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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812653/adaptation-of-phytoplankton-to-a-decade-of-experimental-warming-linked-to-increased-photosynthesis
#1
C-Elisa Schaum, Samuel Barton, Elvire Bestion, Angus Buckling, Bernardo Garcia-Carreras, Paula Lopez, Chris Lowe, Samraat Pawar, Nicholas Smirnoff, Mark Trimmer, Gabriel Yvon-Durocher
Phytoplankton photosynthesis is a critical flux in the carbon cycle, accounting for approximately 40% of the carbon dioxide fixed globally on an annual basis and fuelling the productivity of aquatic food webs. However, rapid evolutionary responses of phytoplankton to warming remain largely unexplored, particularly outside the laboratory, where multiple selection pressures can modify adaptation to environmental change. Here, we use a decade-long experiment in outdoor mesocosms to investigate mechanisms of adaptation to warming (+4 °C above ambient temperature) in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, in naturally assembled communities...
March 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811032/recent-advancements-and-future-trends-in-environmental-analysis-sample-preparation-liquid-chromatography-and-mass-spectrometry
#2
REVIEW
Virginia Pérez-Fernández, Lucia Mainero Rocca, Pierpaolo Tomai, Salvatore Fanali, Alessandra Gentili
Among the thousands of chemicals having potential to enter the environment, the NORMAN network has identified at least 700 substances categorized into 20 classes in the European surface waters. Pesticides, pharmaceuticals, disinfection by-products, wood preservation and industrial chemicals are the prominent classes. Since the impact of these substances on aquatic life and human health might be dramatic, action is urgently required at multiple levels; one of them is just related to the development of more and more sensible and selective analytical methods...
August 29, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809452/neurotoxin-synthesis-is-positively-regulated-by-the-sporulation-transcription-factor-spo0a-in-clostridium-botulinum-type-e
#3
Gerald Mascher, Anna Mertaoja, Hannu Korkeala, Miia Lindström
Clostridium botulinum produces the most potent natural toxin, the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), probably to create anaerobiosis and nutrients by killing the host, and forms endospores that facilitate survival in harsh conditions and transmission. Peak BoNT production coincides with initiation of sporulation in C. botulinum cultures, which suggests common regulation. Here we show that Spo0A, the master regulator of sporulation, positively regulates BoNT production. Insertional inactivation of spo0A in C. botulinum type E strain Beluga resulted in significantly reduced BoNT production and in abolished or highly reduced sporulation in relation to wild-type controls...
August 15, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806691/mercury-contamination-level-and-speciation-inventory-in-lakes-titicaca-uru-uru-bolivia-current-status-and-future-trends
#4
S Guédron, D Point, D Acha, S Bouchet, P A Baya, E Tessier, M Monperrus, C I Molina, A Groleau, L Chauvaud, J Thebault, E Amice, L Alanoca, C Duwig, G Uzu, X Lazarro, A Bertrand, S Bertrand, C Barbraud, K Delord, F M Gibon, C Ibanez, M Flores, P Fernandez Saavedra, M E Ezpinoza, C Heredia, F Rocha, C Zepita, D Amouroux
Aquatic ecosystems of the Bolivian Altiplano (∼3800 m a.s.l.) are characterized by extreme hydro-climatic constrains (e.g., high UV-radiations and low oxygen) and are under the pressure of increasing anthropogenic activities, unregulated mining, agricultural and urban development. We report here a complete inventory of mercury (Hg) levels and speciation in the water column, atmosphere, sediment and key sentinel organisms (i.e., plankton, fish and birds) of two endorheic Lakes of the same watershed differing with respect to their size, eutrophication and contamination levels...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806552/exposure-of-engineered-nanoparticles-to-alexandrium-tamarense-dinophyceae-healthy-impacts-of-nanoparticles-via-toxin-producing-dinoflagellate
#5
Manlu Li, Daoyi Chen, Yang Liu, Chia Ying Chuang, Fanzhou Kong, Paul J Harrison, Xiaoshan Zhu, Yuelu Jiang
Human activities can enhance the frequency, intensity and occurrence of harmful algal blooms (HABs). Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs), contained in many materials, will inevitably enter coastal waters and thus cause unpredictable impacts on aquatic organisms. However, knowledge of the influence of ENPs on HAB species is still lacking. In this study, we examined the effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2), zinc oxide nanoparticles (nZnO) and aluminum oxide nanoparticles (nAl2O3) on physiological changes and paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) production of Alexandrium tamarense...
