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Alexis Ribas, Christophe Diagne, Caroline Tatard, Mamoudou Diallo, Srisupaph Poonlaphdecha, Carine Brouat
Whipworms were collected from rodents (Muridae) from six West African countries: Burkina-Faso, the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, and the Republics of Benin, Guinea, Mali and Senegal. Molecular sequences (ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2 of the ribosomal DNA gene) and morphometric characters were analysed in Trichuris (Nematoda: Trichuridae) specimens found in seven host species: Arvicanthis niloticus, Gerbilliscus gambianus, Gerbillus gerbillus, G. tarabuli, Mastomys erythroleucus, M. huberti and M. natalensis. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three clades, one recognised as Trichuris mastomysi, previously recorded in M...
February 16, 2017: Parasitology Research
Jesse Bonwitt, Almudena Mari Sáez, Joseph Lamin, Rashid Ansumana, Michael Dawson, Jacob Buanie, Joyce Lamin, Diana Sondufu, Matthias Borchert, Foday Sahr, Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet, Hannah Brown
The multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) is the reservoir for Lassa virus (LASV). Zoonotic transmission occurs when humans are directly or indirectly exposed to fluids of the multimammate mouse, such as urine, saliva, and blood. Housing characteristics and domestic organization affect rodent density in and around households and villages, and are likely to be a risk factor for Lassa fever in humans where the reservoir exists. We use semi-structured interviews (N = 51), a quantitative survey (N = 429), direct observations, and a rodent ecology study to provide new insights into how the organization of domestic spaces brings together humans and rodents and creates pathways for infection in rural settlements in Bo District, Sierra Leone...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Sophie Gryseels, Stuart J E Baird, Benny Borremans, Rhodes Makundi, Herwig Leirs, Joëlle Goüy de Bellocq
Many emerging infections are RNA virus spillovers from animal reservoirs. Reservoir identification is necessary for predicting the geographic extent of infection risk, but rarely are taxonomic levels below the animal species considered as reservoir, and only key circumstances in nature and methodology allow intrinsic virus-host associations to be distinguished from simple geographic (co-)isolation. We sampled and genetically characterized in detail a contact zone of two subtaxa of the rodent Mastomys natalensis in Tanzania...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
Jyoti Gupta, Sweta Misra, Shailja Misra-Bhattacharya
The current control strategies employing chemotherapy with diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin and albendazole have reduced transmission in some filaria-endemic areas, there is growing interest for complementary approaches, such as vaccines especially in light of threat of parasite developing resistance to mainstay drugs. We earlier demonstrated recombinant heavy chain myosin of B. malayi (Bm-Myo) as a potent vaccine candidate whose efficacy was enhanced by heterologous DNA prime/protein boost (Myo-pcD+Bm-Myo) vaccination in BALB/c mice...
2016: PloS One
Maxime Galan, Maria Razzauti, Emilie Bard, Maria Bernard, Carine Brouat, Nathalie Charbonnel, Alexandre Dehne-Garcia, Anne Loiseau, Caroline Tatard, Lucie Tamisier, Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, Helene Vignes, Jean-François Cosson
The human impact on natural habitats is increasing the complexity of human-wildlife interactions and leading to the emergence of infectious diseases worldwide. Highly successful synanthropic wildlife species, such as rodents, will undoubtedly play an increasingly important role in transmitting zoonotic diseases. We investigated the potential for recent developments in 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to facilitate the multiplexing of the large numbers of samples needed to improve our understanding of the risk of zoonotic disease transmission posed by urban rodents in West Africa...
July 2016: MSystems
Tom G Schwan, Job E Lopez, David Safronetz, Jennifer M Anderson, Robert J Fischer, Ousmane Maïga, Nafomon Sogoba
BACKGROUND: Fleas are obligate blood-feeding ectoparasites and vectors of several bacterial zoonotic pathogens as well as trypanosomes that parasitize rodents and other small mammals. During investigations of tick- and rodent-borne diseases in Mali, West Africa, we included fleas and rodent-borne trypanosomes, both of which are poorly known in this country, but are attracting greater public health interest. METHODS: Small mammals were captured in 20 Malian villages from December 2007 to October 2011...
October 11, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Christophe Diagne, Alexis Ribas, Nathalie Charbonnel, Ambroise Dalecky, Caroline Tatard, Philippe Gauthier, Voitto Haukisalmi, Odile Fossati-Gaschignard, Khalilou Bâ, Mamadou Kane, Youssoupha Niang, Mamoudou Diallo, Aliou Sow, Sylvain Piry, Mbacké Sembène, Carine Brouat
Understanding why some exotic species become widespread and abundant in their colonised range is a fundamental issue that still needs to be addressed. Among many hypotheses, newly established host populations may benefit from a parasite loss ("enemy release" hypothesis) through impoverishment of their original parasite communities or reduced infection levels. Moreover, the fitness of competing native hosts may be negatively affected by the acquisition of exotic taxa from invaders ("parasite spillover") and/or by an increased transmission risk of native parasites due to their amplification by invaders ("parasite spillback")...
