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Integrated Pest Management

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907051/battle-in-the-new-world-helicoverpa-armigera-versus-helicoverpa-zea-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#1
José P F Bentivenha, Silvana V Paula-Moraes, Edson L L Baldin, Alexandre Specht, Ivana F da Silva, Thomas E Hunt
The corn earworm Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) and the old world bollworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) are allopatric species and occur in important agricultural crops. In maize, both species tend to infest the ear. The introduction of H. armigera in Brazil has created a new scenario, where these Helicoverpa species might cohabit and interact with one another, affecting the prevalence of each species in the agroecosystem, integrated pest management, and insect resistance management. In this study, larval occurrence and proportion of these species in maize was assessed in three regions of Brazil during three crop seasons...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860205/economic-injury-levels-and-sequential-sampling-plans-for-frankliniella-schultzei-in-watermelon-crops
#2
Poliana S Pereira, Renato A Sarmento, Tarcísio V S Galdino, Carlos H O Lima, Fábio A Dos Santos, Joedna Silva, Gil R Dos Santos, Marcelo C Picanço
BACKGROUND: The thrips Frankliniella schultzei is an important watermelon pest. Nevertheless, economic injury levels and sampling plans for this pest have not yet been determined for this crop. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine the economic injury levels and develop sequential sampling plans for F. schultzei in conditions of low, medium, and high fruit prices. RESULTS: The attack of F. schultzei on watermelon plants during the vegetative stage reduced the crop's productivity, which did not happen in the flowering and fruiting stage...
November 9, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859850/from-pest-data-to-abundance-based-risk-maps-combining-eco-physiological-knowledge-weather-and-habitat-variability
#3
Federica Lacasella, Silvio Marta, Aditya Singh, Kaitlin Stack Whitney, Krista Hamilton, Phil Townsend, Christopher J Kucharik, Timothy D Meehan, Claudio Gratton
Noxious species, i.e. crop pest or invasive alien species, are major threats to both natural and managed ecosystems. Invasive pests are of special importance, and knowledge about their distribution and abundance is fundamental to minimize economic losses and prioritize management activities. Occurrence models are a common tool used to identify suitable zones and map priority areas (i.e., risk maps) for noxious species management, although they provide a simplified description of species dynamics (i.e. no indication on species density)...
November 12, 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854060/comparison-of-predicted-aquatic-risks-of-pesticides-used-under-different-rice-farming-strategies-in-the-mekong-delta-vietnam
#4
Nadja Stadlinger, Håkan Berg, Paul J Van den Brink, Nguyen T Tam, Jonas S Gunnarsson
This study evaluates the risks of pesticides applied in rice-fish and rice farming, with and without integrated pest management (IPM) strategies, to non-target aquatic organisms in two provinces of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Pesticide inventories and application patterns were collected from 120 Vietnamese farmers through interviews. Risks were assessed using (1) Pesticide RIsks in the Tropics to Man, Environment, and Trade (PRIMET), a first-tier model, which calculates predicted environmental concentrations (PECs) of pesticides in the rice field, based on the compound's physico-chemical properties and the application pattern, and then compares the PECs to safe concentrations based on literature data, and (2) species sensitivity distribution (SSD), a second-tier assessment model using species sensitivity distributions to calculate potentially affected fraction (PAF) of species based on the PECs from PRIMET...
November 16, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845714/beyond-focal-pests-impact-of-a-neonicotinoid-seed-treatment-and-resistant-soybean-lines-on-a-non-target-arthropod
#5
Tülin Özsisli, Deirdre A Prischmann-Voldseth
Integrated pest management (IPM) tactics may effectively control focal pests, but it is also important to test the compatibility of different tactics, and consider non-target organisms. We investigated the effects of a neonicotinoid seed treatment and Rag resistance genes used for soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) control on reproduction of a non-target herbivore (twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch) in short-term greenhouse experiments. We also examined interactions between spider mites and a specialist phytoseiid mite [Ambylseius fallacis (Garman)] and assessed the effects of a co-occurring opportunistic omnivore [Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande)] by including thrips density as a covariate...
November 11, 2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836776/the-use-of-clausena-anisata-in-insect-pest-control-in-africa-a-review
#6
REVIEW
L Mukandiwa, V Naidoo, D R Katerere
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Clausena anisata is used traditionally by various communities across Africa against pests such as mosquitoes, flies and weevils among others. Pests are a major cause of disease and production losses in various crop and livestock production systems in Africa. This review discusses the available information on the occurrence, chemistry, biological activity and possible commercialization of Clausena anisata with a view to see the plant species being integrated in pest management...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812396/measuring-ipm-impacts-in-california-and-arizona
#7
J J Farrar, M E Baur, S F Elliott
Integrated pest management (IPM) is a method of reducing economic, human health, and environmental risks from pests and pest management strategies. There are questions about the long-term success of IPM programs in relation to continued use of pesticides in agriculture. Total pounds of pesticides applied is a mis-measure of the impact of IPM in agriculture. A more complete measurement of the long-term impact of IPM includes consideration of changes in agricultural production practices and productivity, toxicity of the pesticides used, risks from human exposure to pesticides, and environmental sampling for pesticides in air and water resources...
