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Integrated Pest Management

Nathan Brown, Frank van den Bosch, Stephen Parnell, Sandra Denman
The number of emerging tree diseases has increased rapidly in recent times, with severe environmental and economic consequences. Systematic regulatory surveys to detect and establish the distribution of pests are crucial for successful management efforts, but resource-intensive and costly. Volunteers who identify potential invasive species can form an important early warning network in tree health; however, what these data can tell us and how they can be best used to inform and direct official survey effort is not clear...
July 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
R G Mafia, E B Loureiro, J B Silva, J A C Simões, T G Zarpelon, N S Bezerra Junior, M B Damacena
Eucalyptus plantations can be affected by species of defoliating caterpillars. The integrated management of this group primarily involves a monitoring system, natural enemies, and biological products. Alternative control methods, including the use of conventional light traps, have not been adopted, mostly because of their low efficiency. Therefore, a more efficient light trap model was developed. The new model allowed the capture of 3.6 times as many insects as the conventional model, with a 261% gain in control efficiency...
July 18, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
Reinaldo Quispe, Marina Mazón, Alexander Rodríguez-Berrío
The use of non-crop plants to provide the resources that herbivorous crop pests' natural enemies need is being increasingly incorporated into integrated pest management programs. We evaluated insect functional groups found on three refuges consisting of five different plant species each, planted next to a maize crop in Lima, Peru, to investigate which refuge favoured natural control of herbivores considered as pests of maize in Peru, and which refuge plant traits were more attractive to those desirable enemies...
July 18, 2017: Insects
Selim Terhzaz, Lucy Alford, Joseph G C Yeoh, Richard Marley, Anthony J Dornan, Julian A T Dow, Shireen A Davies
BACKGROUND: Neuropeptides are central to the regulation of physiological, and behavioural processes in insects, directly impacting cold and desiccation survival. However, little is known about the control mechanisms governing these responses in D. suzukii. The close phylogenetic relationship of D. suzukii with D. melanogaster allows, through genomic and functional studies, an insight into the mechanisms directing stress tolerance in D. suzukii. RESULTS: Capa, Leucokinin, DH44 and DH31 neuropeptides demonstrate a high level of conservation between D...
July 17, 2017: Pest Management Science
Mingsheng Hong, Guoxiong Peng, Nemat O Keyhani, Yuxian Xia
Microbial pesticides form critical components of integrated pest management (IPM) practices. Little, however, is known regarding the impacts of these organisms on the indigenous microbial community. We show that Metarhizium anisopliae strain CQMa421 was highly effective in controlling the rice leafroller, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guenee. In addition, M. anisopliae distribution and its effects on phyllosphere microbial diversity after application in field trials were investigated. Phylloplane specific distribution of the fungus was observed over time, with more rapid declines of M...
July 10, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Haim Biale, Christopher J Geden, Elad Chiel
BACKGROUND: The house fly, Musca domestica L., is an important pest of animal agriculture. Effective fly management requires integration of manure management, mass trapping, biological control, and selective insecticide use. Insecticidal control of house flies is difficult due to the rapidity of resistance development, yet the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen (PPF) is one of few insecticides that may still be effective. Here, we tested the susceptibility of four wild house fly populations in the USA and in Israel to PPF, as well as the effect of PPF on house fly parasitoids of the genera Muscidifurax and Spalangia...
July 10, 2017: Pest Management Science
Kaomud Tyagi, Vikas Kumar, Devkant Singha, Kailash Chandra, Boni Amin Laskar, Shantanu Kundu, Rajasree Chakraborty, Sumantika Chatterjee
Thrips are one of the major sucking pest and vector of plant viruses causing huge economic loss in agriculture. The accurate identification of thrips is crucial for effective pest management strategies. However, morphology based identification has limitations and warrants integration of molecular data. We attempted the largest DNA barcoding initiative on 370 sequences of 89 thrips morphospecies including 104 novel sequences from 39 morphospecies, including the type specimens of four species. The results of multiple species delimitation methods (BIN, ABGD, GMYC and bPTP) were consistent for 73 species (82%) with their morphological identifications...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
Johan A Stenberg
The concept of integrated pest management (IPM) has been accepted and incorporated in public policies and regulations in the European Union and elsewhere, but a holistic science of IPM has not yet been developed. Hence, current IPM programs may often be considerably less efficient than the sum of separately applied individual crop protection actions. Thus, there is a clear need to formulate general principles for synergistically combining traditional and novel IPM actions to improve efforts to optimize plant protection solutions...
