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Aquatic productivity

Maja Grubisic, Roy H A van Grunsven, Alessandro Manfrin, Michael T Monaghan, Franz Hölker
The increasing use of artificial light at night (ALAN) has led to exposure of freshwater ecosystems to light pollution worldwide. Simultaneously, the spectral composition of nocturnal illumination is changing, following the current shift in outdoor lighting technologies from traditional light sources to light emitting diodes (LED). LEDs emit broad-spectrum white light, with a significant amount of photosynthetically active radiation, and typically a high content of blue light that regulates circadian rhythms in many organisms...
May 14, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Talita L L Carmo, Vinícius C Azevedo, Priscila R Siqueira, Tiago D Galvão, Fabrício A Santos, Cláudia B R Martinez, Carlos R Appoloni, Marisa N Fernandes
Manufactured titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 -NP) have been intensely applied in numerous industrial products and may be a risk for aquatic systems as they are not completely removed from domestic and industrial wastes after water treatment. This study evaluated the osmo- and ionic balance, Na+ /K+ -ATPase, H+ -ATPase and carbonic anhydrase activities and the mitochondria-rich cells (MRC) in the gills and kidney of the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus after 2 (acute) and 14 (subchronic) days of exposure to nominal 0, 1, 5, 10 and 50 mg L-1 TiO2 -NP...
May 9, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Cristina Ballarin, Paola Bagnoli, Antonella Peruffo, Bruno Cozzi
The rigid structure of the mammalian trachea is functional to maintain constant patency and airflow during breathing, but no gas exchange takes place through its walls. The structure of the organ in dolphins shows increased rigidity of the tracheal cartilaginous rings and the presence of vascular lacunae in the submucosa. However, no actual comparison was ever made between the size and capacity of the vascular lacunae of the dolphin trachea and the potentially homologous structures of terrestrial mammals. In the present study, the extension of the lacunae has been compared between the bottlenose dolphin and the bovine, a closely related terrestrial Cetartiodactyla...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Mostafa A R Hossain, Munir Ahmed, Elena Ojea, Jose A Fernandes
Aquatic ecosystems are of global importance for maintaining high levels of biodiversity and ecosystem services, and for the number of livelihoods dependent on them. In Bangladesh, coastal and delta communities rely on these systems for a livelihood, and the sustainability of the productivity is seriously threatened by both climate change and unsustainable management. These multiple drivers of change shape the livelihood dependence and adaptation responses, where a better understanding is needed to achieve sustainable management in these systems, while maintaining and improving dependent livelihoods...
May 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Zhen Yang, Riley P Buley, Edna G Fernandez-Figueroa, Mario U G Barros, Soorya Rajendran, Alan E Wilson
Controlling blooms of toxigenic phytoplankton, including cyanobacteria, is a high priority for managers of aquatic systems that are used for drinking water, recreation, and aquaculture production. Although a variety of treatment approaches exist, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) has the potential to be an effective and ecofriendly algaecide given that this compound may select against cyanobacteria while not producing harmful residues. To broadly evaluate the effectiveness of H2 O2 on toxigenic phytoplankton, we tested multiple concentrations of H2 O2 on (1) four cyanobacterial cultures, including filamentous Anabaena, Cylindrospermopsis, and Planktothrix, and unicellular Microcystis, in a 5-day laboratory experiment and (2) a dense cyanobacterial bloom in a 7-day field experiment conducted in a nutrient-rich aquaculture pond...
May 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Daiane R B Belgini, Virgínia M Siqueira, Douglas M Oliveira, Samantha G Fonseca, Viviane Piccin-Santos, Roberto S Dias, Larissa Quartaroli, Rodrigo S Souza, Ana Paula R Torres, Maíra P Sousa, Cláudio M Silva, Cynthia C Silva, Sérgio O De Paula, Valéria M Oliveira
Oil refineries are known for the large volume of water used in their processes, as well as the amount of wastewater generated at the end of the production chain. Due to strict environmental regulations, the recycling of water has now become a viable alternative for refineries. Among the many methods available to treat wastewater for reuse, the use of membranes in reverse osmosis systems stands out due to several economic and environmental benefits. However, these systems are vulnerable to contamination and deposition of microorganisms, mainly because of the feedwater quality...
