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Integrated Pest Management

Juli Carrillo, Evan Siemann
Plant competition may mediate the impacts of herbivory on invasive plant species through effects on plant growth and defense. This may predictably depend on whether herbivory occurs above or below ground and on relative plant competitive ability. We simulated the potential impact of above- or belowground damage by biocontrol agents on the growth of a woody invader (Chinese tallow tree, Triadica sebifera) through artificial herbivory, with or without competition with a native grass, little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium)...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Sharon Downes, Darren Kriticos, Hazel Parry, Cate Paull, Nancy Schellhorn, Myron P Zalucki
Helicoverpa armigera is a major pest of agriculture, horticulture and floriculture throughout the old world and recently invaded parts of the new world. We overview of the evolution in thinking about the application of area-wide approaches to assist with its control by the Australian Cotton Industry to highlight important lessons and future challenges to achieving the same in the New World. An over-reliance of broad-spectrum insecticides led to Helicoverpa spp. in Australian cotton rapidly became resistant to DDT, synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, carbamates and endosulfan...
October 17, 2016: Pest Management Science
Radia Bezzar-Bendjazia, Samira Kilani-Morakchi, Nadia Aribi
Azadirachtin, a biorational insecticide, is one of the prominent biopesticide commercialized today and represent an alternative to conventional insecticides. The current study examined the lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin on Drosophila melanogaster Meigen, 1830 (Diptera: Drosophilidae) as biological model. Various doses ranging from 0.1 to 2μg were applied topically on early third instar larvae and the cumulative mortality of immature stage was determined. In second series of experiments, azadirachtin was applied at its LD25 (0...
October 2016: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Marcos O Valduga, Rafael D Zenni, Jean R S Vitule
Non-native tree plantations represent 7% of the world's forests and 1.24% of the Brazilian vegetation. Planted areas are expected to increase in the near future; thus, it is important to systematize existing knowledge on the ecological effects of plantations to aid forest management and biodiversity conservation. Here, we conducted a systematic review of the ecological literature associated with planted Pinus and Eucalyptus species in Brazil. We compared publication metrics with geographical distribution of species, ecosystems, biomes, studied taxa, and ecological impacts...
October 10, 2016: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Germano L D Leite, Paula D De Paulo, José C Zanuncio, Wagner De S Tavares, Anarelly C Alvarenga, Luan R Dourado, Edilson P R Bispo, Marcus A Soares
Selective agrochemicals including herbicides that do not affect non-target organisms such as natural enemies are important in the integrated pest management (IPM) programs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the herbicide toxicity, selectivity and hormesis of nicosulfuron, recommended for the corn Zea mays L. (Poaceae) crop, on 10 Trichogrammatidae (Hymenoptera) species. A female of each Trichogramma spp. or Trichogrammatoidea annulata De Santis, 1972 was individually placed in plastic test tubes (no choice) with a cardboard containing 45 flour moth Anagasta ( = Ephestia) kuehniella Zeller, 1879 (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) eggs...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Zhudong Liu, Yucui Xin, Bingbing Xu, Kenneth F Raffa, Jianghua Sun
For insects that aggregate on host plants, both attraction and antiaggregation among conspecifics can be important mechanisms for overcoming host resistance and avoiding overcrowding, respectively. These mechanisms can involve multiple sensory modalities, such as sound and pheromones. We explored how acoustic and chemical signals are integrated by the bark beetle Dendroctonus valens to limit aggregation in China. In its native North American range, this insect conducts nonlethal attacks on weakened trees at very low densities, but in its introduced zone in China, it uses mixtures of host tree compounds and the pheromone component frontalin to mass attack healthy trees...
October 5, 2016: Chemical Senses
Neha Khandelwal, Ranjit S Barbole, Shashwat S Banerjee, Govind P Chate, Ankush V Biradar, Jayant J Khandare, Ashok P Giri
One of the most vital supports to sustain human life on the planet earth is the agriculture system that has been constantly challenged in terms of yield. Crop losses due to insect pest attack even after excessive use of chemical pesticides, are major concerns for humanity and environment protection. By the virtue of unique properties possessed by micro and nano-structures, their implementation in Agri-biotechnology is largely anticipated. Hence, traditional pest management strategies are now forestalling the potential of micro and nanotechnology as an effective and viable approach to alleviate problems pertaining to pest control...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Andrea Carolina Wanumen, Ismael Sánchez-Ramos, Elisa Viñuela, Pilar Medina, Ángeles Adán
Insecticide selectivity to natural enemies is an important concern in integrated pest management programs. Although there is a wide range of information concerning pesticide lethal and sublethal effects on contaminated surfaces, little is known when the route of exposure occurs at a trophic level. This study evaluates this route of pesticide intake on the omnivorous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae) for the first time. Under laboratory conditions, prey treated with six insecticides (flubendiamide, spirotetramat, deltamethrin, flonicamid, metaflumizone, and sulfoxaflor) were offered to N...
