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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763556/modifications-in-retinal-mitochondrial-respiration-precede-type-2-diabetes-and-protracted-microvascular-retinopathy
#1
Woo Hyun Han, Jonathan Gotzmann, Sharee Kuny, Hui Huang, Catherine B Chan, Hélène Lemieux, Yves Sauvé
Purpose: To characterize retinal mitochondrial respiration associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) progression in a cone-rich diurnal rodent, the Nile rat (genus Arvicanthis, species niloticus). Methods: Nile rats were fed a standard rodent diet that resulted in rising glucose levels from 6 months. Age-matched control animals were fed a high-fiber diet that prevented diabetes up to 18 months. The functional status of specific retinal mitochondrial components and mitochondrial outer membrane integrity were studied by using high-resolution respirometry...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759564/de-novo-assembly-and-annotation-of-the-retinal-transcriptome-for-the-nile-grass-rat-arvicanthis-ansorgei
#2
Melissa M Liu, Michael Farkas, Perrine Spinnhirny, Paul Pevet, Eric Pierce, David Hicks, Donald J Zack
Cone photoreceptors are required for color vision and high acuity vision, and they die in a variety of retinal degenerations, leading to irreversible vision loss and reduced quality of life. To date, there are no approved therapies that promote the health and survival of cones. The development of novel treatments targeting cones has been challenging and impeded, in part, by the limitations inherent in using common rodent model organisms, which are nocturnal and rod-dominant, to study cone biology. The African Nile grass rat (Arvicanthis ansorgei), a diurnal animal whose photoreceptor population is more than 30% cones, offers significant potential as a model organism for the study of cone development, biology, and degeneration...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552113/preliminary-study-on-investigation-of-zoonotic-visceral-leishmaniasis-in-endemic-foci-of-ethiopia-by-detecting-leishmania-infections-in-rodents
#3
Wossenseged Lemma, Asrat Bizuneh, Habte Tekie, Habtamu Belay, Hirut Wondimu, Aysheshm Kassahun, Welelta Shiferaw, Meshesha Balkew, Ibrahim Abassi, Gad Baneth, Asrat Hailu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (ZVL) by identification of the most probable reservoir hosts using parasite isolation and analysis of a possible transmission dynamics of the disease in extra-domestic agricultural fields and rural villages. METHODS: Rodents were collected from selected study sites in kala-azar endemic areas based on information for localities of kala-azar cases for screening of Leishmania infections using parasitological, serological and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from March, 2013 to January, 2014...
April 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320839/sleep-deprivation-and-caffeine-treatment-potentiate-photic-resetting-of-the-master-circadian-clock-in-a-diurnal-rodent
#4
Pawan Kumar Jha, Hanan Bouâouda, Sylviane Gourmelen, Stephanie Dumont, Fanny Fuchs, Yannick Goumon, Patrice Bourgin, Andries Kalsbeek, Etienne Challet
Circadian rhythms in nocturnal and diurnal mammals are primarily synchronized to local time by the light/dark cycle. However, nonphotic factors, such as behavioral arousal and metabolic cues, can also phase shift the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCNs) and/or reduce the synchronizing effects of light in nocturnal rodents. In diurnal rodents, the role of arousal or insufficient sleep in these functions is still poorly understood. In the present study, diurnal Sudanian grass rats, Arvicanthis ansorgei, were aroused at night by sleep deprivation (gentle handling) or caffeine treatment that both prevented sleep...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210845/whipworm-diversity-in-west-african-rodents-a-molecular-approach-and-the-description-of-trichuris-duplantieri-n-sp-nematoda-trichuridae
#5
Alexis Ribas, Christophe Diagne, Caroline Tatard, Mamoudou Diallo, Srisupaph Poonlaphdecha, Carine Brouat
Whipworms were collected from rodents (Muridae) from six West African countries: Burkina-Faso, the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, and the Republics of Benin, Guinea, Mali and Senegal. Molecular sequences (ITS-1, 5.8S and ITS-2 of the ribosomal DNA gene) and morphometric characters were analysed in Trichuris (Nematoda: Trichuridae) specimens found in seven host species: Arvicanthis niloticus, Gerbilliscus gambianus, Gerbillus gerbillus, G. tarabuli, Mastomys erythroleucus, M. huberti and M. natalensis. Phylogenetic analyses revealed three clades, one recognised as Trichuris mastomysi, previously recorded in M...