August 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804804/life-cycle-environmental-impacts-of-bioethanol-production-from-sugarcane-molasses-in-iran
#6
Saeid Shahvarooghi Farahani, Mohammad Amin Asoodar
In recent years, bioethanol from sugarcane molasses has been produced on an industrial scale in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate molasses-based bioethanol production from an environmental point of view. Data were collected from Debel Khazai agro-industry situated in southern region of Iran by using face-to-face interviews and annual statistics of 2010 to 2016 (6-year life cycle of sugarcane cultivation). Ten impact categories including abiotic depletion (AD), acidification (AC), eutrophication (EP), global warming potential (GWP), ozone layer depletion (OLD), human toxicity (HT), freshwater aquatic ecotoxicity (FE), marine aquatic ecotoxicity (ME), terrestrial ecotoxicity (TE), and photochemical oxidation (PO) were selected based on CML methodology...
August 13, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801887/degradation-of-5-5-diphenylhydantoin-by-chlorination-and-uv-chlorination-kinetics-transformation-by-products-and-toxicity-assessment
#7
Nur Adawiyah Mansor, Kheng Soo Tay
This study investigated the reaction kinetics and mechanism of the degradation of 5,5-diphenylhydantoin (DPH) during conventional chlorination and UV/chlorination. DPH is one of the antiepileptic drugs, which has frequently been detected in the aquatic environment. For chlorination, the second-order rate constant for the reaction between DPH and free active chlorine (FAC) was determined at pH 5 to 8. At pH 6 to 8, the efficiency of chlorination in the removal of DPH was found to be dominated by the reaction involving hypochlorous acid (HOCl)...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801775/plasticizers-and-bisphenol-a-in-packaged-foods-sold-in-the-tunisian-markets-study-of-their-acute-in-vivo-toxicity-and-their-environmental-fate
#8
Asma Beltifa, Anouar Feriani, Monia Machreki, Asma Ghorbel, Lakhdar Ghazouani, Giuseppa Di Bella, Joris Van Loco, Tim Reyns, Hedi Ben Mansour
Today, processed and packaged foods are considered as among the major sources of human exposure to plasticizers and bisphenol which migrate from plastic packing. In the present study, a wide range of food products sold on the Tunisian market such as grain and grain products, milk and dairy products, fats and oil, drink, fish, and sweets have been analyzed firstly in order to identify the presence of phthalates and bisphenol. Then, the identified chemical molecules were studied for their environmental fate and tested in vivo for its toxicity in mice models...
August 12, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799136/silver-nanoparticles-cause-osmoregulatory-impairment-and-oxidative-stress-in-caspian-kutum-rutilus-kutum-kamensky-1901
#9
Fatemeh F Masouleh, Bagher M Amiri, Alireza Mirvaghefi, Hossein Ghafoori, Steffen S Madsen
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly used in several industrial and household products because of their antibacterial and antifungal properties. Hence, there is an inevitable risk that these chemicals may end up in aquatic biotopes and have adverse effects on the fauna. In order to assess potential health effects on aquatic organisms, this study evaluated the effects of waterborne AgNP exposure for 7 days on a set of critical stress parameters in juvenile Caspian kutum (Rutilus kutum), an economically important fish in the Caspian Sea...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799007/comparison-of-passive-sampling-and-biota-for-monitoring-of-tonalide-in-aquatic-environment
#10
Jitka Tumova, Katerina Grabicova, Oksana Golovko, Olga Koba, Vit Kodes, Ganna Fedorova, Roman Grabic, Hana Kocour Kroupova
Synthetic musk compounds are extensively used in personal care and cosmetic products all over the world. Afterwards, they are discharged into the environment mainly because they are not completely removed in wastewater treatment plants. The aim of this study was to investigate if a passive sampler is applicable for the monitoring of tonalide, a polycyclic musk compound, in the aquatic environment and to compare the levels of tonalide in pesticide-polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and biota...
