicals has often been challenging due to the time consuming nature of thorough behavioral tests and unexpected discrepancies between laboratory and field results. Thus we report on a multiple-choice bioassay approach that may expedite the process of identifying field-worthy attractants in the laboratory. We revisited the four-component key chemical blend (acetic acid, ethanol, acetoin, and methionol) identified from 12 antennally active wine and vinegar chemicals for Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae)...
April 13, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Ana L Llandres, Raki Almohamad, Thierry Brévault, Alain Renou, Idrissa Téréta, Janine Jean, François-Regis Goebel
Enhancing cotton pest management using plant natural defenses has been described as a promising way to improve the management of crop pests. We here reviewed different studies on cotton growing systems to illustrate how an ancient technique called plant training, which includes plant topping and pruning, may contribute to this goal. Based on examples from cotton crops, we show how trained plants could be promoted to a state of enhanced defense that causes faster and more robust activation of their defense responses...
April 17, 2018: Pest Management Science
A Dor, P Liedo
The sterile insect technique (SIT) is a key element for the integrated management of pest populations of the Mexican fruit fly, Anastrepha ludens, in Mexico. Its success depends on the survival of mass-reared sterile males and their ability to mate with wild females. However, colonization and mass-rearing conditions can adversely affect their ability to avoid predators. To test if colony management strategies could contribute to improve field survival abilities of mass-reared flies, we compared the survival of males exposed to the orb-weaver spider Argiope argentata...
April 18, 2018: Bulletin of Entomological Research
Roger I Vargas, Jaime C Piñero, Neil W Miller
Foraging behavior of wild female melon fly, Bactrocera (Zeugodacus) cucurbitae Coquillett, a worldwide pest of economically important cucurbit crops, was examined through mark and recapture studies in both wild (Kona: dominated by the invasive weed ivy gourd, Coccinea grandis [L.] Voigt [Cucurbitaceae]), and cultivated (Kapoho: dominated by papaya, Carica papaya L. [Caricaceae] orchards) habitats on Hawaii Island. In particular, the extent to which wild melon flies and color-marked F2 females responded to cucumber odor and Solulys yeast hydrolysate laced with ammonium acetate (1%, wt/vol) according to sexual maturity stage and degree of protein hunger was documented...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Paul Esker, Denis Anthony Shah, Carl A Bradley, Shawn P Conley, Pierce A Paul, Alison Robertson
Foliar fungicide use in hybrid maize in the United States was rare before 2000. The decade from 2000 to 2010 saw foliar fungicides increasingly applied to maize in the absence of appreciable disease pressure, a practice seemingly at odds with integrated pest management philosophy. Yet, it is commonly believed that growers do not employ management strategies unless there are perceived benefits. Maize (corn) growers (CGs) and certified crop advisors (CCAs) across four Midwestern states (Iowa, Illinois, Ohio and Wisconsin) were surveyed to better understand their practices, values and perceptions concerning the use of foliar fungicides during 2005 to 2009...
April 16, 2018: Phytopathology
B W Narladkar
Broadly, species of arthropods infesting livestock are grouped into flies (biting and non-biting), fleas, lice (biting and sucking), ticks (soft and hard), and mites (burrowing, non-burrowing, and follicular). Among which, biting and non-biting flies and ticks are the potent vectors for many bacterial, viral, rickettsial, and protozoan diseases. Vectors of livestock are having economic significance on three points (1) direct losses from their bite and annoyance, worries, and psychological disturbances produced during the act of biting and feeding, (2) diseases they transmit, and (3) expenditure incurred for their control...
February 2018: Veterinary World
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