April 13, 2018: Systematic and Applied Microbiology
Chang-Gui Pan, Feng-Jiao Peng, Guang-Guo Ying
Climbazole (CBZ) is an antibacterial and antifungal agent widely used in personal care products. In this study, we investigated the interactions between climbazole (CBZ) and freshwater microalgae Scenedesmus obliquus (S. obliquus). Dose-effect relationships between CBZ concentrations and growth inhibitions or chlorophyll a content were observed. After 12 days of incubation, the algae density and chlorophyll a content in 2 mg/L treatment group was 56.6% and 15.8% of those in the control group, respectively...
May 11, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Xinhui Zhou, Jiaran Zhang, Zhongli Pan, Daoliang Li
Malachite green (MG) has been widely used in the aquaculture industry as a fungicide and parasiticide because of its high efficiency and low cost, and it is commonly found in aquatic products and environmental water. However, MG and its primary metabolite, leuco-malachite green (LMG), are also toxic inorganic contaminants that are hazardous to the health of humans and other organisms. A variety of methods have been proposed in recent years for detecting and monitoring MG and LMG. This article was compiled as a general review of the methods proposed for MG and LMG detection, and several important detection parameters, such as the limit of detection, recovery and relative standard deviation, were tabulated...
May 14, 2018: Critical Reviews in Analytical Chemistry
Ramachandran Ishwarya, Baskaralingam Vaseeharan, Suganya Subbaiah, Abdul Khudus Nazar, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Naiyf S Alharbi, Shine Kadaikunnan, Jamal M Khaled, Mohammed N Al-Anbr
The green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using phytochemical from marine seaweeds is a fast-growing research field in nanotechnology. Here, the biosynthesis of zinc oxide nanoparticles was achieved using the hot water extract of Sargassum wightii. The hot water extract prepared from S. wightii (H Sw) and ZnO NPs were studied by UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy, SEM and XRD. Then, both products were evaluated for antibiofilm activity towards aquatic pathogens. The nanoparticles' immunostimulating potential on green tiger prawns, Penaeus semisulcatus was studied through immersion and dietary administration...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Wei Zhang, Xue Zhang, Yuling Tian, Yan Zhu, Yindong Tong, Ying Li, Xuejun Wang
Contamination of methylmercury (MeHg) in aquatic products has been a wide spread health concern. The objective of this study is to determine total mercury (THg) and MeHg concentrations in different species of aquatic products from major offshore farms in China, and to assess health impacts from consumption. Results showed that the concentrations of THg and MeHg ranged 5.6-328.4 ng/g (wet weight) and 4.3-303.6 ng/g (wet weight) in aquatic products, respectively, and were very variable among species and origin sources...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Eduard Rott, Heidrun Steinmetz, Jörg W Metzger
The worldwide increasing consumption of the phosphonates 2-phosphonobutane-1,2,4-tricarboxylic acid [PBTC], 1-hydroxyethane 1,1-diphosphonic acid [HEDP], nitrilotris(methylene phosphonic acid) [NTMP], ethylenediamine tetra(methylene phosphonic acid) [EDTMP] and diethylenetriamine penta(methylene phosphonic acid) [DTPMP] over the past decades put phosphonates into focus of environmental scientists and agencies, as they are increasingly discussed in the context of various environmental problems. The hitherto difficult analysis of phosphonates contributed to the fact that very little is known about their concentrations and behavior in the environment...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yihui Zhou, Ge Yin, Xinyu Du, Maoying Xu, Yanling Qiu, Patrik Ahlqvist, Qiaofeng Chen, Jianfu Zhao
Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are new group of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) listed in the Stockholm Convention. The Yangtze River Delta is among the industrially most developed areas in China, supporting a large production and consumption of chlorinated paraffins (CPs). Despite this, there is very limited data on the environmental exposure of SCCPs from the region. This study analyzed SCCPs in 14 wild aquatic organisms from Dianshan Lake, Shanghai, China. The concentrations of total SCCPs ranged from 10 to 1300μgg-1 lipid weight, with significantly higher levels (p<0...
