keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Small mammals

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821782/rapid-dwarfing-of-an-insular-mammal-the-feral-cattle-of-amsterdam-island
#1
Roberto Rozzi, Mark V Lomolino
The island rule describes a graded trend in insular populations of vertebrates from gigantism in small species to dwarfism in large species. The dwarfing of large mammals on islands has been observed both in the present fauna and in the fossil record. Elephants, hippopotami, deer, and other species became dwarfed on islands scattered all over the world, from the Mediterranean Sea to Indonesia, from the Eastern to Western Pacific Ocean, from the Caribbean to Canary Islands. The most rapid and well documented cases of island dwarfing known thus far took place over thousands of years...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819004/acute-oxygen-sensing-by-the-carotid-body-from-mitochondria-to-plasma-membrane
#2
Andy J Chang
Maintaining oxygen homeostasis is crucial to the survival of animals. Mammals respond acutely to changes in blood oxygen levels by modulating cardiopulmonary function. The major sensor of blood oxygen that regulates breathing is the carotid body (CB), a small chemosensory organ located at the carotid bifurcation. When arterial blood oxygen levels drop in hypoxia, neuroendocrine cells in the CB called glomus cells are activated to signal to afferent nerves that project to the brainstem. The mechanism by which hypoxia stimulates CB sensory activity has been the subject of many studies over the last 90 years...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818660/environmental-effects-are-stronger-than-human-effects-on-mammalian-predator-prey-relationships-in-arid-australian-ecosystems
#3
Benjamin L Allen, Alana Fawcett, Alison Anker, Richard M Engeman, Allan Lisle, Luke K-P Leung
Climate (drought, rainfall), geology (habitat availability), land use change (provision of artificial waterpoints, introduction of livestock), invasive species (competition, predation), and direct human intervention (lethal control of top-predators) have each been identified as processes driving the sustainability of threatened fauna populations. We used a systematic combination of empirical observational studies and experimental manipulations to comprehensively evaluate the effects of these process on a model endangered rodent, dusky hopping-mice (Notomys fuscus)...
August 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815585/mammal-induced-trophic-cascades-in-invertebrate-food-webs-are-modulated-by-grazing-intensity-in-subalpine-grassland
#4
Martijn L Vandegehuchte, Martin Schütz, Frederic de Schaetzen, Anita C Risch
1. Even though mammalian herbivores can exert strong indirect effects on other animals by altering the vegetation, the study of trophic cascades retains a focus on apex predators and their top-down forces. Bottom-up trophic interaction chains induced by mammalian herbivores, particularly in invertebrate food webs, remain largely unexplored. 2. We tested whether effects of mammalian herbivores on the vegetation ricochet back up several trophic levels of the invertebrate food web. We further tested two alternative hypotheses: the strength of herbivore-induced indirect interactions either increases with plant productivity because of a concurrent higher grazing intensity, or it decreases because of a higher plant tolerance to grazing...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815217/deletion-of-cytoplasmic-double-stranded-rna-sensors-does-not-uncover-viral-small-interfering-rna-production-in-human-cells
#5
Susan Schuster, Lotte E Tholen, Gijs J Overheul, Frank J M van Kuppeveld, Ronald P van Rij
Antiviral immunity in insects and plants is mediated by the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway in which viral long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is processed into small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) by Dicer enzymes. Although this pathway is evolutionarily conserved, its involvement in antiviral defense in mammals is the subject of debate. In vertebrates, recognition of viral RNA induces a sophisticated type I interferon (IFN)-based immune response, and it has been proposed that this response masks or inhibits antiviral RNAi...