April 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795741/hepatic-transcriptome-implications-for-palm-fruit-juice-deterrence-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-in-young-male-nile-rats
#6
Soon-Sen Leow, Julia Bolsinger, Andrzej Pronczuk, K C Hayes, Ravigadevi Sambanthamurthi
BACKGROUND: The Nile rat (NR, Arvicanthis niloticus) is a model of carbohydrate-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the metabolic syndrome. A previous study found that palm fruit juice (PFJ) delayed or prevented diabetes and in some cases even reversed its early stages in young NRs. However, the molecular mechanisms by which PFJ exerts these anti-diabetic effects are unknown. In this study, the transcriptomic effects of PFJ were studied in young male NRs, using microarray gene expression analysis...
2016: Genes & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27068697/five-stages-of-progressive-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction-in-the-laboratory-nile-rat-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#7
Kaiyuan Yang, Jonathan Gotzmann, Sharee Kuny, Hui Huang, Yves Sauvé, Catherine B Chan
We compared the evolution of insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in the Nile rat (Arvicanthis niloticus), a diurnal rodent model of spontaneous type 2 diabetes (T2D), when maintained on regular laboratory chow versus a high-fiber diet. Chow-fed Nile rats already displayed symptoms characteristic of insulin resistance at 2 months (increased fat/lean mass ratio and hyperinsulinemia). Hyperglycemia was first detected at 6 months, with increased incidence at 12 months. By this age, pancreatic islet structure was disrupted (increased α-cell area), insulin secretion was impaired (reduced insulin secretion and content) in isolated islets, insulin processing was compromised (accumulation of proinsulin and C-peptide inside islets), and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone protein ERp44 was upregulated in insulin-producing β-cells...
June 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27038859/the-contribution-of-the-pineal-gland-on-daily-rhythms-and-masking-in-diurnal-grass-rats-arvicanthis-niloticus
#8
Dorela D Shuboni, Amna A Agha, Thomas K H Groves, Andrew J Gall
Melatonin is a hormone rhythmically secreted at night by the pineal gland in vertebrates. In diurnal mammals, melatonin is present during the inactive phase of the rest/activity cycle, and in primates it directly facilitates sleep and decreases body temperature. However, the role of the pineal gland for the promotion of sleep at night has not yet been studied in non-primate diurnal mammalian species. Here, the authors directly examined the hypothesis that the pineal gland contributes to diurnality in Nile grass rats by decreasing activity and increasing sleep at night, and that this could occur via effects on circadian mechanisms or masking, or both...
July 2016: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26801650/suprachiasmatic-nucleus-and-subparaventricular-zone-lesions-disrupt-circadian-rhythmicity-but-not-light-induced-masking-behavior-in-nile-grass-rats
#9
Andrew J Gall, Dorela D Shuboni, Lily Yan, Antonio A Nunez, Laura Smale
The ventral subparaventricular zone (vSPVZ) receives direct retinal input and influences the daily patterning of activity in rodents, making it a likely candidate for the mediation of acute behavioral responses to light (i.e., masking). We performed chemical lesions aimed at the vSPVZ of diurnal grass rats (Arvicanthis niloticus) using N-methyl-D,L-aspartic acid (NMA), a glutamate agonist. Following NMA lesions, we placed grass rats in various lighting conditions (e.g., 12:12 light-dark, constant dark, constant light); presented a series of light pulses at circadian times (CT) 6, 14, 18, and 22; and placed them in a 7-h ultradian cycle to assess behavioral masking...
April 2016: Journal of Biological Rhythms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26684510/decreased-daytime-illumination-leads-to-anxiety-like-behaviors-and-hpa-axis-dysregulation-in-the-diurnal-grass-rat-arvicanthis-niloticus
#10
Tomoko Ikeno, Sean P Deats, Joel Soler, Joseph S Lonstein, Lily Yan
The impact of ambient light on mood and anxiety is best exemplified in seasonal affective disorder, in which patients experience depression and anxiety in winter when there is less light in the environment. However, the brain mechanisms underlying light-dependent changes in affective state remain unclear. Our previous work revealed increased depression-like behaviors in the diurnal Nile grass rat (Arvicanthis niloticus) housed in a dim light-dark (dim-LD) cycle as compared to the controls housed in a bright light-dark (bright-LD) condition...
