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Aquatic productivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336564/benzophenone-4-promotes-the-growth-of-a-pseudomonas-sp-and-biogenic-oxidation-of-mn-ii
#1
Yangyang Chang, Yaohui Bai, Yang Huo, Jiuhui Qu
Interactions between microbes and micropollutants (MPs) play a crucial role in water purification or treatment. Current studies have generally focused on the direct degradation or co-metabolism of MPs. Considering the increasing interest in and importance of the roles of MPs in microbial metabolism, we adopted a Mn(II)-oxidizing Pseudomonas sp. QJX-1 using tyrosine (Tyr) as the sole carbon and nitrogen source to investigate the effects of seven MPs on its growth and function. Six MPs exhibited an inhibition effect on bacterial growth and Mn(II) oxidation...
January 16, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336000/the-origin-and-ecological-function-of-an-ion-inducing-anti-predator-behavior-in-lithobates-tadpoles
#2
Cayla E Austin, Raymond E March, Naomi L Stock, Dennis L Murray
In aquatic environments, chemical cues are believed to be associated with prey response to predation risk, yet few basic cue compositions are known despite the pronounced ecological and evolutionary significance of such cues. Previous work indicated that negatively-charged ions of m/z 501 are possibly a kairomone that induces anti-predator responses in amphibian tadpoles. However, work described here confirms that this specific ion species m/z 501.2886 is produced by injured tadpoles, exhibits increased spectral intensity with higher tadpole biomass, and is not produced by starved predators...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335173/application-of-fe3o4-mil-100-fe-core-shell-magnetic-microspheres-for-evaluating-the-sorption-of-organophosphate-esters-to-dissolved-organic-matter-dom
#3
Long Pang, Peijie Yang, Huiqiang Yang, Liming Ge, Jingwen Xiao, Yifan Zhou
Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are widely used as flame retardants and plasticizers in many products and materials. Because of the potential biologic toxicity on human beings, OPEs are regarded as a class of emerging pollutants. Dissolved organic matters (DOM) have significant effects on the bioavailability and toxicity of the pollutants in the environment. Negligible-depletion solid-phase microextraction (nd-SPME) is an efficient way for measuring the freely dissolved pollutants but suffers from long equilibrium time...
January 12, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334298/long-term-effects-of-tungsten-carbide-wc-nanoparticles-in-pelagic-and-benthic-aquatic-ecosystems
#4
Mikael T Ekvall, Jonas Hedberg, Inger Odnevall Wallinder, Lars-Anders Hansson, Tommy Cedervall
As the production and usage of nanomaterials are increasing so are the concerns related to the release of the material into nature. Tungsten carbide (WC) is widely used for its hard metal properties, although its use, in for instance tyre studs, may result in nano-sized particles ending up in nature. Here, we evaluate the potential long-term exposure effects of WC nanoparticles on a pelagic (Daphnia magna) and a benthic (Asellus aquaticus) organism. No long-term effects were observed in the benthic system with respect to population dynamics or ecosystem services...
January 15, 2018: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333858/mineral-and-base-catalyzed-hydrolysis-of-organophosphate-flame-retardants-a-potential-major-fate-controlling-sink-in-soil-and-aquatic-environments
#5
Yida Fang, Erin Kim, Timothy J Strathmann
The ubiquitous occurrence of organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) in aquatic and soil environments poses significant risks to human health and ecosystems. Here, we report on the hydrolysis of six OPFRs and three structural analogues in the absence and presence of metal (hydr)oxide minerals. Eight of the target compounds showed marked degradation in alkaline solutions (pH 9-12) with half-lives ranging from 0.02 - 170 d. Kinetics follow a second-order rate law with apparent rate constants for base-catalyzed hydrolysis (kB) ranging from 0...
January 15, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332216/characteristics-of-arg-carrying-plasmidome-in-the-cultivable-microbial-community-from-wastewater-treatment-system-under-high-oxytetracycline-concentration
#6
Yanhong Shi, Hong Zhang, Zhe Tian, Min Yang, Yu Zhang
Studies on antibiotic production wastewater have shown that even a single antibiotic can select for multidrug resistant bacteria in aquatic environments. It is speculated that plasmids are an important mechanism of multidrug resistance (MDR) under high concentrations of antibiotics. Herein, two metagenomic libraries were constructed with plasmid DNA extracted from cultivable microbial communities in a biological wastewater treatment reactor supplemented with 0 (CONTROL) or 25 mg/L of oxytetracycline (OTC-25)...