July 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814374/from-bench-laboratory-to-bed-hospital-home-how-to-explore-effective-natural-and-synthetic-pak1-blockers-longevity-promoters-for-cancer-therapy
#6
REVIEW
Hiroshi Maruta, Mok-Ryeon Ahn
PAK family kinases are RAC/CDC42-activated kinases that were first found in a soil amoeba 4 decades ago, and 2 decades later, were discovered in mammals as well. Since then at least 6 members of this family have been identified in mammals. One of them called PAK1 has been best studied so far, mainly because it is essential not only for malignant cell growth and metastasis, but also for many other diseases/disorders such as diabetes (type 2), AD (Alzheimer's disease), hypertension, and a variety of inflammatory or infectious diseases, which definitely shorten our lifespan...
August 9, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813431/skeleton-of-an-unusual-cat-sized-marsupial-relative-metatheria-marsupialiformes-from-the-middle-eocene-lutetian-44-43-million-years-ago-of-turkey
#7
A Murat Maga, Robin M D Beck
We describe a near-complete, three-dimensionally preserved skeleton of a metatherian (relative of modern marsupials) from the middle Eocene (Lutetian: 44-43 million years ago) Lülük member of the Uzunçarşıdere Formation, central Turkey. With an estimated body mass of 3-4 kg, about the size of a domestic cat (Felis catus) or spotted quoll (Dasyurus maculatus), it is an order of magnitude larger than the largest fossil metatherians previously known from the Cenozoic of the northern hemisphere. This new taxon is characterised by large, broad third premolars that probably represent adaptations for hard object feeding (durophagy), and its craniodental morphology suggests the capacity to generate high bite forces...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812741/persistent-tropical-foraging-in-the-highlands-of-terminal-pleistocene-holocene-new-guinea
#8
Patrick Roberts, Dylan Gaffney, Julia Lee-Thorp, Glenn Summerhayes
The terminal Pleistocene/Holocene boundary (approximately 12-8 thousand years ago) represented a major ecological threshold for humans, both as a significant climate transition and due to the emergence of agriculture around this time. In the highlands of New Guinea, climatic and environmental changes across this period have been highlighted as potential drivers of one of the earliest domestication processes in the world. We present a terminal Pleistocene/Holocene palaeoenvironmental record (12-0 thousand years ago ) of carbon and oxygen isotopes in small mammal tooth enamel from the site of Kiowa...
February 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812168/a-wireless-pressure-sensor-for-continuous%C3%A2-monitoring-of-intraocular-pressure-in-conscious-animals
#9
Simon A Bello, Christopher L Passaglia
An important aspect of eye health in humans and animal models of human diseases is intraocular pressure (IOP). IOP is typically measured by hand with a tonometer, so data are sparse and sporadic and round-the-clock variations are not well characterized. Here we present a novel system for continuous wireless IOP and temperature measurement in small animals. The system consists of a cannula implanted in the anterior chamber of the eye connected to pressure sensing electronics that can be worn by rats or implanted in larger mammals...
August 15, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804595/natural-exposure-of-bats-in-grenada-to-rabies-virus
#10
Ulrike Zieger, Sonia Cheetham, Sharlene E Santana, Leith Leiser-Miller, Vanessa Matthew-Belmar, Hooman Goharriz, Anthony R Fooks
Introduction: Grenada is a rabies endemic country, where terrestrial rabies is maintained in the small Indian mongoose (Herpestes auropunctatus). The role of bats in the epidemiology of rabies in Grenada is unknown. A 1974 report described one rabies virus positive Jamaican fruit bat (Artibeus jamaicensis), and a high seroprevalence in this species. In the current study, the natural exposure to rabies virus in Grenadian bats was re-evaluated. It is postulated that bats serve as a natural rabies reservoir, probably circulating a bat-specific rabies virus variant...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803726/golgi-resident-g%C3%AE-o-promotes-protrusive-membrane-dynamics
#11
Gonzalo P Solis, Oleksii Bilousov, Alexey Koval, Anne-Marie Lüchtenborg, Chen Lin, Vladimir L Katanaev
To form protrusions like neurites, cells must coordinate their induction and growth. The first requires cytoskeletal rearrangements at the plasma membrane (PM), the second requires directed material delivery from cell's insides. We find that the Gαo-subunit of heterotrimeric G proteins localizes dually to PM and Golgi across phyla and cell types. The PM pool of Gαo induces, and the Golgi pool feeds, the growing protrusions by stimulated trafficking. Golgi-residing KDELR binds and activates monomeric Gαo, atypically for G protein-coupled receptors that normally act on heterotrimeric G proteins...