August 10, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798864/temporal-variations-in-methane-emissions-from-emergent-aquatic-macrophytes-in-two-boreonemoral-lakes
#11
Per Milberg, Lina Törnqvist, Lars M Westerberg, David Bastviken
Methane (CH4) emissions via emergent aquatic macrophytes can contribute substantially to the global CH4 balance. We addressed temporal variability in CH4 flux by using the static chamber approach to quantify fluxes from plots dominated by two species considered to differ in flux transport mechanisms (Phragmites australis, Carex rostrata). Temporal variability in daily mean emissions from early June to early October was substantial. The variable that best explained this variation was air temperature. Regular and consistent diel changes were absent and therefore less relevant to include when estimating or modelling CH4 emissions...
July 2017: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798742/preservation-and-significance-of-extracellular-dna-in-ferruginous-sediments-from-lake-towuti-indonesia
#12
Aurèle Vuillemin, Fabian Horn, Mashal Alawi, Cynthia Henny, Dirk Wagner, Sean A Crowe, Jens Kallmeyer
Extracellular DNA is ubiquitous in soil and sediment and constitutes a dominant fraction of environmental DNA in aquatic systems. In theory, extracellular DNA is composed of genomic elements persisting at different degrees of preservation produced by processes occurring on land, in the water column and sediment. Extracellular DNA can be taken up as a nutrient source, excreted or degraded by microorganisms, or adsorbed onto mineral matrices, thus potentially preserving information from past environments. To test whether extracellular DNA records lacustrine conditions, we sequentially extracted extracellular and intracellular DNA from anoxic sediments of ferruginous Lake Towuti, Indonesia...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798731/mechanisms-and-regulation-of-extracellular-dna-release-and-its-biological-roles-in-microbial-communities
#13
REVIEW
Alejandra L Ibáñez de Aldecoa, Olga Zafra, José E González-Pastor
The capacity to release genetic material into the extracellular medium has been reported in cultures of numerous species of bacteria, archaea, and fungi, and also in the context of multicellular microbial communities such as biofilms. Moreover, extracellular DNA (eDNA) of microbial origin is widespread in natural aquatic and terrestrial environments. Different specific mechanisms are involved in eDNA release, such as autolysis and active secretion, as well as through its association with membrane vesicles. It is noteworthy that in microorganisms, in which DNA release has been studied in detail, the production of eDNA is coordinated by the population when it reaches a certain cell density, and is induced in a subpopulation in response to the accumulation of quorum sensing signals...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783918/impact-of-polyethylene-microbeads-on-the-floating-freshwater-plant-duckweed-lemna-minor
#14
Gabriela Kalčíková, Andreja Žgajnar Gotvajn, Aleš Kladnik, Anita Jemec
Microplastics (MP), small plastic particles below 5 mm, have become one of the central concerns of environmental risk assessment. Microplastics are continuously being released into the aquatic environment either directly through consumer products or indirectly through fragmentation of larger plastic materials. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of polyethylene microbeads from cosmetic products on duckweed (Lemna minor), a freshwater floating plant. The effects of microbeads from two exfoliating products on the specific leaf growth rate, the chlorophyll a and b content in the leaves, root number, root length and root cell viability were assessed...
August 2, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783906/three-classes-of-steroids-in-typical-freshwater-aquaculture-farms-comparison-to-marine-aquaculture-farms
#15
Shan Liu, Hui Chen, Xiang-Rong Xu, Qin-Wei Hao, Jian-Liang Zhao, Guang-Guo Ying
This study provides a comprehensive analysis of the occurrence of androgens, glucocorticoids and progestogens in typical freshwater aquaculture farms in comparison with marine aquaculture farms. The results showed that more steroids were detected in the marine aquaculture farms. For all aquatic products, the total concentrations of steroids in fish muscle were 22-2000ng/g, which were much higher than those detected in crabs, shrimps or mollusks (0.5-8.1ng/g). Based on the hazard index of the selected steroids, most water samples were in the low or medium risks...