January 13, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328974/novel-approach-for-evaluating-pharmaceuticals-toxicity-using-daphnia-model-analysis-of-the-mode-of-cytochrome-p450-generated-metabolite-action-after-acetaminophen-exposure
#7
Ryeo-Ok Kim, Min-A Jo, Jinhaeng Song, Il-Chan Kim, Seokjoo Yoon, Woo-Keun Kim
Because of its widespread use, the pharmaceutical acetaminophen (APAP) is frequently detected in aquatic environments. APAP can have serious physiological effects, such as reduced reproduction, low growth rates, and abnormal behavior, in aquatic organisms. However, the methods available for evaluation of the aquatic toxicity of APAP are of limited usefulness. The present study aimed to develop reliable and sensitive markers for evaluation of APAP toxicity using Daphnia as a model organism. We focused on N-acetyl-p-benzoquinoneimine (NAPQI) production from APAP via cytochrome P450 metabolism because NAPQI causes APAP toxicity...
December 30, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328658/modelling-net-land-occupation-of-hydropower-reservoirs-in-norway-for-use-in-life-cycle-assessment
#8
Martin Dorber, Roel May, Francesca Verones
Increasing hydropower electricity production constitutes a unique opportunity to mitigate climate change impacts. However, hydropower also impacts aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity through freshwater habitat alteration, water quality degradation, and land use and land use change (LULUC). Today, no operational model exists that covers any of these cause-effect pathways within Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This paper contributes to the assessment of LULUC impacts of hydropower electricity production in Norway in LCA...
January 12, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324395/effects-of-lanthanum-on-microcystis-aeruginosa-attention-to-the-changes-in-composition-and-content-of-cellular-microcystins
#9
Fei Shen, Lihong Wang, Qing Zhou, Xiaohua Huang
Algal blooms threaten human health and aquatic ecosystem through the production of microcystins (MCs) by toxic strains. The accumulation of rare earth elements (REEs) in water affects the growth and physiological activities of algae. However, whether or how REEs affect cellular microcystins (MCs) is largely unknown. In this study, the effects of lanthanum ion [La(III)], a type of REE, on the MCs in Microcystis aeruginosa were investigated, and the mechanism of the effect was analyzed using ecological stoichiometry...
January 6, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319530/coomassie-blue-g250-for-visualization-of-active-bacteria-from-lake-environment-and-culture
#10
Bartosz Kiersztyn, Waldemar Siuda, Ryszard Chróst
Bacteria play a fundamental role in the cycling of nutrients in aquatic environments. A precise distinction between active and inactive bacteria is crucial for the description of this process. We have evaluated the usefulness of Coomassie Blue G250 for fluorescent staining of protein containing potentially highly active bacteria. We found that the G250 solution has excitation and emission properties appropriate for direct epifluorescence microscopy observations. It enables fast and effective fluorescent visualization of living, protein-rich bacteria, both in freshwater environment and culture...
September 27, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318328/contrasting-network-features-between-free-living-and-particle-attached-bacterial-communities-in-taihu-lake
#11
Huimin Xu, Dayong Zhao, Rui Huang, Xinyi Cao, Jin Zeng, Zhongbo Yu, Katherine V Hooker, K David Hambright, Qinglong L Wu
Free-living (FL) and particle-attached (PA) bacterial communities play critical roles in nutrient cycles, metabolite production, and as a food source in aquatic systems, and while their community composition, diversity, and functions have been well studied, we know little about their community interactions, co-occurrence patterns, and niche occupancy. In the present study, 13 sites in Taihu Lake were selected to study the differences of co-occurrence patterns and niches occupied between the FL and PA bacterial communities using correlation-based network analysis...
January 9, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316021/bacillus-probiotics-an-alternative-to-antibiotics-for-livestock-production
#12
REVIEW
S Mingmongkolchai, W Panbangred
The use of probiotics as feed supplements in animal production has increased considerably over the last decade, particularly since the ban on antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) in the livestock sector. Several Bacillus spp. are attractive for use as probiotic supplements in animal feed due to their ability to produce spores. Their heat stability and ability to survive the low pH of the gastric barrier represent an advantage over other probiotic microorganisms. This review discusses important characteristics required for selection of Bacillus probiotic strains and summarizes the beneficial effect of Bacillus-based feed additives on animal production...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315529/mixing-alters-the-lytic-activity-of-viruses-in-the-dark-ocean
#13
Christian Winter, Nicole Köstner, Carl-Philip Kruspe, Damaris Urban, Simone Muck, Thomas Reinthaler, Gerhard J Herndl
In aquatic habitats, viral lysis of prokaryotic cells lowers the overall efficiency of the microbial loop, by which dissolved organic carbon is transfered to higher trophic levels. Mixing of water masses in the dark ocean occurs on a global scale and may have far reaching consequences for the different prokaryotic and virus communities found in these waters by altering the environmental conditions these communities experience. We hypothesize that mixing of deep ocean water masses enhances the lytic activity of viruses infecting prokaryotes...