August 7, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800967/role-of-prion-protein-in-premature-senescence-of-human-fibroblasts
#12
Emmanuelle Boilan, Virginie Winant, Elise Dumortier, Benaissa ElMoualij, Pascale Quatresooz, Heinz D Osiewacz, Florence Debacq-Chainiaux, Olivier Toussaint
Prion protein (PrP) is essentially known for its capacity to induce neurodegenerative prion diseases in mammals caused by a conformational change in its normal cellular isoform (PrP(C)) into an infectious and disease-associated misfolded form, called scrapie isoform (PrP(Sc)). Although its sequence is highly conserved, less information is available on its physiological role under normal conditions. However, increasing evidence supports a role for PrP(C) in the cellular response to oxidative stress. In the present study, a new link between PrP and senescence is highlighted...
August 8, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800244/exploiting-analysis-of-heterogeneity-to-increase-the-information-content-extracted-from-fluorescence-micrographs-of-transgenic-zebrafish-embryos
#13
Tongying Shun, Albert H Gough, Subramaniam Sanker, Neil A Hukriede, Andreas Vogt
Zebrafish embryos are a near-ideal animal model for drug discovery because of their high genetic and physiological similarity to mammals, small size, high fecundity, and optical transparency. The latter properties make zebrafish at larval stages especially suited for high-content analysis and high throughput screening (HTS). However, inherent biological complexity and the inability to screen multiple specimens in a single well present a challenge for HTS because limiting replicates and high variability often prevent assays from reaching the stringent performance criteria demanded of large-scale screening assays...
August 11, 2017: Assay and Drug Development Technologies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799685/ecological-factors-influencing-small-mammal-infection-by-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-and-borrelia-burgdorferi-s-l-in-agricultural-and-forest-landscapes
#14
Grégoire Perez, Suzanne Bastian, Amélie Chastagner, Albert Agoulon, Olivier Plantard, Gwenaël Vourc'h, Alain Butet
Small mammals are key components of numerous tick-borne disease systems, as hosts for immature ticks and pathogen reservoirs. To study the factors influencing tick-borne infection in small mammals, we trapped small mammals and collected questing ticks in spring and autumn in 2012 and 2013 at 24 sites in a 10x15 km rural landscapes (Brittany, France). Tissue samples were screened by real-time PCR for Anaplasma phagocytophilum and Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato. Of the two dominant small mammal species captured, bank voles (Myodes glareolus) had higher prevalence than wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) for both infections, presumably because of specific differences in immunological defenses...
