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Integrated Pest Management

Yonglei Liu, Yinglong Wang, Changlong Shu, Kejian Lin, Fuping Song, Alejandra Bravo, Mario Soberón, Jie Zhang
Genetically modified crops that express insecticidal Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) proteins have become a primary approach for control of lepidopteran (moth) and coleopteran (beetle) pests that feed by chewing the plants. However, the sap-sucking insects (Hemiptera) are not particularly susceptible to Bt toxins. In this study, we describe two Cry toxins (Cry64Ba and Cry64Ca) from a Bt 1012 strain showed toxicity against two important rice hemipteran pests, Laodelphax striatellus and Sogatella furcifera Both of these two proteins contain an ETX/MTX2 domain, and share common sequence features with the β-pore forming toxins...
November 17, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Rodrigo Lasa, Eduardo Tadeo, Ricardo A Toledo-Hérnandez, Lino Carmona, Itzel Lima, Trevor Williams
The improvement of trap-lure combinations is an important part of integrated pest management programs that involve monitoring pests for timely insecticide applications, or for their use in control strategies such as mass trapping or bait stations. In this study improvements in the capture of Drosophila suzukii were not observed following the inclusion of different color stimuli with respect to a red-black stripe cup trap. This red-black stripe trap with a hemispherical dome-shaped lid had a significantly improved physical retention of flies compared to traps fitted with a flat lid...
2017: PloS One
Luis F Aristizábal, Melissa Johnson, Suzanne Shriner, Robert Hollingsworth, Nicholas C Manoukis, Roxana Myers, Paul Bayman, Steven P Arthurs
The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei, is the most significant insect pest of coffee worldwide. Since CBB was detected in Puerto Rico in 2007 and Hawaii in 2010, coffee growers from these islands are facing increased costs, reduced coffee quality, and increased pest management challenges. Here, we outline the CBB situation, and summarize the findings of growers, researchers, and extension professionals working with CBB in Hawaii. Recommendations for the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) program for CBB in Hawaiian Islands and Puerto Rico include: (1) establish a CBB monitoring program, (2) synchronize applications of insecticides with peak flight activity of CBB especially during the early coffee season, (3) conduct efficient strip-picking as soon as possible after harvest and perform pre-harvest sanitation picks in CBB hotspots if needed, (4) establish protocols to prevent the escape of CBB from processing areas and when transporting berries during harvest, and (5) stump prune by blocks...
November 14, 2017: Insects
V Castex, M Beniston, P Calanca, D Fleury, J Moreau
Plants and insects depend on climatic factors (temperature, solar radiation, precipitations, relative humidity and CO2) for their development. Current knowledge suggests that climate change can alter plants and insects development and affect their interactions. Shifts in tritrophic relations are of particular concern for Integrated Pest Management (IPM), because responses at the highest trophic level (natural enemies) are highly sensitive to warmer temperature. It is expected that natural enemies could benefit from better conditions for their development in northern latitudes and IPM could be facilitated by a longer period of overlap...
November 8, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Alisson R Silva, Nilson Rodrigues-Silva, Poliana S Pereira, Renato A Sarmento, Thiago L Costa, Tarcísio V S Galdino, Marcelo C Picanço
The common blossom thrips, Frankliniella schultzei Trybom (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is an important lettuce pest worldwide. Conventional sampling plans are the first step in implementing decision-making systems into integrated pest management programs. However, this tool is not available for F. schultzei infesting lettuce crops. Thus, the objective of this work was to develop a conventional sampling plan for F. schultzei in lettuce crops. Two sampling techniques (direct counting and leaf beating on a white plastic tray) were compared in crisphead, looseleaf, and Boston lettuce varieties before and during head formation...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
James M Wilson, Thomas P Kuhar
Squash bug, Anasa tristis DeGeer (Hemiptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of squash and pumpkins in the United States. In order to better understand the importance of natural egg parasitism of this species in Virginia, we conducted a 2-yr statewide survey. In total, 1,127 squash bug egg masses (~20,000 total eggs) were sampled from squash and pumpkins from 43 counties in Virginia from 2014 to 2015. Egg masses were brought back to the lab to record levels of squash bug nymphal emergence or adult parasitoid eclosion and identification...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
Ewa Matyjaszczyk
Following the obligatory implementation of Integrated Pest Management in the European Union, the plant protection means suitable for application in organic agriculture attracted the attention of quite a wide group of potential users. In spite of the common rules of organic production, as well as the uniform principles of placing plant protection products on the market, the availability of products that can be legally used in organic crop protection differs significantly among the Member States. There is a uniform list of 10 basic substances that can be used in the protection of organic crops throughout the entire EU...