December 2016: International Journal for Parasitology
Dhananjay Andure, Kiran Pote, Vishal Khatri, Nitin Amdare, Ramchandra Padalkar, Maryada Venkata Rami Reddy
Lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito borne parasitic infection and can severely affect the normal working ability of an individual. Currently there is no vaccine available to prevent this infection and the development of a potential vaccine could effectively support the on-going mass drug administration program by World Health Organization (WHO). Filarial parasites have complex mechanisms to modulate the host immune responses against them. The glutathione-S-transferases (GST) are the important enzymes effectively involved to counteract the oxidative free radicals produced by the host...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Daniel Hasche, Sonja Stephan, Larissa Savelyeva, Frank Westermann, Frank Rösl, Sabrina E Vinzón
In the present report we describe the establishment of a spontaneous immortalized skin keratinocyte cell line derived from the skin of the multimammate rodent Mastomys coucha. These animals are used in preclinical studies for a variety of human diseases such as infections with nematodes, bacteria and papillomaviruses, especially regarding cutaneous manifestations such as non-melanoma skin cancer. Here we characterize the cells in terms of their origin and cytogenetic features. Searching for genomic signatures, a spontaneous mutation in the splicing donor sequence of Trp53 (G to A transition at the first position of intron 7) could be detected...
2016: PloS One
Isa-Rita M Russo, Catherine L Sole, Mario Barbato, Ullrich von Bramann, Michael W Bruford
Small mammals provide ecosystem services, acting, for example, as pollinators and seed dispersers. In addition, they are also disease reservoirs that can be detrimental to human health and they can also act as crop pests. Knowledge of their dispersal preferences is therefore useful for population management and landscape planning. Genetic data were used alongside landscape data to examine the influence of the landscape on the demographic connectedness of the Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) and to identify landscape characteristics that influence the genetic structure of this species across a spatially and temporally varying environment...
2016: Scientific Reports
Sophie Gryseels, Joëlle Goüy de Bellocq, Rhodes Makundi, Kurt Vanmechelen, Jan Broeckhove, Vladimir Mazoch, Radim Šumbera, Jan Zima, Herwig Leirs, Stuart J E Baird
Special conditions are required for genetic differentiation to arise at a local geographical scale in the face of gene flow. The Natal multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis, is the most widely distributed and abundant rodent in sub-Saharan Africa. A notorious agricultural pest and a natural host for many zoonotic diseases, it can live in close proximity to man, and appears to compete with other rodents for the synanthropic niche. We surveyed its population genetic structure across a 180 km transect in central Tanzania along which the landscape varied between agricultural land in a rural setting and natural woody vegetation, rivers, roads and a city...
June 16, 2016: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Vikas Kushwaha, Kirti Saxena, Richa Verma, Shiv K Verma, Deepali Katoch, Neeraj Kumar, Brij Lal, P Kalpana Murthy, Bikram Singh
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic filariasis caused by Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and B. timori, is a debilitating disease with an adverse social and economic impact. The infection remains unabated in spite of treatment with existing antifilarial drugs diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and ivermectin which are chiefly microfilaricides. There is therefore, need for macrofilaricides, embryostatic agents and better microfilaricides. In the present study we explored the antifilarial potential of crude extract and its molecular fractions of the plant Taxodium distichum using in vitro assay systems and rodent models of B...
May 31, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
Jodi Scholz, Steven Wilson
Mastomys rodents occupy a valuable niche in biomedical research, but there is very little published information regarding how to care for them in the laboratory. Here we provide information about the physical and behavioral characteristics of this unusual laboratory rodent, its taxonomic history, common diseases that affect it, and its use in research. We also provide housing recommendations based upon almost 15 years of experience successfully maintaining a colony of Mastomys coucha at our institution.
May 20, 2016: Lab Animal
Benjamin Y Ofori, Daniel K Attuquayefio, Erasmus H Owusu, Yahaya Musah, Yaa Ntiamoa-Baidu
Coastal wetlands in Ghana are under severe threat of anthropogenic drivers of habitat degradation and climate change, thereby increasing the need for assessment and monitoring to inform targeted and effective conservation of these ecosystems. Here, we assess small mammal species richness, relative abundance and body mass in three habitats at the Muni-Pomadze Ramsar site of Ghana, and compare these to baseline data gathered in 1997 to evaluate changes in the wetland ecosystem. Small mammals were live-trapped using Sherman collapsible and pitfall traps...