August 11, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794154/both-brown-adipose-tissue-and-skeletal-muscle-thermogenesis-processes-are-activated-during-mild-to-severe-cold-adaptation-in-mice
#15
Naresh C Bal, Sushant Singh, Felipe C G Reis, Santosh K Maurya, Sunil Pani, Leslie A Rowland, Muthu Periasamy
Thermogenesis is an important homeostatic mechanism, essential for survival and normal physiological functions in mammals. Both brown adipose tissue (BAT) (i.e. uncoupling protein 1 [UCP1]-based) and skeletal muscle (i.e. sarcolipin [SLN]-based) thermogenesis processes play important roles in temperature homeostasis, but their relative contributions differ from small to large mammals. In this study, we investigated the functional interplay between skeletal muscle and BAT-based thermogenesis under mild versus severe cold adaptation employing UCP1-/- and SLN-/- mice...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792958/can-remote-infrared-cameras-be-used-to-differentiate-small-sympatric-mammal-species-a-case-study-of-the-black-tailed-dusky-antechinus-antechinus-arktos-and-co-occurring-small-mammals-in-southeast-queensland-australia
#16
Emma L Gray, Todd E Dennis, Andrew M Baker
The black-tailed dusky antechinus (Antechinus arktos) is an endangered, small carnivorous marsupial endemic to Australia, which occurs at low population density along with abundant sympatric populations of other small mammals: Antechinus stuartii, Rattus fuscipes and Melomys cervinipes. Using A. arktos as a model species, we aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of infrared digital camera traps for detecting and differentiating small mammals and to comment on the broad applicability of this methodology. We also sought to understand how the detection probabilities of our target species varied over time and characterize their activity patterns...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792853/small-scale-die-offs-in-woodrats-support-long-term-maintenance-of-plague-in-the-u-s-southwest
#17
Michael Kosoy, Pamela Reynolds, Ying Bai, Kelly Sheff, Russell E Enscore, John Montenieri, Paul Ettestad, Kenneth Gage
Our longitudinal study of plague dynamics was conducted in north-central New Mexico to identify which species in the community were infected with plague, to determine the spatial and temporal patterns of the dynamics of plague epizootics, and to describe the dynamics of Yersinia pestis infection within individual hosts. A total of 3156 fleas collected from 535 small mammals of 8 species were tested for Y. pestis DNA. Nine fleas collected from six southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) and from one rock squirrel (Otospermophilus variegatus) were positive for the pla gene of Y...
August 9, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792640/inbreeding-and-inbreeding-avoidance-in-wild-giant-pandas
#18
Yibo Hu, Yonggang Nie, Wei Wei, Tianxiao Ma, Russell Van Horn, Xiaoguang Zheng, Ronald R Swaisgood, Zhixin Zhou, Wenliang Zhou, Li Yan, Zejun Zhang, Fuwen Wei
Inbreeding can have negative consequences on population and individual fitness, which could be counteracted by inbreeding avoidance mechanisms. However, the inbreeding risk and inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in endangered species are less studied. The giant panda, a solitary and threatened species, lives in many small populations and suffers from habitat fragmentation, which may aggravate the risk of inbreeding. Here, we performed long-term observations of reproductive behaviour, sampling of mother-cub pairs and large-scale genetic analyses on wild giant pandas...
August 9, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791488/the-bruce-effect-revisited-is-pregnancy-termination-in-female-rodents-an-adaptation-to-ensure-breeding-success-after-male-turnover-in-low-densities
#19
Jana A Eccard, Melanie Dammhahn, Hannu Ylönen
Pregnancy termination after encountering a strange male, the Bruce effect, is regarded as a counterstrategy of female mammals towards anticipated infanticide. While confirmed in caged rodent pairs, no verification for the Bruce effect existed from experimental field populations of small rodents. We suggest that the effect may be adaptive for breeding rodent females only under specific conditions related to populations with cyclically fluctuating densities. We investigated the occurrence of delay in birth date after experimental turnover of the breeding male under different population composition in bank voles (Myodes glareolus) in large outdoor enclosures: one-male-multiple-females (n = 6 populations/18 females), multiple-males-multiple-females (n = 15/45), and single-male-single-female (MF treatment, n = 74/74)...
August 9, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789836/relationships-among-different-facets-of-host-specificity-in-three-taxa-of-haematophagous-ectoparasites
#20
Luther van der Mescht, Elizabeth M Warburton, Irina S Khokhlova, Maxim V Vinarski, Natalia P Korallo-Vinarskaya, Boris R Krasnov
Host specificity is a fundamental trait of a parasite species. Recently, multiple aspects of host specificity have been recognized, but the relationships between these facets are still poorly understood. Here, we studied pairwise relationships between basic, structural, phylogenetic and geographic host specificity in three taxa of haematophagous ectoparasitic arthropods that differ in tightness of their association with the host. We asked which metrics of host specificity are correlated within each parasite taxon and whether the patterns of the association between different facets of host specificity are similar among parasite taxa...
August 5, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
keyword
keyword
43355
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"