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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291115/the-shape-of-the-contact-density-function-matters-when-modelling-parasite-transmission-in-fluctuating-populations
#1
Benny Borremans, Jonas Reijniers, Niel Hens, Herwig Leirs
Models of disease transmission in a population with changing densities must assume a relation between infectious contacts and density. Typically, a choice is made between a constant (frequency-dependence) and a linear (density-dependence) contact-density function, but it is becoming increasingly clear that intermediate, nonlinear functions are more realistic. It is currently not clear, however, what the exact consequences would be of different contact-density functions in fluctuating populations. By combining field data on rodent host (Mastomys natalensis) demography, experimentally derived contact-density data, and laboratory and field data on Morogoro virus infection dynamics, we explored the effects of different contact-density function shapes on transmission dynamics and invasion/persistence...
November 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190285/the-interplay-of-uv-and-cutaneous-papillomavirus-infection-in-skin-cancer-development
#2
Daniel Hasche, Sonja Stephan, Ilona Braspenning-Wesch, Julita Mikulec, Martina Niebler, Hermann-Josef Gröne, Christa Flechtenmacher, Baki Akgül, Frank Rösl, Sabrina E Vinzón
Cutaneous human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are considered as cofactors for non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) development, especially in association with UVB. Extensively studied transgenic mouse models failed to mimic all aspects of virus-host interactions starting from primary infection to the appearance of a tumor. Using the natural model Mastomys coucha, which reflects the human situation in many aspects, we provide the first evidence that only UVB and Mastomys natalensis papillomavirus (MnPV) infection strongly promote NMSC formation...
November 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186900/rodent-papillomaviruses
#3
REVIEW
Aayushi Uberoi, Paul F Lambert
Preclinical infection model systems are extremely valuable tools to aid in our understanding of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) biology, disease progression, prevention, and treatments. In this context, rodent papillomaviruses and their respective infection models are useful tools but remain underutilized resources in the field of papillomavirus biology. Two rodent papillomaviruses, MnPV1, which infects the Mastomys species of multimammate rats, and MmuPV1, which infects laboratory mice, are currently the most studied rodent PVs...
November 27, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033405/construction-and-expression-of-vectors-encoding-biologically-active-rodent-gonadotropins
#4
Akihiko Ohta, Yuichiro Tsunoda, Yoshihiko Tamura, Kayoko Iino, Naoto Nishimura, Hiroto Nishihara, Haruka Takanashi, Saishu Yoshida, Takako Kato, Yukio Kato
The gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), are important hormones in vertebrate reproduction. The isolation of gonadotropins from the pituitary gland is sub-optimal, as the cross-contamination of one hormone with another is common and often results in the variation in the measured activity of LH and FSH. The production of recombinant hormones is, therefore, a viable approach to solve this problem. This study aimed to express recombinant rat, mouse, and mastomys FSH and LH in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969710/molecular-detection-of-leishmania-infantum-and-leishmania-tropica-in-rodent-species-from-endemic-cutaneous-leishmaniasis-areas-in-morocco
#5
Mohamed Echchakery, Carmen Chicharro, Samia Boussaa, Javier Nieto, Eugenia Carrillo, Ortega Sheila, Javier Moreno, Ali Boumezzough
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem in African nations, including Morocco, where little is known about the vertebrate reservoirs involved in the causal parasites' transmission cycles. The present study investigates the role of rodent species as potential reservoirs of Leishmania spp. in central Morocco, where both L. tropica and L. infantum have been reported. METHODS: Rodents were caught from 22 sites in central Morocco, by using Sherman metal traps, and identified morphologically...
