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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351607/sector-wide-or-disease-specific-implications-of-trends-in-development-assistance-for-health-for-the-sdg-era
#1
Anne L Buffardi
The record of the Millennium Development Goals broadly reflects the trade-offs of disease-specific financing: substantial progress in particular areas, facilitated by time-bound targets that are easy to measure and communicate, which shifted attention and resources away from other areas, masked inequalities and exacerbated fragmentation. In many ways, the Sustainable Development Goals reflect a profound shift towards a more holistic, system-wide approach. To inform responses to this shift, this article builds upon existing work on aggregate trends in donor financing, bringing together what have largely been disparate analyses of sector-wide and disease-specific financing approaches...
January 16, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351463/intermediary-metabolism-and-fatty-acid-oxidation-novel-targets-of-electron-transport-chain-driven-injury-during-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#2
Qun Chen, Masood S Younus, Jeremy Thompson, Ying Hu, John M Hollander, Edward J Lesnefsky
BACKGROUND: Cardiac ischemia-reperfusion (IR) damages the electron transport chain (ETC) causing mitochondrial and cardiomyocyte injury. Reversible blockade of the ETC at complex I during ischemia protects the ETC and decreases cardiac injury. In the present study, we used an unbiased proteomic approach to analyze the extent of ETC-driven mitochondrial injury during IR. METHODS: Isolated-perfused mouse (C57BL/6) hearts underwent 25 min global ischemia (37{degree sign}C) and 30 min reperfusion...
December 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351441/vx-809-vx-770-treatment-reduces-inflammatory-response-to-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-primary-differentiated-cystic-fibrosis-bronchial-epithelial-cells
#3
Manon Ruffin, Lucie Roussel, Émilie Maillé, Simon Rousseau, Emmanuelle Brochiero
Cystic fibrosis patients exhibit chronic P. aeruginosa respiratory infections and sustained pro-inflammatory state favoring lung tissue damage and remodeling, ultimately leading to respiratory failure. Loss of CFTR function is associated with MAPK hyper-activation and increased cytokines expression, such as the interleukin 8 (CXCL8). Recently, new therapeutic strategies directly targeting the basic CFTR defect have been developed and ORKAMBI (Vx-809/Vx-770 combination) is the only FDA-approved treatment for CF patients homozygous for the F508del mutation...
December 20, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351439/role-of-reactive-oxygen-species-and-sulfide-quinone-oxoreductase-in-hydrogen-sulfide-induced-contraction-of-rat-pulmonary-arteries
#4
Jesus Prieto-Lloret, Vladimir A Snetkov, Yasin Shaifta, Inmaculada Docio, Michelle J Connolly, Charles E Mackay, Greg A Knock, Jeremy Pt Ward, Philip I Aaronson
Application of H2S ('sulfide') elicits a complex contraction in rat pulmonary arteries (PA) comprising a small transient contraction (phase 1; Ph1) followed by relaxation and then a second, larger, and more sustained contraction (phase 2; Ph2). We investigated the mechanisms causing this response using isometric myography in rat second order PA, with Na2S as a sulfide donor. Both phases of contraction to 1000μM Na2S were attenuated by the pan-PKC inhibitor Gö6983 (3μM) and by 50μM ryanodine; the Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine (1μM) was without effect...
December 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351406/interleukin-6-promotes-a-sustained-loss-of-endothelial-barrier-function-via-janus-kinase-mediated-stat3-phosphorylation-and-de-novo-protein-synthesis
#5
Hiba Alsaffar, Nina Martino, Joshua P Garrett, Alejandro P Adam
Vascular leakage is a hallmark of the inflammatory response. Acute changes in endothelial permeability are due to post-translational changes in intercellular adhesion and cytoskeleton proteins. However, little is known about the mechanisms leading to long-term changes in vascular permeability. Here, we show that Interleukin-6 (IL-6) promotes an increase in endothelial monolayer permeability that lasts over 24 h and demonstrate that activation of Src and MEK/Erk pathways are required only for short-term increases in permeability, being dispensable after 2 h...
January 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351396/mechanisms-of-repetitive-retrograde-contractions-in-response-to-sustained-esophageal-distension-a-study-evaluating-patients-with-post-fundoplication-dysphagia
#6
Dustin A Carlson, Peter J Kahrilas, Katherine Ritter, Zhiyue Lin, John E Pandolfino
BACKGROUND: Repetitive, retrograde contractions (RRCs) in response to sustained esophageal distension are a distinct contractility pattern observed with functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) panometry that are common in type III (spastic) achalasia. RRCs are hypothesized to be indicative of either impaired inhibitory innervation or esophageal outflow obstruction. We aimed to apply FLIP panometry to patients with post-fundoplication dysphagia (a model of esophageal obstruction) to explore mechanisms behind RRCs...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351394/bile-acid-profiles-within-the-enterohepatic-circulation-in-a-diabetic-rat-model-after-bariatric-surgeries
#7
Meng Wei, Yi Shao, Qiao-Ran Liu, Qun-Zheng Wu, Xiang Zhang, Ming-Wei Zhong, Shao-Zhuang Liu, Guang-Yong Zhang, San-Yuan Hu
Bile acids (BAs), which are synthesized in the liver and cycled in the enterohepatic circulation, have been recognized as signaling molecules by activating their receptors in the intestine and liver. Serum taurine-conjugated BAs have been shown to be elevated after bariatric surgeries, although the postoperative BA profiles within the enterohepatic circulation have not been investigated. Clarification of these profiles could help explain the mechanisms by which bariatric surgery leads to BA profile alterations and subsequent metabolic effects...