2016: Journal of Insect Science
Caroline A Efstathion, William H Kern
Introduction of the invasive Africanized honey bee (AHB) into the Neotropics is a serious problem for many cavity nesting birds, specifically parrots. These bees select cavities that are suitable nest sites for birds, resulting in competition. The difficulty of removing bees and their defensive behavior makes a prevention protocol necessary. Here, we describe a push-pull integrated pest management protocol to deter bees from inhabiting bird boxes by applying a bird safe insecticide, permethrin, to repel bees from nest boxes, while simultaneously attracting them to pheromone-baited swarm traps...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Soumaïla Pagabeleguem, Sophie Ravel, Ahmadou H Dicko, Marc J B Vreysen, Andrew Parker, Peter Takac, Karine Huber, Issa Sidibé, Geoffrey Gimonneau, Jérémy Bouyer
BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies occur in much of sub-Saharan Africa where they are vectors of trypanosomes that cause human and animal African trypanosomosis. The sterile insect technique (SIT) is currently used to eliminate tsetse fly populations in an area-wide integrated pest management (AW-IPM) context in Senegal and Ethiopia. Three Glossina palpalis gambiensis strains [originating from Burkina Faso (BKF), Senegal (SEN) and an introgressed strain (SENbkf)] were established and are now available for use in future AW-IPM programmes against trypanosomes in West Africa...
September 29, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
M D Agh-Atabay, A Sofizadeh, G M Ozbaki, N Malaki-Ravasan, M R Ghanbari, O Mozafari
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Leishmaniasis is an endemic parasitic disease reported sporadically throughout Iran. Golestan province is one of the 17 zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) foci. In this study, ecoepidemiological characteristics of ZCL were investigated in Gonbad-e Kavus County, Golestan province of Iran. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was carried out in three endemic villages and one ZCL-free village by exploiting a stratified random sampling methodology in 2013...
July 2016: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
F Sohrabi, H R Nooryazdan, B Gharati, Z Saeidi
The resistance of 11 tomato cultivars (Ps-6515, Berlina, Poolad, Petoprid-5, Zaman, Matin, Golsar, Sandokan-F1, Golshan-616, Sadeen-95 and Sadeen-21) to the tomato moth, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera:Gelechiidae) was investigated under field conditions. A randomized complete block design was used with three replications. Data analysis indicated that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) among cultivars regarding leaflet damage, leaf damage, overall plant damage, number of mines per leaf, number of holes on the stem, and fruit...
September 27, 2016: Neotropical Entomology
Da Xiao, Jing Zhao, Xiaojun Guo, Hongying Chen, Mengmeng Qu, Weigang Zhai, Nicolas Desneux, Antonio Biondi, Fan Zhang, Su Wang
The seven-spot ladybird beetle, Coccinella septempunctata, is a major natural enemy of aphids in the field and in greenhouses in China and is part of integrated pest management (IPM). Imidacloprid, a highly efficient insecticide that not only kills aphids at lethal concentrations, but also can cause various sublethal effects in nontarget organisms. To strengthen IPM and its sustainability, it is important assessing possible side effects on natural enemies. When the effects of sublethal concentrations (LC5 and 10%LC5) of imidacloprid on C...
September 26, 2016: Ecotoxicology
C A McNeill, S A Allan, P G Koehler, R M Pereira, E N I Weeks
Bed bugs as pests of public health importance recently experienced a resurgence in populations throughout the U.S. and other countries. Consequently, recent research efforts have focused on improving understanding of bed bug physiology and behaviour to improve management. While few studies have investigated the visual capabilities of bed bugs, the present study focused specifically on eye morphology and spectral sensitivity. A 3-D imaging technique was used to document bed bug eye morphology from the first instar through adult and revealed morphological characteristics that differentiate the common bed bug from the tropical bed bug as well as sex-specific differences...
September 27, 2016: Medical and Veterinary Entomology
Jordan Lestina, Maxwell Cook, Sunil Kumar, Jeffrey Morisette, Paul J Ode, Frank Peairs
Wheat stem sawfly (Cephus cinctus Norton, Hymenoptera: Cephidae) has long been a significant insect pest of spring, and more recently, winter wheat in the northern Great Plains. Wheat stem sawfly was first observed infesting winter wheat in Colorado in 2010 and, subsequently, has spread rapidly throughout wheat production regions of the state. Here, we used maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) to generate habitat suitability maps in order to predict the risk of crop damage as this species spreads throughout the winter wheat-growing regions of Colorado...