July 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783131/algicidal-activity-of-bacillamide-alkaloids-and-their-analogues-against-marine-and-freshwater-harmful-algae
#16
Bo Wang, Yuanyuan Tao, Qisheng Liu, Na Liu, Zhong Jin, Xiaohua Xu
Harmful algal blooms have become a great challenge to global aquatic ecosystems over the past decades. Given their low toxicity, high selectivity, and environment-friendly properties, the use of natural products and their analogues as algicides has proven to be particularly efficient. In the present study, algicidal activity of naturally occurring bacillamides A-C, alkaloid (1), and neobacillamide A, as well as their synthetic analogues were investigated intensively. Bioassay results showed that, relative to natural bacillamide alkaloids, aniline-derived analogue (10d) exhibited higher algicidal potential against three freshwater harmful algae Mycrocyctis aeruginosa, Scenedesmus obliquus, and Chlorella pyrenoidosa, suggesting that it could be used as a promising lead compound to develop novel algicide for controlling harmful algal blooms...
August 7, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783081/culturing-toxic-benthic-blooms-the-fate-of-natural-biofilms-in-a-microcosm-system
#17
Francesca Di Pippo, Roberta Congestri
A microcosm designed for culturing aquatic phototrophic biofilms on artificial substrata was used to perform experiments with microphytobenthos sampled during summer toxic outbreaks of Ostreopsis cf. ovata along the Middle Tyrrhenian coast. This dynamic approach aimed at exploring the unique and complex nature of O. cf. ovata bloom development in the benthic system. Epibenthic assemblages were used as inocula for co-cultures of bloom organisms on polycarbonate slides at controlled environmental conditions. Biofilm surface adhesion, growth, and spatial structure were evaluated along with shifts in composition and matrix production in a low disturbance regime, simulating source habitat...
August 6, 2017: Microorganisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782034/effects-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-nitrification-and-associated-nitrous-oxide-production-in-aquatic-environments
#18
Yanling Zheng, Lijun Hou, Min Liu, Silvia E Newell, Guoyu Yin, Chendi Yu, Hongli Zhang, Xiaofei Li, Dengzhou Gao, Juan Gao, Rong Wang, Cheng Liu
Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most common materials in nanotechnology-based consumer products globally. Because of the wide application of AgNPs, their potential environmental impact is currently a highly topical focus of concern. Nitrification is one of the processes in the nitrogen cycle most susceptible to AgNPs but the specific effects of AgNPs on nitrification in aquatic environments are not well understood. We report the influence of AgNPs on nitrification and associated nitrous oxide (N2O) production in estuarine sediments...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781184/contaminants-of-emerging-concern-in-the-open-sea-waters-of-the-western-mediterranean
#19
Miroslav Brumovský, Jitka Bečanová, Jiří Kohoutek, Mireno Borghini, Luca Nizzetto
Pollution by chemical substances is of concern for the maintenance of healthy and sustainable aquatic environments. While the occurrence and fate of numerous emerging contaminants, especially pharmaceuticals, is well documented in freshwater, their occurrence and behavior in coastal and marine waters is much less studied and understood. This study investigates the occurrence of 58 chemicals in the open surface water of the Western Mediterranean Sea for the first time. 70 samples in total were collected in 10 different sampling areas...
August 3, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780892/ecotoxicological-modelling-of-cosmetics-for-aquatic-organisms-a-qstr-approach
#20
K Khan, K Roy
In this study, externally validated quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) models were developed for toxicity of cosmetic ingredients on three different ecotoxicologically relevant organisms, namely Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Daphnia magna and Pimephales promelas following the OECD guidelines. The final models were developed by partial least squares (PLS) regression technique, which is more robust than multiple linear regression. The obtained model for P. subcapitata shows that molecular size and complexity have significant impacts on the toxicity of cosmetics...
August 7, 2017: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
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