October 2, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967498/comparative-non-metric-and-morphometric-analyses-of-rats-at-residential-halls-of-the-university-of-benin-campus-nigeria
#6
E A Odigie, O K Ekeolu, O D Asemota, E A Uwagie-Ero, I T Aighewi, S U Ighedosa, S F Usifoh, B O Olugasa, O Asemota, T N E Fagboya
BACKGROUND: In mammals and across rat species, the variation in conformation is markedly observed in the head and the variation in the shape of the head is mostly determined by the shape of the skull. Hence comparative topographic analysis and morphometry is a veritable tool in precise categorization of peri-domestic rats and species identification. METHODS: Killed rodents around residential dwellings of students on campus were collected and measurements taken of external morphology...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882517/diagnosis-and-genetic-analysis-of-the-worldwide-distributed-rattus-borne-trypanosoma-herpetosoma-lewisi-and-its-allied-species-in-blood-and-fleas-of-rodents
#7
Paola A Ortiz, Herakles A Garcia, Luciana Lima, Flávia Maia da Silva, Marta Campaner, Carlos L Pereira, Sathaporn Jittapalapong, Luis Neves, Marc Desquesnes, Erney P Camargo, Marta M G Teixeira
Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) lewisi is a cosmopolitan parasite of rodents strongly linked to the human dispersal of Rattus spp. from Asia to the rest of the world. This species is highly phylogenetically related to trypanosomes from other rodents (T. lewisi-like), and sporadically infects other mammals. T. lewisi may opportunistically infect humans, and has been considered an emergent rat-borne zoonosis associated to poverty. We developed the THeCATL-PCR based on Cathepsin L (CATL) sequences to specifically detect T...
September 4, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873024/serological-survey-of-zoonotic-viruses-in-invasive-and-native-commensal-rodents-in-senegal-west-africa
#8
Christophe A Diagne, Nathalie Charbonnel, Heikki Henttonen, Tarja Sironen, Carine Brouat
Increasing studies on rodent-borne diseases still highlight the major role of rodents as reservoirs of numerous zoonoses of which the frequency is likely to increase worldwide as a result of accelerated anthropogenic changes, including biological invasions. Such a situation makes pathogen detection in rodent populations important, especially in the context of developing countries characterized by high infectious disease burden. Here, we used indirect fluorescent antibody tests to describe the circulation of potentially zoonotic viruses in both invasive (Mus musculus domesticus and Rattus rattus) and native (Mastomys erythroleucus and Mastomys natalensis) murine rodent populations in Senegal (West Africa)...
October 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866987/helminth-composition-and-prevalence-of-indigenous-and-invasive-synanthropic-murid-rodents-in-urban-areas-of-gauteng-province-south-africa
#9
R S Julius, E V Schwan, C T Chimimba
Although synanthropic rodents such as the indigenous species, Mastomys coucha, and the invasive species, Rattus norvegicus, R. rattus and R. tanezumi, are well-known to be hosts to various micro- and macroparasites, their helminth parasite fauna is poorly studied in South Africa. In an attempt to remedy the situation, the aim of the present study was to investigate the helminth fauna of these sympatric rodent species, which were obtained from the informal settlements of Alexandra, Tembisa, Diepsloot and residential suburbs of Pretoria and Hammanskraal, Gauteng Province, South Africa...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Helminthology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789852/recombinant-calponin-of-human-filariid-brugia-malayi-secondary-structure-and-immunoprophylactic-potential
#10
Shiv K Verma, Ashish Arora, P Kalpana Murthy
In the search for potential vaccine candidates for the control of human lymphatic filariasis, we recently identified calponin-like protein, that regulates actin/myosin interactions, in a proinflammatory fraction F8 (45.24-48.64kDa) of Brugia malayi adult worms. In the present study, the gene was cloned, expressed, and the recombinant Calponin of B. malayi (r-ClpBm) was prepared and characterized. r-ClpBm bears homology with OV9M of Onchocerca volvulus, a non-lymphatic filariid that causes loss of vision and cutaneous pathology...