November 10, 2017: Pest Management Science
Andrea Amaroli, Lorenzo Gallus, Sara Ferrando
The use of pyrethroids has increased throughout the world over the past few decades, as organophosphate, carbamate and organochlorine insecticides are being phased out. Permethrin is widely used in the USA for crops treatment, at concentrations around 750 × 10(3) μg/L. In our study 3.6 μg/L permethrin decreases the fission-rate and the fruiting bodies formation of slime mould Dictyostelium discoideum. Whereas 3.6 × 10(4) μg/L kills the 100% of amoebae, showing a 24 h-LC50 = 96.6 μg/L. This concentration induces an increase in the pseudocholinesterase activity as well as in both butyrylcholinesterase and heat-shock-protein 70 presence...
October 26, 2017: Chemosphere
Milad Farrokhi, Gholamhossein Gharekhani, Shahzad Iranipour, Mahdi Hassanpour
The common green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae), is a well-known biocontrol agent. The current study examined host plant-herbivore-predator interactions with C. carnea and Myzus persicae on four host plants (peach, almond, pepper, and potato). The experiments were carried out at 25 ± 1°C and 65 ± 5% RH at a photoperiod of 16:8 (L:D) h). Duration of the preadult growth period, adult longevity, fecundity, and population growth parameters were analyzed based on the age-stage, two-sex life table theory...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
B Naseri, Z Abedi, A Abdolmaleki, M Jafary-Jahed, E Borzoui, Seyed Mozaffar Mansouri
Fumigant toxicity and sublethal effects of essential oils from Artemisia khorassanica Podl. and Artemisia sieberi Bess were investigated against adults of Sitotroga cerealella Olivier. To assess the sublethal effects, adult moths were exposed to the LC30 of each essential oil, and life table parameters of the surviving S. cerealella were studied. Higher fumigant toxicity of A. khorassanica (LC50: 7.38 µl/liter air) than A. sieberi (LC50: 9.26 µl/liter air) was observed against S. cerealella. Also, the insecticidal effects of A...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Insect Science
Marcel van der Merwe, Michael D Jukes, Lukasz Rabalski, Caroline Knox, John K Opoku-Debrah, Sean D Moore, Martyna Krejmer-Rabalska, Boguslaw Szewczyk, Martin P Hill
Thaumatotibia leucotreta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) is an indigenous pest in southern Africa which attacks citrus fruits and other crops. To control T. leucotreta in South Africa, an integrated pest management (IPM) programme incorporating the baculovirus Cryptophlebialeucotreta granulovirus (CrleGV-SA) as a biopesticide has been implemented. This study investigated the genetic stability of a commercially produced CrleGV-SA product that has been applied in the field since 2000. Seven representative full-genome sequences of the CrleGV-SA isolate spanning a 15-year period were generated and compared with one another...
November 3, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Suzhen Qi, Donghui Wang, Lizhen Zhu, Miaomiao Teng, Chengju Wang, Xiaofeng Xue, Liming Wu
Cycloxaprid (CYC) and guadipyr (GUA) are two new and promising neonicotinoid insecticides whose effects on Daphnia magna are as yet unknown. In this study, the acute toxicities of CYC and GUA to D. magna, including immobilization and embryo-hatching inhibition, and their effects on antioxidant enzymes and related gene expression were determined after a 48-h exposure. Imidacloprid (IMI) was evaluated at the same time as a reference agent. The 48-h EC50 values of IMI, GUA, and CYC for neonate immobilization were 13...
October 30, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Rodrigo S Ramos, Vitor C R de Araújo, Renata R Pereira, Júlio C Martins, Obiratanea S Queiroz, Ricardo S Silva, Marcelo C Picanço
Copidosoma truncatellum (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) is an important parasitoid wasp of the soybean looper, Chrysodeixis includens, but its effectiveness can be severely curtailed by the application of certain insecticides. Therefore, to identify insecticides that are potentially compatible with C. truncatellum, the lethal and behavioral effects of nine chemicals used to control the soybean looper were evaluated for their toxicity to the wasp. Chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, flubendiamide, and indoxacarb were the least toxic insecticides to the parasitoid, resulting in mortalities of less than 25%...