September 22, 2016: Environmental Entomology
Jeremy D Slone, Hannah J Burrack
Integrated pest management (IPM) recommendations, including scouting and economic thresholds (ETs), are available for North Carolina flue-cured tobacco growers, although ETs for key pests have not been updated in several decades. Moreover, reported IPM adoption rates by flue-cured tobacco growers remain low, at < 40%, according to NC cooperative extension surveys conducted during the last four years. Previous research has suggested that timing insecticide treatments using currently available ETs can reduce the average number of applications to two or fewer per season...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
Alexie Papanicolaou, Marc F Schetelig, Peter Arensburger, Peter W Atkinson, Joshua B Benoit, Kostas Bourtzis, Pedro Castañera, John P Cavanaugh, Hsu Chao, Christopher Childers, Ingrid Curril, Huyen Dinh, HarshaVardhan Doddapaneni, Amanda Dolan, Shannon Dugan, Markus Friedrich, Giuliano Gasperi, Scott Geib, Georgios Georgakilas, Richard A Gibbs, Sarah D Giers, Ludvik M Gomulski, Miguel González-Guzmán, Ana Guillem-Amat, Yi Han, Artemis G Hatzigeorgiou, Pedro Hernández-Crespo, Daniel S T Hughes, Jeffery W Jones, Dimitra Karagkouni, Panagiota Koskinioti, Sandra L Lee, Anna R Malacrida, Mosè Manni, Kostas Mathiopoulos, Angela Meccariello, Shwetha C Murali, Terence D Murphy, Donna M Muzny, Georg Oberhofer, Félix Ortego, Maria D Paraskevopoulou, Monica Poelchau, Jiaxin Qu, Martin Reczko, Hugh M Robertson, Andrew J Rosendale, Andrew E Rosselot, Giuseppe Saccone, Marco Salvemini, Grazia Savini, Patrick Schreiner, Francesca Scolari, Paolo Siciliano, Sheina B Sim, George Tsiamis, Enric Ureña, Ioannis S Vlachos, John H Werren, Ernst A Wimmer, Kim C Worley, Antigone Zacharopoulou, Stephen Richards, Alfred M Handler
BACKGROUND: The Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly), Ceratitis capitata, is a major destructive insect pest due to its broad host range, which includes hundreds of fruits and vegetables. It exhibits a unique ability to invade and adapt to ecological niches throughout tropical and subtropical regions of the world, though medfly infestations have been prevented and controlled by the sterile insect technique (SIT) as part of integrated pest management programs (IPMs). The genetic analysis and manipulation of medfly has been subject to intensive study in an effort to improve SIT efficacy and other aspects of IPM control...
2016: Genome Biology
Anirudh Dhammi, Jaap B van Krestchmar, Loganathan Ponnusamy, Jack S Bacheler, Dominic D Reisig, Ames Herbert, Alejandro I Del Pozo-Valdivia, R Michael Roe
Soybean is an important food crop, and insect integrated pest management (IPM) is critical to the sustainability of this production system. In recent years, the introduction into the United States of the kudzu bug currently identified as Megacopta cribraria (F.), poses a threat to soybean production. The kudzu bug was first discovered in the state of Georgia, U.S. in 2009 and since then has spread to most of the southeastern states. Because it was not found in the North American subcontinent before this time, much of our knowledge of this insect comes from research done in its native habitat...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mustapha F A Jallow, Dawood G Awadh, Mohammed S Albaho, Vimala Y Devi, Binson M Thomas
The widespread overuse of pesticides in agriculture has generated increasing concerns about the negative effects of pesticides on human health and the environment. Understanding farmers' perceptions of risk of pesticides and the determinants of pesticide overuse is important to modifying their behavior towards reducing pesticide use. A survey of 250 randomly selected smallholder vegetable farmers in Kuwait was conducted to quantify the extent of pesticide use, their pesticide risk perceptions and factors influencing their pesticide use behaviors...
September 16, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Gabriel Moura Mascarin, Stefan T Jaronski
Among invertebrate fungal pathogens, Beauveria bassiana has assumed a key role in management of numerous arthropod agricultural, veterinary and forestry pests. Beauveria is typically deployed in one or more inundative applications of large numbers of aerial conidia in dry or liquid formulations, in a chemical paradigm. Mass production is mainly practiced by solid-state fermentation to yield hydrophobic aerial conidia, which remain the principal active ingredient of mycoinsecticides. More robust and cost-effective fermentation and formulation downstream platforms are imperative for its overall commercialization by industry...
November 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
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