December 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351325/impact-of-educational-interventions-on-adolescent-attitudes-and-knowledge-regarding-vaccination-a-pilot-study
#8
Kate Carolan, Joanna Verran, Matthew Crossley, James Redfern, Nicola Whitton, Martyn Amos
BACKGROUND: Current immunisation levels in England currently fall slightly below the threshold recommended by the World Health Organization, and the three-year trend for vaccination uptake is downwards. Attitudes towards vaccination can affect future decisions on whether or not to vaccinate, and this can have significant public health implications. Interventions can impact future vaccination decisions, and these interventions can take several forms. Relatively little work has been reported on the use of vaccination interventions in young people, who form the next generation of individuals likely to make vaccination decisions...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351299/what-influences-where-they-seek-care-caregivers-preferences-for-under-five-child-healthcare-services-in-urban-slums-of-malawi-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#9
Edgar Arnold Lungu, Amarech Guda Obse, Catherine Darker, Regien Biesma
Access to and utilisation of quality healthcare promotes positive child health outcomes. However, to be optimally utilised, the healthcare system needs to be responsive to the expectations of the population it serves. Health systems in many sub-Saharan African countries, including Malawi, have historically focused on promoting access to health services by the rural poor. However, in the context of increasing urbanisation and consequent proliferation of urban slums, promoting health of children under five years of age in these settings is a public health imperative...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351291/allometric-biomass-equations-for-12-tree-species-in-coniferous-and-broadleaved-mixed-forests-northeastern-china
#10
Huaijiang He, Chunyu Zhang, Xiuhai Zhao, Folega Fousseni, Jinsong Wang, Haijun Dai, Song Yang, Qiang Zuo
Understanding forest carbon budget and dynamics for sustainable resource management and ecosystem functions requires quantification of above- and below-ground biomass at individual tree species and stand levels. In this study, a total of 122 trees (9-12 per species) were destructively sampled to determine above- and below-ground biomass of 12 tree species (Acer mandshuricum, Acer mono, Betula platyphylla, Carpinus cordata, Fraxinus mandshurica, Juglans mandshurica, Maackia amurensis, P. koraiensis, Populus ussuriensis, Quercus mongolica, Tilia amurensis and Ulmus japonica) in coniferous and broadleaved mixed forests of Northeastern China, an area of the largest natural forest in the country...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351275/a-mathematical-model-for-il-6-mediated-stem-cell-driven-tumor-growth-and-targeted-treatment
#11
Fereshteh Nazari, Alexander T Pearson, Jacques Eduardo Nör, Trachette L Jackson
Targeting key regulators of the cancer stem cell phenotype to overcome their critical influence on tumor growth is a promising new strategy for cancer treatment. Here we present a modeling framework that operates at both the cellular and molecular levels, for investigating IL-6 mediated, cancer stem cell driven tumor growth and targeted treatment with anti-IL6 antibodies. Our immediate goal is to quantify the influence of IL-6 on cancer stem cell self-renewal and survival, and to characterize the subsequent impact on tumor growth dynamics...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351142/worldwide-end-of-life-practice-for-patients-in-icus
#12
Wai-Tat Wong, Jason Phua, Gavin M Joynt
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Published data and practice recommendations on end-of-life (EOL) generally reflect Western practice frameworks. Understanding worldwide practices is important because improving economic conditions are promoting rapid expansion of intensive care services in many previously disadvantaged regions, and increasing migration has promoted a new cultural diversity previously predominantly unicultural societies. This review explores current knowledge of similarities and differences in EOL practice between regions and possible causes and implications of these differences...