August 5, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748835/prevalence-of-lassa-virus-among-rodents-trapped-in-three-south-south-states-of-nigeria
#11
D E Agbonlahor, A Erah, I M Agba, F E Oviasogie, A F Ehiaghe, M Wankasi, O A Eremwanarue, I J Ehiaghe, E C Ogbu, R I Iyen, S Abbey, M Y Tatfeng, J Uhunmwangho
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Lassa fever has been endemic in Nigeria since 1969. The rodent Mastomys natalensis has been widely claimed to be the reservoir host of the Lassa virus. This study was designed to investigate the dis- tribution of species of rodents in three states (Edo, Delta and Bayelsa) of Nigeria and to determine the prevalence of Lassa virus amongst trapped rodents in the selected states. METHODS: Rodents were trapped during November 2015 to October 2016 from the three states in South-South re- gion of Nigeria...
April 2017: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616660/arenavirus-dynamics-in-experimentally-and-naturally-infected-rodents
#12
Joachim Mariën, Benny Borremans, Sophie Gryseels, Bram Vanden Broecke, Beate Becker-Ziaja, Rhodes Makundi, Apia Massawe, Jonas Reijniers, Herwig Leirs
Infectious diseases of wildlife are typically studied using data on antibody and pathogen levels. In order to interpret these data, it is necessary to know the course of antibodies and pathogen levels after infection. Such data are typically collected using experimental infection studies in which host individuals are inoculated in the laboratory and sampled over an extended period, but because laboratory conditions are controlled and much less variable than natural conditions, the immune response and pathogen dynamics may differ...
September 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451959/impact-of-mining-and-forest-regeneration-on-small-mammal-biodiversity-in-the-western-region-of-ghana
#13
Daniel K Attuquayefio, Erasmus H Owusu, Benjamin Y Ofori
Much of the terrestrial biodiversity in sub-Saharan Africa is supported by tropical rainforest. Natural resource development, particularly surface mining in the rainforest, poses great risks to the region's rich and endemic biodiversity. Here, we assessed the impact of surface mining and the success of forest rehabilitation on small mammal diversity in the Western Region of Ghana. We surveyed small mammals in the project area and two adjoining forest reserves (control sites) before the mining operation and 10 years after mine closure and forest rehabilitation (topsoil replacement and revegetation)...
May 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449693/no-measurable-adverse-effects-of-lassa-morogoro-and-gairo-arenaviruses-on-their-rodent-reservoir-host-in-natural-conditions
#14
Joachim Mariën, Benny Borremans, Sophie Gryseels, Barré Soropogui, Luc De Bruyn, Gédéon Ngiala Bongo, Beate Becker-Ziaja, Joëlle Goüy de Bellocq, Stephan Günther, N'Faly Magassouba, Herwig Leirs, Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet
BACKGROUND: In order to optimize net transmission success, parasites are hypothesized to evolve towards causing minimal damage to their reservoir host while obtaining high shedding rates. For many parasite species however this paradigm has not been tested, and conflicting results have been found regarding the effect of arenaviruses on their rodent host species. The rodent Mastomys natalensis is the natural reservoir host of several arenaviruses, including Lassa virus that is known to cause Lassa haemorrhagic fever in humans...
April 27, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210845/whipworm-diversity-in-west-african-rodents-a-molecular-approach-and-the-description-of-trichuris-duplantieri-n-sp-nematoda-trichuridae
#15
Alexis Ribas, Christophe Diagne, Caroline Tatard, Mamoudou Diallo, Srisupaph Poonlaphdecha, Carine Brouat
Whipworms were collected from rodents (Muridae) from six West African countries: Burkina-Faso, the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, and the Republics of Benin, Guinea, Mali and Senegal. Molecular sequences (ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2 of the ribosomal DNA gene) and morphometric characters were analysed in Trichuris (Nematoda: Trichuridae) specimens found in seven host species: Arvicanthis niloticus, Gerbilliscus gambianus, Gerbillus gerbillus, G. tarabuli, Mastomys erythroleucus, M. huberti and M. natalensis. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three clades, one recognised as Trichuris mastomysi, previously recorded in M...