March 1, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26437456/urban-market-gardening-and-rodent-borne-pathogenic-leptospira-in-arid-zones-a-case-study-in-niamey-niger
#11
Gauthier Dobigny, Madougou Garba, Caroline Tatard, Anne Loiseau, Max Galan, Ibrahima Kadaouré, Jean-Pierre Rossi, Mathieu Picardeau, Eric Bertherat
Leptospirosis essentially affects human following contact with rodent urine-contaminated water. As such, it was mainly found associated with rice culture, recreational activities and flooding. This is also the reason why it has mainly been investigated in temperate as well as warm and humid regions, while arid zones have been only very occasionally monitored for this disease. In particular, data for West African countries are extremely scarce. Here, we took advantage of an extensive survey of urban rodents in Niamey, Niger, in order to look for rodent-borne pathogenic Leptospira species presence and distribution across the city...
2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26349239/-cellobiohydrolase-activity-in-the-digestive-tract-of-two-african-rodent-species-the-african-grass-rat-arvicanthis-niloticus-and-vlei-rat-otomys-helleri
#12
A Al Varshavskiy, A A Varshavskiy
Cellobiohydrolase activity (CBHA) of endosymbionts in the digestive tract of two African rodent species differing in its morphology and in feeding specialization--Arvicanthis niloticus and Otomys helleri--has been studied as a characteristic of their physiological and ecological adaptation to phytophagy A statistically significant correlation of CBHA with obesity has been revealed in A. niloticus, with the CBHA level being significantly higher in corpus ceci than in ampulla ceci. The possible morphophysiological and ecological significance of the observed features of symbiotic digestion are discussed...
May 2015: Izvestiia Akademii Nauk. Seriia Biologicheskaia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26327444/borrelia-infection-in-small-mammals-in-west-africa-and-its-relationship-with-tick-occurrence-inside-burrows
#13
REVIEW
Georges Diatta, Jean-Marc Duplantier, Laurent Granjon, Khalilou Bâ, Gilles Chauvancy, Mady Ndiaye, Jean-François Trape
Tick-borne relapsing fever (TBRF) is a zoonotic disease caused by several Borrelia species transmitted to humans by Ornithodoros tick vectors. In West Africa, Borrelia crocidurae is a common cause of disease in many rural populations. Small mammals act as reservoirs of infection. We report here the results of surveys that investigated the occurrence of B. crocidurae infection in rodents and insectivores from eight countries of West and Central Africa. Animals were identified at the species level and tested for Borrelia either by examination of thick blood film, intra-peritoneal inoculation of blood or brain tissues into laboratory mice, or by molecular techniques...
December 2015: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26236201/central-melanopsin-projections-in-the-diurnal-rodent-arvicanthis-niloticus
#14
Jennifer L Langel, Laura Smale, Gema Esquiva, Jens Hannibal
The direct effects of photic stimuli on behavior are very different in diurnal and nocturnal species, as light stimulates an increase in activity in the former and a decrease in the latter. Studies of nocturnal mice have implicated a select population of retinal ganglion cells that are intrinsically photosensitive (ipRGCs) in mediation of these acute responses to light. ipRGCs are photosensitive due to the expression of the photopigment melanopsin; these cells use glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) as neurotransmitters...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26230507/unraveling-host-vector-arbovirus-interactions-by-two-gene-high-resolution-melting-mosquito-bloodmeal-analysis-in-a-kenyan-wildlife-livestock-interface
#15
David Omondi, Daniel K Masiga, Yvonne Ukamaka Ajamma, Burtram C Fielding, Laban Njoroge, Jandouwe Villinger
The blood-feeding patterns of mosquitoes are directly linked to the spread of pathogens that they transmit. Efficient identification of arthropod vector bloodmeal hosts can identify the diversity of vertebrate species potentially involved in disease transmission cycles. While molecular bloodmeal analyses rely on sequencing of cytochrome b (cyt b) or cytochrome oxidase 1 gene PCR products, recently developed bloodmeal host identification based on high resolution melting (HRM) analyses of cyt b PCR products is more cost-effective...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26153723/unique-regulation-of-the-melatonin-synthetic-pathway-in-the-retina-of-diurnal-female-arvicanthis-ansorgei-rodentia
#16
Coralie Gianesini, Daniel Clesse, Gianluca Tosini, David Hicks, Virginie Laurent
Knowledge about melatonin synthesis and its potential roles within the retina remains fragmented, especially in mammals where studies have focused on the penultimate enzyme of melatonin synthesis arylalkylamine N-acetyltransferase (AA-NAT), whereas the final enzyme necessary for melatonin production is hydroxyindole-O-methytransferase (HIOMT). We explored multiple parameters of the melatonin synthetic pathway in the cone-rich retina of a diurnal rodent, Arvicanthis ansorgei, cones being previously implicated as probable reservoirs of melatonin production...