October 25, 2017: Chemosphere
Bernadette M Mach, Svetlana Bondarenko, Daniel A Potter
Systemic neonicotinoid insecticides used in urban arboriculture could pose a risk to bees and other pollinators foraging on treated plants. We measured uptake and dissipation of soil-applied imidacloprid and dinotefuran in nectar and leaves of two woody plant species, a broadleaf evergreen tree (Ilex × attenuata) and a deciduous shrub (Clethra alnifolia) to assess concentrations to which pollinators and pests might be exposed in landscape settings. Three application timings, autumn (post-bloom), spring (pre-bloom), or summer (early post-bloom), were evaluated to see if taking advantage of differences in the neonicotinoids' systemic mobility and persistence might enable pest control while minimizing transference into nectar...
October 28, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Hafiz Azhar Ali Khan, Waseem Akram, Ammara Fatima
House flies are one of the major public health pests in urban settings. People usually use insecticides containing pyrethroids for the management of house flies; however, there is a lack of information on pyrethroid resistance in house flies from urban areas. In the present study, resistance to four pyrethroids (beta-cyfluthrin, deltamethrin, permethrin, transfluthrin) was assessed in house flies collected from urban areas of Punjab, Pakistan. Significant levels of resistance to all the pyrethroids were found in different strains of house flies...
October 27, 2017: Parasitology Research
Axel Mie, Helle Raun Andersen, Stefan Gunnarsson, Johannes Kahl, Emmanuelle Kesse-Guyot, Ewa Rembiałkowska, Gianluca Quaglio, Philippe Grandjean
This review summarises existing evidence on the impact of organic food on human health. It compares organic vs. conventional food production with respect to parameters important to human health and discusses the potential impact of organic management practices with an emphasis on EU conditions. Organic food consumption may reduce the risk of allergic disease and of overweight and obesity, but the evidence is not conclusive due to likely residual confounding, as consumers of organic food tend to have healthier lifestyles overall...
October 27, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
Michelle Stephens, Kimberly Hazard, Debra Moser, Dana Cox, Roberta Rose, Abbey Alkon
To reduce young children's exposure to pesticides when attending family child care homes (FCCHs), we developed an integrated pest management (IPM) intervention for FCCH directors. First, we developed IPM educational materials and resources to provide the foundation for an IPM educational intervention for FCCHs. Next, we conducted and evaluated a six-month nurse child care health consultant (CCHC)-led education and consultation IPM intervention to increase IPM knowledge, IPM practices, IPM policies, and decrease the presence or evidence of pests...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Tracy C Leskey, Anne L Nielsen
The brown marmorated stink bug (BMSB), Halyomorpha halys (Stål), is an invasive pentatomid introduced from Asia into the United States, Canada, multiple European countries, and Chile. In 2010, BMSB populations in the mid-Atlantic United States reached outbreak levels and subsequent feeding severely damaged tree fruit as well as other crops. Significant nuisance issues from adults overwintering inside homes were common. BMSB is a highly polyphagous species with a strong dispersal capacity and high reproductive output, potentially enabling its spread and success in invaded regions...
October 25, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
A John Woodill, Stuart T Nakamoto, Andrea M Kawabata, PingSun Leung
Integrated pest management strategies were adopted to combat the coffee berry borer (CBB) after its arrival in Hawaii in 2010. A decision tree framework is used to model the CBB integrated pest management recommendations, for potential use by growers and to assist in developing and evaluating management strategies and policies. The model focuses on pesticide spraying (spray/no spray) as the most significant pest management decision within each period over the entire crop season. The main result from the analysis suggests the most important parameter to maximize net benefit is to ensure a low initial infestation level...
October 21, 2017: Insects
Govinda Shrestha, Gadi V P Reddy
The wheat midge, Sitodiplosis mosellana, is a serious pest of wheat worldwide. In North America, management of S. mosellana in spring wheat relies on the timely application of pesticides, based on midge adults levels caught in pheromone traps or seen via field scouting during wheat heading. In this context, biopesticides can be an effective alternative to pesticides for controlling S. mosellana within an integrated pest management program. A field study using insect pathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana GHA, nematode Steinernema feltiae with Barricade polymer gel 1 %, pyrethrin, combined formulations of B...
October 24, 2017: Insect Science
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