January 8, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311281/cyclic-di-gmp-regulates-tfoy-in-vibrio-cholerae-to-control-motility-by-both-transcriptional-and-posttranscriptional-mechanisms
#14
Benjamin R Pursley, Michael M Maiden, Meng-Lun Hsieh, Nicolas Fernandez, Geoffrey B Severin, Christopher M Waters
Cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial second messenger molecule that is a key global regulator in Vibrio cholerae, but the molecular mechanisms by which this molecule regulates downstream phenotypes have not been fully characterized. One such regulatory factor that may respond to c-di-GMP is the Vc2 c-di-GMP-binding riboswitch that is hypothesized to control the expression of the downstream putative transcription factor TfoY. Although much is known about the physical and structural properties of the Vc2 riboswitch aptamer, the nature of its expression and function in V...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306832/ecotoxicological-potential-of-the-biocides-terbutryn-octhilinone-and-methylisothiazolinone-underestimated-risk-from-biocidal-pathways
#15
Simon Kresmann, Arokia Hansel Rajan Arokia, Christoph Koch, Bernd Sures
The use of biocides by industry, agriculture and households increased throughout the last two decades. Many new applications with known substances enriched the variety of biocidal pollution sources for the aquatic environment. While agriculture was the major source for a long time, leaching from building facades and preservation of personal care and cleaning products was identified as new sources in the last few years. With the different usage forms of biocidal products the complexity of legislative regulation increased as well...
January 4, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306699/photochemical-acetochlor-degradation-induced-by-hydroxyl-radical-in-fe-amended-wetland-waters-impact-of-ph-and-dissolved-organic-matter
#16
Chenyi Yuan, Yu-Ping Chin, Linda K Weavers
Iron (Fe) plays a critical role in the formation of hydroxyl radical (OH) which may participate in the indirect photodegradation of aquatic contaminants. While Fe photochemistry has been extensively studied, the efficacy of iron amendments for contaminant attenuation in sunlit natural waters has not been well researched. We studied the efficacy of this approach by monitoring OH induced acetochlor (AC) degradation and determining OH production rates with terephthalate (TPA) as a probe. Surface wetland waters as well as model fulvic acid (FA) solutions were amended with Fe(III) salt at different concentrations at pH values of 2...
November 27, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306200/mass-balance-of-emerging-contaminants-in-the-water-cycle-of-a-highly-urbanized-and-industrialized-area-of-italy
#17
Sara Castiglioni, Enrico Davoli, Francesco Riva, Marinella Palmiotto, Paolo Camporini, Angela Manenti, Ettore Zuccato
The occurrence of several classes of emerging contaminants (ECs) was assessed in the River Lambro basin, one of the most urbanized and industrialized areas of Italy. The study aims were to identify the main sources of ECs, quantify their amounts circulating in the water cycle, and study their fate in the aquatic environment. More than 80 ECs were selected among pharmaceuticals (PHARM), personal care products (PCPs), disinfectants (DIS), illicit drugs (IDs), perfluorinated compounds (PERF), alkylphenols and bisphenol A (Alk-BPA), and anthropogenic markers (AM)...
December 22, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305804/effects-of-cadmium-on-oxidative-stress-activities-in-plasma-of-freshwater-turtle-chinemys-reevesii
#18
Junfeng Huo, Aiguo Dong, Xiaojun Niu, Ailing Dong, Shaochin Lee, Cungen Ma, Lan Wang
Cadmium (Cd) has been recently found in high concentrations in the aquatic environment. This study was designed to examine the effects of Cd on the oxidative stress activities in plasma of freshwater turtle Chinemys reevesii. Experimental turtles were exposed to Cd at the concentration of 15 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection, and redox status was investigated. Compared to the controls, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities in plasma of the treated animals significantly decreased in week 1, week 2, and week 4...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299673/interplay-between-r-and-k-strategists-leads-to-phytoplankton-underyielding-under-pulsed-resource-supply
#19
Lydia A Papanikolopoulou, Evangelia Smeti, Daniel L Roelke, Panayiotis G Dimitrakopoulos, Giorgos D Kokkoris, Daniel B Danielidis, Sofie Spatharis
Fluctuations in nutrient ratios over seasonal scales in aquatic ecosystems can result in overyielding, a condition arising when complementary life-history traits of coexisting phytoplankton species enables more complete use of resources. However, when nutrient concentrations fluctuate under short-period pulsed resource supply, the role of complementarity is less understood. We explore this using the framework of Resource Saturation Limitation Theory (r-strategists vs. K-strategists) to interpret findings from laboratory experiments...
January 3, 2018: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298136/a-biogeochemical-oceanographer-at-sea-my-life-with-nitrogen-and-a-nod-to-silica
#20
Richard C Dugdale
My evolution from electrical engineering student to limnologist and then to oceanographer was a consequence of generous mentoring, which led to my use of the 15N tracer technique to measure nitrogen fixation in aquatic systems. The concept of new and regenerated production arose when I applied this method to measure nitrate and ammonium uptake in marine ecosystems. I then showed that enzyme kinetics could be applied to algal nitrogen uptake and used a silicate pump to explain silicate limitation of diatoms in coastal and equatorial upwelling systems...
January 3, 2018: Annual Review of Marine Science
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