January 2016: Journal of Integrated Pest Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811535/cimex-lectularius-bed-bugs-recognition-management-and-eradication
#8
Kathryn S McMenaman, Marianne Gausche-Hill
Reports of bed bug infestations in major cities in the United States and abroad have been in the public press. Physicians and other clinicians who care for children need to be able to recognize bed bug bites and understand the social, psychological, and medical implications that this diagnosis will have on patients and their families. In this article, a case presentation serves to guide discussion regarding establishing the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and the management of bed bug bites and their complications...
November 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27804972/turmeric-powder-and-its-derivatives-from-curcuma-longa-rhizomes-insecticidal-effects-on-cabbage-looper-and-the-role-of-synergists
#9
Wagner de Souza Tavares, Yasmin Akhtar, Gabriel Luiz Padoan Gonçalves, José Cola Zanuncio, Murray B Isman
Curcuma longa has well-known insecticidal and repellent effects on insect pests, but its impact on Trichoplusia ni is unknown. In this study, the compound ar-turmerone, extracted and purified from C. longa rhizomes, was identified, and its insecticidal effects, along with turmeric powder, curcuminoid pigments and crude essential oil were evaluated against this important agricultural pest. The role of natural (sesamol and piperonal) and synthetic [piperonyl butoxide (PBO)] synergists under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were also evaluated...
November 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798798/biology-and-management-of-two-important-conyza-weeds-a-global-review
#10
Ali Ahsan Bajwa, Sehrish Sadia, Hafiz Haider Ali, Khawar Jabran, Arslan Masood Peerzada, Bhagirath Singh Chauhan
Weed management is one of the prime concerns for sustainable crop production. Conyza bonariensis and Conyza canadensis are two of the most problematic, noxious, invasive and widespread weeds in modern-day agriculture. The biology, ecology and interference of C. bonariensis and C. canadensis have been reviewed here to highlight pragmatic management options. Both these species share a unique set of biological features, which enables them to invade and adapt a wide range of environmental conditions. Distinct reproductive biology and an efficient seed dispersal mechanism help these species to spread rapidly...
October 31, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798662/assessing-potential-impact-of-bt-eggplants-on-non-target-arthropods-in-the-philippines
#11
Mario V Navasero, Randolph N Candano, Desiree M Hautea, Randy A Hautea, Frank A Shotkoski, Anthony M Shelton
Studies on potential adverse effects of genetically engineered crops are part of an environmental risk assessment that is required prior to the commercial release of these crops. Of particular concern are non-target organisms (NTOs) that provide important ecosystem services. Here, we report on studies conducted in the Philippines over three cropping seasons with Bt eggplants expressing Cry1Ac for control of the eggplant fruit and shoot borer (EFSB), Leucinodes orbonalis, to examine potential effects on field abundance, community composition, structure and biodiversity of NTO's, particularly non-target arthropod (NTA) communities...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796113/an-acetone-extract-of-i-clausena-i-i-anisata-i-may-be-a-potential-control-agent-for-flies-encountered-in-cutaneous-myiasis
#12
Lillian Mukandiwa, Jacobus N Eloff, Donald R Sibanda, Vinny Naidoo
Clausena anisata is a medicinal plant used traditionally to treat myiasis and as an insect repellent by various communities. We have previously demonstrated the effects of C. anisata extracts on blowfly feeding and development in our laboratory. The impact of C. anisata leaf extracts on populations of different fly species on farms in Mpumalanga, South Africa was investigated in this study under field conditions. Flies were exposed to liver baits treated with acetone leaf extracts of C. anisata (150 mg/mL)...
May 24, 2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783467/phosphine-resistance-does-not-confer-cross-resistance-to-sulfuryl-fluoride-in-four-major-stored-grain-insect-pests
#13
Rajeswaran Jagadeesan, Manoj K Nayak
BACKGROUND: Susceptibility to phosphine (PH3 ) and sulfuryl fluoride (SF) and cross resistance to SF were evaluated in two life stages (eggs and adults) of key grain insect pests, Rhyzopertha dominca (F.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Cryptolestes ferrugineus (Stephens), and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). This study was performed with an aim to integrate SF into phosphine resistance management program in Australia. RESULTS: Characterisation of susceptibility and resistance to phosphine in eggs and adults showed that C...