September 2015: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26116821/hypothalamic-dopaminergic-neurons-in-an-animal-model-of-seasonal-affective-disorder
#17
Sean P Deats, Widya Adidharma, Lily Yan
Light has profound effects on mood regulation as exemplified in seasonal affective disorder (SAD) and the therapeutic benefits of light therapy. However, the underlying neural pathways through which light regulates mood are not well understood. Our previous work has developed the diurnal grass rat, Arvicanthis niloticus, as an animal model of SAD. Following housing conditions of either 12:12 h dim light:dark (DLD) or 8:16 h short photoperiod (SP), which mimic the lower light intensity or short day-length of winter, respectively, grass rats exhibit an increase in depression-like behavior compared to those housed in a 12:12 h bright light:dark (BLD) condition...
August 18, 2015: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25855227/diversity-and-habitat-association-of-small-mammals-in-aridtsy-forest-awi-zone-ethiopia
#18
Getachew Bantihun, Afework Bekele
Here, we conducted a survey to examine the diversity, distribution and habitat association of small mammals from August 2011 to February 2012 incorporating both wet and dry seasons in Aridtsy forest, Awi Zone, Ethiopia. Using Sherman live traps and snap traps in four randomly selected trapping grids, namely, natural forest, bushland, grassland and farmland, a total of 468 individuals comprising eight species of small mammals (live traps) and 89 rodents of six species (snap traps) were trapped in 2352 and 1200 trap nights, respectively...
March 18, 2015: Dong Wu Xue Yan Jiu, Zoological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25575946/plastic-oscillators-and-fixed-rhythms-changes-in-the-phase-of-clock-gene-rhythms-in-the-pvn-are-not-reflected-in-the-phase-of-the-melatonin-rhythm-of-grass-rats
#19
C A Martin-Fairey, C Ramanathan, A Stowie, E Walaszczyk, L Smale, A A Nunez
The same clock-genes, including Period (PER) 1 and 2, that show rhythmic expression in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are also rhythmically expressed in other brain regions that serve as extra-SCN oscillators. Outside the hypothalamus, the phase of these extra-SCN oscillators appears to be reversed when diurnal and nocturnal mammals are compared. Based on mRNA data, PER1 protein is expected to peak in the late night in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) of nocturnal laboratory rats, but comparable data are not available for a diurnal species...
March 12, 2015: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25573253/seasonal-fluctuations-of-small-mammal-and-flea-communities-in-a-ugandan-plague-focus-evidence-to-implicate-arvicanthis-niloticus-and-crocidura-spp-as-key-hosts-in-yersinia-pestis-transmission
#20
Sean M Moore, Andrew Monaghan, Jeff N Borchert, Joseph T Mpanga, Linda A Atiku, Karen A Boegler, John Montenieri, Katherine MacMillan, Kenneth L Gage, Rebecca J Eisen
BACKGROUND: The distribution of human plague risk is strongly associated with rainfall in the tropical plague foci of East Africa, but little is known about how the plague bacterium is maintained during periods between outbreaks or whether environmental drivers trigger these outbreaks. We collected small mammals and fleas over a two year period in the West Nile region of Uganda to examine how the ecological community varies seasonally in a region with areas of both high and low risk of human plague cases...
2015: Parasites & Vectors
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