July 4, 2017: Trends in Plant Science
Ewa Matyjaszczyk
A study into doses of seed treatments and foliar plant protection products containing an identical active substance registered to control the same pest in the same crops was carried out in the European Union. The results show that, for fungicides, the use of seed treatment is often connected with a significantly lower release of active substance per hectare when compared to foliar treatments. In 11 of 13 cases, the difference was 8-fold or higher. For insecticides, in most of the cases, the consumption of an active substance was several times higher for seed treatment, in one case for foliar application...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Yanyan Qu, Da Xiao, Junjie Liu, Zhou Chen, Lifang Song, Nicolas Desneux, Giovanni Benelli, Xiwu Gao, Dunlun Song
Beta-cypermethrin has long been recommended as an effective pesticide to control the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura, a serious pest in soybean crops. Besides acute toxicity, it leads to changes in life history traits of A. glycines, notably its reproductive potential. This study has assessed the effects of five sublethal concentrations (0.625, 1.25, 2.5, 5 and 10 µg/L) of beta-cypermethrin on different life history traits of A. glycines. Exposure to these concentrations caused shorter oviposition period and reduced adult longevity...
July 6, 2017: Ecotoxicology
Shuoying Ning, Wenchao Zhang, Yan Sun, Jinian Feng
In this study, we first construct an age-stage, two-sex life table for onion maggot, Delia antiqua, grown on three host plants: onion, scallion, and garlic. We found that onion is the optimal host for this species and populations grown on onion have maximum fecundity, longest adult longevity and reproduction period, and the shortest immature developmental time. In contrast, the fecundity on other hosts was lower, particularly on garlic, but these crops can also serve as important secondary hosts for this pest...
July 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
M Suganthi, P Senthilkumar, S Arvinth, K N Chandrashekara
The tea mosquito bug (TMB), Helopeltis spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae) is an insidious pest that poses a significant economical threat to tea plantations. Pseudomonas cultures are being used extensively for pest management which, however, resulting in a low mortality rate of insects and which has prompted us to search for a new microbial metabolite for TMB control. A chitinase purified from P. fluorescens and partially characterized by our group showed insecticidal activity against TMB. The mode of action behind chitinase toxicity is the enzymatic hydrolysis of chitin, which is a common constituent of the insect exoskeleton and gut lining of the peritrophic membrane...
July 6, 2017: Journal of General and Applied Microbiology
Maria Elita B Castro, Fernando L Melo, Marina Tagliari, Peter W Inglis, Saluana R Craveiro, Zilda Maria A Ribeiro, Bergmann M Ribeiro, Sônia N Báo
Condylorrhiza vestigialis (Lepidoptera: Cambridae), commonly known as the Brazilian poplar moth or Alamo moth, is a serious defoliating pest of poplar, a crop of great economic importance for the production of wood, fiber, biofuel and other biomaterials as well as its significant ecological and environmental value. The complete genome sequence of a new alphabaculovirus isolated from C. vestigialis was determined and analyzed. Condylorrhiza vestigialis nucleopolyhedrovirus (CoveNPV) has a circular double-stranded DNA genome of 125,767bp with a GC content of 42...
June 29, 2017: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Jinglan Liu, Haitao Du, Xu Ding, Yaodong Zhou, Pengfei Xie, Jincai Wu
BACKGROUND: Callose is a type of plant cell wall polysaccharide and is controlled by β-1, 3-glucanase and synthase. Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important plant hormone. Exogenous ABA induces the promotion of rice resistance to pests, and whether exogenous ABA could decline the loss of rice yield after brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens Stål; BPH) feeding is also the most important practical problems, whereas the mechanisms involved in rice resistance induced by ABA remain obscure...