April 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167603/at-home-with-mastomys-and-rattus-human-rodent-interactions-and-potential-for-primary-transmission-of-lassa-virus-in-domestic-spaces
#16
Jesse Bonwitt, Almudena Mari Sáez, Joseph Lamin, Rashid Ansumana, Michael Dawson, Jacob Buanie, Joyce Lamin, Diana Sondufu, Matthias Borchert, Foday Sahr, Elisabeth Fichet-Calvet, Hannah Brown
AbstractThe multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) is the reservoir for Lassa virus (LASV). Zoonotic transmission occurs when humans are directly or indirectly exposed to fluids of the multimammate mouse, such as urine, saliva, and blood. Housing characteristics and domestic organization affect rodent density in and around households and villages, and are likely to be a risk factor for Lassa fever in humans where the reservoir exists. We use semi-structured interviews (N = 51), a quantitative survey (N = 429), direct observations, and a rodent ecology study to provide new insights into how the organization of domestic spaces brings together humans and rodents and creates pathways for infection in rural settlements in Bo District, Sierra Leone...
April 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076397/when-viruses-don-t-go-viral-the-importance-of-host-phylogeographic-structure-in-the-spatial-spread-of-arenaviruses
#17
Sophie Gryseels, Stuart J E Baird, Benny Borremans, Rhodes Makundi, Herwig Leirs, Joëlle Goüy de Bellocq
Many emerging infections are RNA virus spillovers from animal reservoirs. Reservoir identification is necessary for predicting the geographic extent of infection risk, but rarely are taxonomic levels below the animal species considered as reservoir, and only key circumstances in nature and methodology allow intrinsic virus-host associations to be distinguished from simple geographic (co-)isolation. We sampled and genetically characterized in detail a contact zone of two subtaxa of the rodent Mastomys natalensis in Tanzania...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828973/immunization-with-brugia-malayi-myosin-as-heterologous-dna-prime-protein-boost-induces-protective-immunity-against-b-malayi-infection-in-mastomys-coucha
#18
Jyoti Gupta, Sweta Misra, Shailja Misra-Bhattacharya
The current control strategies employing chemotherapy with diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin and albendazole have reduced transmission in some filaria-endemic areas, there is growing interest for complementary approaches, such as vaccines especially in light of threat of parasite developing resistance to mainstay drugs. We earlier demonstrated recombinant heavy chain myosin of B. malayi (Bm-Myo) as a potent vaccine candidate whose efficacy was enhanced by heterologous DNA prime/protein boost (Myo-pcD+Bm-Myo) vaccination in BALB/c mice...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822541/16s-rrna-amplicon-sequencing-for-epidemiological-surveys-of-bacteria-in-wildlife
#19
Maxime Galan, Maria Razzauti, Emilie Bard, Maria Bernard, Carine Brouat, Nathalie Charbonnel, Alexandre Dehne-Garcia, Anne Loiseau, Caroline Tatard, Lucie Tamisier, Muriel Vayssier-Taussat, Helene Vignes, Jean-François Cosson
The human impact on natural habitats is increasing the complexity of human-wildlife interactions and leading to the emergence of infectious diseases worldwide. Highly successful synanthropic wildlife species, such as rodents, will undoubtedly play an increasingly important role in transmitting zoonotic diseases. We investigated the potential for recent developments in 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to facilitate the multiplexing of the large numbers of samples needed to improve our understanding of the risk of zoonotic disease transmission posed by urban rodents in West Africa...
July 2016: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724960/fleas-and-trypanosomes-of-peridomestic-small-mammals-in-sub-saharan-mali
#20
Tom G Schwan, Job E Lopez, David Safronetz, Jennifer M Anderson, Robert J Fischer, Ousmane Maïga, Nafomon Sogoba
BACKGROUND: Fleas are obligate blood-feeding ectoparasites and vectors of several bacterial zoonotic pathogens as well as trypanosomes that parasitize rodents and other small mammals. During investigations of tick- and rodent-borne diseases in Mali, West Africa, we included fleas and rodent-borne trypanosomes, both of which are poorly known in this country, but are attracting greater public health interest. METHODS: Small mammals were captured in 20 Malian villages from December 2007 to October 2011...
October 11, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
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