January 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351020/a-dynamic-state-model-of-migratory-behavior-and-physiology-to-assess-the-consequences-of-environmental-variation-and-anthropogenic-disturbance-on-marine-vertebrates
#13
Enrico Pirotta, Marc Mangel, Daniel P Costa, Bruce Mate, Jeremy A Goldbogen, Daniel M Palacios, Luis A Hückstädt, Elizabeth A McHuron, Lisa Schwarz, Leslie New
Integrating behavior and physiology is critical to formulating new hypotheses on the evolution of animal life-history strategies. Migratory capital breeders acquire most of the energy they need to sustain migration, gestation, and lactation before parturition. Therefore, when predicting the impact of environmental variation on such species, a mechanistic understanding of the physiology of their migratory behavior is required. Using baleen whales as a model system, we developed a dynamic state variable model that captures the interplay among behavioral decisions, energy, reproductive needs, and the environment...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350877/effects-of-human-rhinovirus-on-epithelial-barrier-integrity-and-function-in-children-with-asthma
#14
Kevin Looi, Alysia G Buckley, Paul J Rigby, Luke W Garratt, Thomas Iosifidis, Graeme R Zosky, Alexander N Larcombe, Francis J Lannigan, Kak-Ming Ling, Kelly M Martinovich, Elizabeth Kicic-Starcevich, Nicole C Shaw, Erika N Sutanto, Darryl A Knight, Anthony Kicic, Stephen M Stick
BACKGROUND: Bronchial epithelial tight junctions (TJ) have been extensively assessed in healthy airway epithelium. However, no studies have yet assessed the effect of human rhinovirus (HRV) infection on the expression and resultant barrier function in epithelial tight junctions (TJ) in childhood asthma. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of HRV infection on airway epithelial TJ expression and barrier function in airway epithelial cells (AEC) of children with and without asthma...
January 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350800/acquisition-remission-and-persistence-of-eczema-asthma-and-rhinitis-in-children
#15
Hongmei Zhang, Akhilesh Kaushal, Nelís Soto-Ramírez, Ali H Ziyab, Susan Ewart, John W Holloway, Wilfried Karmaus, Hasan Arshad
BACKGROUND: Allergic sensitization is associated with eczema, asthma, and rhinitis. However, it is unknown whether and how allergic sensitization is associated over time with acquisition, remission, and persistence of these diseases and their comorbidity. OBJECTIVE: To gain a better understanding of factors including allergic sensitization transitions that influence the temporal pattern of asthma, eczema, and rhinitis and their comorbidity during childhood. METHODS: In the Isle of Wight birth cohort information on allergic sensitization to common allergens was collected at ages 4, 10, and 18 years along with asthma, rhinitis, and eczema status determined by clinical diagnosis...
January 19, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350609/addressing-food-wastage-in-the-framework-of-the-un-sustainable-development-goals
#16
Mario Grosso, Luca Falasconi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350588/arguments-against-the-role-of-cortical-spreading-depression-in-migraine
#17
Piet Borgdorff
Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is a wave of increased electrocortical activity and vasodilation, followed by sustained decreased activity and prolonged vasoconstriction. Although the discovery of CSD has been ascribed to Leão, rather than vasoconstriction, he only observed a depression of neural activity combined with vasodilation, with much weaker stimulation than used by his followers. There is a longstanding belief that CSD underlies migraine aura, with its positive symptoms such as mosaic patterns and its negative symptoms such as scotoma, and a similar propagation speed and vasoreaction pattern...
January 19, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350585/isolation-of-active-coagulant-protein-from-the-seeds-of-strychnos-potatorum-a-potential-water-treatment-agent
#18
P Arunkumar, V Sadish Kumar, S Saran, Harsha Bindun, Suja P Devipriya
The application of natural coagulants for decentralized water treatment is gaining importance as a part of global sustainable initiative. This study focuses on the isolation of active coagulation components responsible for water clarification with respect to Strychnos potatorum seeds. The active coagulant components, protein and polysaccharide were successfully isolated, dialysed and subjected to gel permeation chromatography. The polysaccharide was isolated with the saline extraction method and characterized using FTIR and NMR spectroscopy...
January 19, 2018: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350554/quadriceps-neuromuscular-function-and-jump-landing-sagittal-plane-knee-biomechanics-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#19
Sarah H Ward, Troy Blackburn, Darin A Padua, Laura E Stanley, Matthew S Harkey, Brittney A Luc-Harkey, Brian G Pietrosimone
CONTEXT:   Aberrant biomechanics may affect force attenuation at the knee during dynamic activities, potentially increasing the risk of sustaining a knee injury or hastening the development of osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Impaired quadriceps neuromuscular function has been hypothesized to influence the development of aberrant biomechanics. OBJECTIVE:   To determine the association between quadriceps neuromuscular function (strength, voluntary activation, and spinal-reflex and corticomotor excitability) and sagittal-plane knee biomechanics during jump landings in individuals with ACLR...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350535/contact-charge-electrophoresis-fundamentals-and-microfluidic-applications
#20
Kyle J M Bishop, Aaron M Drews, Charles A Cartier, Shashank Pandey, Yong Dou
Contact charge electrophoresis (CCEP) uses steady electric fields to drive the oscillatory motion of conductive particles and droplets between two or more electrodes. In contrast to traditional forms of electrophoresis and dielectrophoresis, CCEP allows for rapid and sustained particle motions driven by low-power DC voltages. These attributes make CCEP a promising mechanism for powering active components for mobile microfluidic technologies. This Review describes our current understanding of CCEP as well as recent strategies to harness it for applications in microfluidics and beyond...
January 19, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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