June 29, 2017: Pest Management Science
Kai Dang, Stephen L Doggett, G Veera Singham, Chow-Yang Lee
The worldwide resurgence of bed bugs [both Cimex lectularius L. and Cimex hemipterus (F.)] over the past two decades is believed in large part to be due to the development of insecticide resistance. The transcriptomic and genomic studies since 2010, as well as morphological, biochemical and behavioral studies, have helped insecticide resistance research on bed bugs. Multiple resistance mechanisms, including penetration resistance through thickening or remodelling of the cuticle, metabolic resistance by increased activities of detoxification enzymes (e...
June 29, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
Lang Yang, Yongqiang Han, Pei Li, Fei Li, Shahbaz Ali, Maolin Hou
Plant resistance to herbivores is a key component in integrated pest management. In most cases, silicon (Si) amendment to plants enhances resistance to herbivorous insects. The increase of plant physical barrier and altered insect behaviors are proposed as mechanisms for the enhanced resistance in Si-amended plants, but our understanding of the induced mechanisms involved in Si-enhanced plant resistance to phloem-feeding insects remains unclear. Here, we show that Si amendment to rice (Oryza sativa) plants impacts multiple plant defense responses induced by a phloem-feeder, the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens, BPH)...
June 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
Anuar Morales-Rodriguez, Aracely Ospina, Kevin W Wanner
The basic principles of a reliable integrated pest management program include pest identification, monitoring, and distribution. Selecting the appropriate sampling protocol to monitor wireworm for research or applied entomology depends on the objective, including simply detecting the presence or absence of wireworm, surveying the composition of wireworm assemblages, or estimating spatial and temporal population densities. In this study, the efficacy of pitfall, stocking, pot, and canister traps baited with wheat and barley mixtures was evaluated for monitoring wireworm populations in four commercial cereal fields in Montana...
2017: International Journal of Insect Science
Sabin Fatima, Tehmina Anjum
Biocontrol of plant diseases through induction of systemic resistance is an environmental friendly substitute to chemicals in crop protection measures. Different biotic and abiotic elicitors can trigger the plant for induced resistance. Present study was designed to explore the potential of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PM12 in inducing systemic resistance in tomato against Fusarium wilt. Initially the bioactive compound, responsible for ISR, was separated and identified from extracellular filtrate of P. aeruginosa PM12...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Wanda Phipatanakul, Petros Koutrakis, Brent A Coull, Choong-Min Kang, Jack M Wolfson, Stephen T Ferguson, Carter R Petty, Mihail Samnaliev, Amparito Cunningham, William J Sheehan, Jonathan M Gaffin, Sachin N Baxi, Peggy S Lai, Perdita Permaul, Liming Liang, Peter S Thorne, Gary Adamkiewicz, Kasey J Brennan, Andrea A Baccarelli, Diane R Gold
Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood in the United States, causes significant morbidity, particularly in the inner-city, and accounts for billions of dollars in health care utilization. Home environments are established sources of exposure that exacerbate symptoms and home-based interventions are effective. However, elementary school children spend 7 to 12h a day in school, primarily in one classroom. From the observational School Inner-City Asthma Study we learned that student classroom-specific exposures are associated with worsening asthma symptoms and decline in lung function...
June 12, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Kristopher L Giles, Brian P McCornack, Tom A Royer, Norman C Elliott
Of the many ways biological control can be incorporated into Integrated Pest Management (IPM) programs, natural enemy thresholds are arguably most easily adopted by stakeholders. Integration of natural enemy thresholds into IPM programs requires ecological and cost/benefit crop production data, threshold model validation, and an understanding of the socioeconomic factors that influence stakeholder decisions about biological control. These thresholds are more likely to be utilized by stakeholders when integrated into dynamic web-based IPM decision support systems that summarize pest management data and push site-specific biological control management recommendations to decision-makers...
April 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
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