June 2016: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Ayodeji Olayemi, Daniel Cadar, N'Faly Magassouba, Adeoba Obadare, Fode Kourouma, Akinlabi Oyeyiola, Samuel Fasogbon, Joseph Igbokwe, Toni Rieger, Sabrina Bockholt, Hanna Jérôme, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Mutien Garigliany, Stephan Lorenzen, Felix Igbahenah, Jean-Nicolas Fichet, Daniel Ortsega, Sunday Omilabu, Stephan Günther, Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet
Lassa virus (LASV) causes a deadly haemorrhagic fever in humans, killing several thousand people in West Africa annually. For 40 years, the Natal multimammate rat, Mastomys natalensis, has been assumed to be the sole host of LASV. We found evidence that LASV is also hosted by other rodent species: the African wood mouse Hylomyscus pamfi in Nigeria, and the Guinea multimammate mouse Mastomys erythroleucus in both Nigeria and Guinea. Virus strains from these animals were isolated in the BSL-4 laboratory and fully sequenced...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ravi Shankar Prasad Yadav, Vishal Khatri, Nitin Amdare, Kalyan Goswami, V B Shivkumar, Nitin Gangane, Maryada Venkata Rami Reddy
Helminths are known to modulate host's immune system and understanding this modulation can help in identification of novel therapeutic agents for autoimmune diseases. In this study, we have assessed the immune-modulatory activity and the therapeutic effect of Brugia malayi recombinant cystatin (rBmCys) in methylated BSA (mBSA) induced arthritis using rodent model. Administration of rBmCys has suppressed the severity of mBSA-arthritis in mastomys by reducing paw swelling and other clinical disease parameters as evident from significantly decreased arthritic index...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Melanie Salvermoser, Sasithorn Chotewutmontri, Ilona Braspenning-Wesch, Daniel Hasche, Frank Rösl, Sabrina E Vinzón
Mastomys coucha, an African rodent, is a useful animal model of papillomavirus infection, as it develops both premalignant and malignant skin tumors as a consequence of a persistent infection with Mastomys natalensis papillomavirus (MnPV). In this study, we mapped the MnPV transcriptome in productive lesions by both classical molecular techniques and high-throughput RNA sequencing. Combination of these methods revealed a complex and comprehensive transcription map, with novel splicing events not described in other papillomaviruses...
July 2016: Journal of General Virology
Ayodeji Olayemi, Adeoba Obadare, Akinlabi Oyeyiola, Joseph Igbokwe, Ayobami Fasogbon, Felix Igbahenah, Daniel Ortsega, Danny Asogun, Prince Umeh, Innocent Vakkai, Chukwuyem Abejegah, Meike Pahlman, Beate Becker-Ziaja, Stephan Günther, Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet
Mastomys natalensis rodents are natural hosts for Lassa virus (LASV). Detection of LASV in 2 mitochondrial phylogroups of the rodent near the Niger and Benue Rivers in Nigeria underlines the potential for LASV emergence in fresh phylogroups of this rodent. A Mobala-like sequence was also detected in eastern Nigeria.
April 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Nafomon Sogoba, Kyle Rosenke, Jennifer Adjemian, Sory Ibrahim Diawara, Ousmane Maiga, Moussa Keita, Drissa Konaté, Abdoul Salam Keita, Ibrahim Sissoko, Matt Boisen, Diana Nelson, Darin Oottamasathien, Molly Millett, Robert F Garry, Luis M Branco, Sékou F Traoré, Seydou Doumbia, Heinz Feldmann, David Safronetz
Lassa virus (LASV) is endemic to several nations in West Africa. In Mali, LASV was unknown until an exported case of Lassa fever was reported in 2009. Since that time, rodent surveys have found evidence of LASV-infected Mastomys natalensis rats in several communities in southern Mali, near the border with Côte d'Ivoire. Despite increased awareness, to date only a single case of Lassa fever has been confirmed in Mali. We conducted a survey to determine the prevalence of LASV exposure among persons in 3 villages in southern Mali where the presence of infected rodents has been documented...
April 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Aarón Martin-Alonso, Gualbert Houemenou, Estefanía Abreu-Yanes, Basilio Valladares, Carlos Feliu, Pilar Foronda
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bartonella organisms in small mammals in Cotonou, Benin. We captured 163 rodents and 12 insectivores and successfully detected Bartonella DNA from 13 of the 175 small mammal individuals. Bartonella spp., identical or closely related to Bartonella elizabethae, Bartonella tribocorum, and Bartonella rochalimae, was detected. A potential new Bartonella species, proposed as Candidatus Bartonella mastomydis, was found in three Mastomys individuals and genetically characterized by targeting two housekeeping genes (rpoB and gltA) and the intergenic species region...
April 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
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