February 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Dubravka Špoljarić Maronić, Ivna Štolfa Čamagajevac, Janja Horvatić, Tanja Žuna Pfeiffer, Filip Stević, Neven Žarković, Georg Waeg, Morana Jaganjac
The estimation of the toxic influences of herbicide products on non-target aquatic organisms is essential for evaluation of environmental contamination. We assessed the effects of the herbicide S-metolachlor (S-MET) on unicellular green microalga Parachlorella kessleri during 4-72 in vitro exposure to concentrations in the range 2-200μg/L. The results have shown that S-MET had a significant effect on algae, even in doses 10 and 20 times lower than the EC50 values obtained for P. kessleri (EC50-72h=1090μg/L)...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Wen-Ling Chen, Jiun-Yi Cheng, Xiao-Qian Lin
Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are an emerging concern because of the large amount of PPCPs that is discharged and its potential ecological effects on the aquatic environment. Chlorination has proven efficient for removing some aromatic PPCPs from wastewater, but the formation of by-products has not been thoroughly investigated partly because of analytical difficulties. This study developed a method for systematically screening and identifying the transformation products (TPs) of multiple aromatic PPCPs through high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS)...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
R R Turner, C P J Mitchell, A D Kopec, R A Bodaly
Tidal marshes are both important sites of in situ methylmercury production and can be landscape sources of methylmercury to adjacent estuarine systems. As part of a regional investigation of the Hg-contaminated Penobscot River and Bay system, the tidal fluxes of total suspended solids, total mercury and methylmercury into and out of a regionally important mesohaline fluvial marsh complex, Mendall Marsh, were intensively measured over several tidal cycles and at two spatial scales to assess the source-sink function of the marsh with respect to the Penobscot River...
May 8, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Cong Kong, Yang Wang, Yuanfei Huang, Huijuan Yu
A quick screening method of more than 200 pharmaceutical and other residues in aquatic foods based on ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry (UHPLC-Q/Orbitrap MS) was established. In this method, after the addition of 200 μL of 1 M EDTA-Na2 , 2 g of each sample homogenate was extracted successively with 10 mL of acetonitrile and 10 mL of ethyl acetate. The extracts were combined, dried under nitrogen flow, and redissolved in 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile/water (4:6, v/v) for analysis...
May 11, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Dong Hao Wang, Rinat Ran-Ressler, Judy St Leger, Erika Nilson, Lauren Palmer, Richard Collins, J Thomas Brenna
Vernix caseosa, the white waxy coating found on newborn human skin, is thought to be a uniquely human substance. Its signature characteristic is exceptional richness in saturated branched chain fatty acids (BCFA) and squalene. Vernix particles sloughed from the skin suspended in amniotic fluid are swallowed by the human fetus, depositing BCFA/squalene throughout the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, thereby establishing a unique microbial niche that influences development of nascent microbiota. Here we show that late-term California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) fetuses have true vernix caseosa, delivering BCFA and squalene to the fetal GI tract thereby recapitulating the human fetal gut microbial niche...
May 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Dai Kuang, Jianmin Zhang, Xuebin Xu, Weimin Shi, Sheng Chen, Xiaowei Yang, Xudong Su, Xianming Shi, Jianghong Meng
Disease caused by nontyphoidal serotypes of Salmonella enterica is the leading cause of foodborne illness worldwide. Many serotypes have also developed resistance to antimicrobials commonly used for the treatment of salmonellosis. Here we analyze 179 ciprofloxacin-resistant isolates identified among 3680 Salmonella isolated from humans, food, animals, and water collected in Shanghai, China. They were assessed for antimicrobial susceptibility, plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) determinants, and mutations in quinolone resistance determination regions (QRDRs); genetic relatedness was examined using PFGE...
May 2, 2018: International Journal of Food Microbiology
Atitheb Chaiyasitdhi, Wirat Miphonpanyatawichok, Mathis Oliver Riehle, Rungrueang Phatthanakun, Werasak Surareungchai, Worasom Kundhikanjana, Panwong Kuntanawat
Morphological transformations in primitive organisms have long been observed; however, its biomechanical roles are largely unexplored. In this study, we investigate the structural advantages of dimorphism in Arthrospira platensis, a filamentous multicellular cyanobacterium. We report that helical trichomes, the default shape, have a higher persistence length (Lp), indicating a higher resistance to bending or a large value of flexural rigidity (kf), the product of the local cell stiffness (E) and the moment of inertia of the trichomes' cross-section (I)...
2018: PloS One
Jing Wang, Linsheng Yang, Hairong Li, Yonghua Li, Binggan Wei
BACKGROUND: Selenium (Se) is essential for humans, with many critical roles in physiological and pathophysiological processes. Fish, eggs and meats are usually the rich food sources of Se. To improve the nutritional status of population, a new version of balanced dietary pattern in the form of the Chinese Food Pagoda (2016) was proclaimed. This study aimed to evaluate the contribution of this balanced dietary pattern to daily Se intake, and to assess Se intake status of Chinese residents under this Food Pagoda scenario...
May 9, 2018: Nutrition Journal
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