October 26, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781284/effects-of-four-commercial-fungal-formulations-on-mortality-and-sporulation-in-house-flies-musca-domestica-and-stable-flies-stomoxys-calcitrans
#14
E N I Weeks, E T Machtinger, S A Gezan, P E Kaufman, C J Geden
The house fly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) and stable fly Stomoxys calcitrans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) are major pests of livestock. Biological control is an important tool in an integrated control framework. Increased mortality in filth flies has been documented with entomopathogenic fungi, several strains of which are commercially available. Three strains of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo-Crivelli) Vuillemin (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) and one strain of Metarhizium brunneum (Petch) (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) were tested in commercial formulations for pathogenicity against house flies and stable flies...
October 26, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776238/susceptibility-of-ceraeochrysa-cubana-larvae-and-adults-to-six-insect-growth-regulator-insecticides
#15
Éric Kodi Ono, Odimar Zanuzo Zanardi, Kenia Fernanda Aguiar Santos, Pedro Takao Yamamoto
The impacts of six insect growth-regulators were assessed on the predator Ceraeochrysa cubana (Hagen) larvae and adults. Our results showed that diflubenzuron, lufenuron and pyriproxyfen caused 100% larva mortality, whereas buprofezin, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide were similar to control treatment. In comparison to the control, buprofezin prolonged the duration of larval stage, while methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide reduced the predator larva development time. Buprofezin, methoxyfenozide and tebufenozide did not affect the C...
October 21, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771878/forest-stewardship-council-fsc-pesticide-policy-and-integrated-pest-management-in-certified-tropical-plantations
#16
Pedro Guilherme Lemes, José Cola Zanuncio, José Eduardo Serrão, Simon A Lawson
The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) was the first non-governmental organization composed of multi-stakeholders to ensure the social, environmental, and economic sustainability of forest resources. FSC prohibits certain chemicals and active ingredients in certified forest plantations. A company seeking certification must discontinue use of products so listed and many face problems to comply with these constraints. The aim of this study was to assess the impacts of certification on pest management from the perspective of Brazilian private forestry sector...
October 22, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755734/a-native-plant-competitor-mediates-the-impact-of-above-and-belowground-damage-on-an-invasive-tree
#17
Juli Carrillo, Evan Siemann
Plant competition may mediate the impacts of herbivory on invasive plant species through effects on plant growth and defense. This may predictably depend on whether herbivory occurs above or below ground and on relative plant competitive ability. We simulated the potential impact of above- or belowground damage by biocontrol agents on the growth of a woody invader (Chinese tallow tree, Triadica sebifera) through artificial herbivory, with or without competition with a native grass, little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium)...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753247/a-perspective-on-management-of-helicoverpa-armigera-transgenic-bt-cotton-ipm-and-landscapes
#18
Sharon Downes, Darren Kriticos, Hazel Parry, Cate Paull, Nancy Schellhorn, Myron P Zalucki
Helicoverpa armigera is a major pest of agriculture, horticulture and floriculture throughout the old world and recently invaded parts of the new world. We overview of the evolution in thinking about the application of area-wide approaches to assist with its control by the Australian Cotton Industry to highlight important lessons and future challenges to achieving the same in the New World. An over-reliance of broad-spectrum insecticides led to Helicoverpa spp. in Australian cotton rapidly became resistant to DDT, synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates and endosulfan...
October 17, 2016: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742366/larval-exposure-to-azadirachtin-affects-fitness-and-oviposition-site-preference-of-drosophila-melanogaster
#19
Radia Bezzar-Bendjazia, Samira Kilani-Morakchi, Nadia Aribi
Azadirachtin, a biorational insecticide, is one of the prominent biopesticide commercialized today and represent an alternative to conventional insecticides. The current study examined the lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin on Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 (Diptera: Drosophilidae) as biological model. Various doses ranging from 0.1 to 2μg were applied topically on early third instar larvae and the cumulative mortality of immature stage was determined. In second series of experiments, azadirachtin was applied at its LD25 (0...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737335/ecological-impacts-of-non-native-tree-species-plantations-are-broad-and-heterogeneous-a-review-of-brazilian-research
#20
Marcos O Valduga, Rafael D Zenni, Jean R S Vitule
Non-native tree plantations represent 7% of the world's forests and 1.24% of the Brazilian vegetation. Planted areas are expected to increase in the near future; thus, it is important to systematize existing knowledge on the ecological effects of plantations to aid forest management and biodiversity conservation. Here, we conducted a systematic review of the ecological literature associated with planted Pinus and Eucalyptus species in Brazil. We compared publication metrics with geographical distribution of species, ecosystems, biomes, studied taxa, and ecological impacts...
2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
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