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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457675/oocyte-activating-capacity-of-fresh-and-frozen-thawed-spermatids-in-the-common-marmoset-callithrix-jacchus
#1
Narumi Ogonuki, Hiroki Inoue, Shogo Matoba, Yoko Kakino Kurotaki, Hidetoshi Kassai, Yukiko Abe, Erika Sasaki, Atsu Aiba, Atsuo Ogura
The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) represents a promising nonhuman primate model for the study of human diseases because of its small size, ease of handling, and availability of gene-modified animals. Here, we aimed to devise reproductive technology for marmoset spermatid injection using immature males for a possible rapid generational turnover. Spermatids at each step could be identified easily by their morphology under differential interference microscopy: thus, early round spermatids had a round nucleus with a few nucleolus-like structures and abundant cytoplasm, as in other mammals...
February 19, 2018: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454370/isolation-of-a-novel-rhabdovirus-from-an-insectivorous-bat-pipistrellus-kuhlii-in-italy
#2
Davide Lelli, Alice Prosperi, Ana Moreno, Chiara Chiapponi, Anna Maria Gibellini, Paola De Benedictis, Stefania Leopardi, Enrica Sozzi, Antonio Lavazza
BACKGROUND: Rhabdoviridae is one of the most ecologically diverse families of RNA viruses which can infect a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. Bats, among mammals, are pointed to harbor a significantly higher proportion of unknown or emerging viruses with zoonotic potential. Herein, we report the isolation of a novel rhabdovirus, detected in the framework of a virological survey on bats implemented in North Italy. METHODS: Virus isolation and identification were performed on samples of 635 bats by using cell cultures, negative staining electron microscopy and PCRs for different viruses...
February 17, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453205/co-deficiency-of-lysosomal-mucolipins-3-and-1-in-cochlear-hair-cells-diminishes-outer-hair-cell-longevity-and-accelerates-age-related-hearing-loss
#3
Teerawat Wiwatpanit, Natalie N Remis, Aisha Ahmad, Yingjie Zhou, John C Clancy, Mary Ann Cheatham, Jaime García-Añoveros
Acquired hearing loss is the predominant neurodegenerative condition associated with aging in humans. Although mutations on several genes are known to cause congenital deafness in newborns, few genes have been implicated in age-related hearing loss (ARHL), perhaps because its cause is likely polygenic. Here, we generated mice lacking lysosomal calcium channel mucolipins 3 and 1 and discovered that both male and female mice suffered a polygenic form of hearing loss. While mucolipin 1 is ubiquitously expressed in all cells, mucolipin 3 is expressed in a small subset of cochlear cells -hair cells (HCs) and marginal cells of the stria vascularis- and very few other cell types...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451915/synchronic-historical-patterns-of-species-diversification-in-seasonal-aplocheiloid-killifishes-of-the-semi-arid-brazilian-caatinga
#4
Wilson J E M Costa, Pedro F Amorim, José Leonardo O Mattos
The Caatinga is the largest nucleus of seasonally dry tropical forests in South America, but little is known about the evolutionary history and biogeography of endemic organisms. Evolutionary diversification and distribution of terrestrial vertebrates endemic to the Caatinga have been explained by palaeogeographical Neogene episodes, mostly related to changes in the course of the São Francisco River, the largest river in the region. Our objective is to estimate the timing of divergence of two endemic groups of short-lived seasonal killifishes inhabiting all ecoregions of the Caatinga, testing the occurrence of synchronic events of spatial diversification in light of available data on regional palaeogeography...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447757/using-the-covariation-of-extant-hominoid-upper-and-lower-jaws-to-predict-dental-arcades-of-extinct-hominins
#5
Stefanie Stelzer, Philipp Gunz, Simon Neubauer, Fred Spoor
Upper and lower jaws are well represented in the fossil record of mammals and are frequently used to diagnose species. Some hominin species are only known by either their maxillary or mandibular morphology, and in this study, we explore the possibility of predicting their complementary dental arcade shape to aid the recognition of conspecific specimens in the fossil record. To this end, we apply multiple multivariate regression to analyze 3D landmark coordinates collected on associated upper and lower dental arcades of extant Homo, Pan, Gorilla, Pongo, and Hylobates...
January 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444118/demographic-and-genetic-viability-of-a-medium-sized-ground-dwelling-mammal-in-a-fire-prone-rapidly-urbanizing-landscape
#6
Cristina E Ramalho, Kym M Ottewell, Brian K Chambers, Colin J Yates, Barbara A Wilson, Roberta Bencini, Geoff Barrett
The rapid and large-scale urbanization of peri-urban areas poses major and complex challenges for wildlife conservation. We used population viability analysis (PVA) to evaluate the influence of urban encroachment, fire, and fauna crossing structures, with and without accounting for inbreeding effects, on the metapopulation viability of a medium-sized ground-dwelling mammal, the southern brown bandicoot (Isoodon obesulus), in the rapidly expanding city of Perth, Australia. We surveyed two metapopulations over one and a half years, and parameterized the PVA models using largely field-collected data...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441472/phylogeography-of-the-asian-lesser-white-toothed-shrew-crocidura-shantungensis-in-east-asia-role-of-the-korean-peninsula-as-refugium-for-small-mammals
#7
Seo-Jin Lee, Mu-Yeong Lee, Liang-Kong Lin, Y Kirk Lin, Yuchun Li, E-Hyun Shin, Sang-Hoon Han, Mi-Sook Min, Hang Lee, Kyung Seok Kim
Many peninsulas in the temperate zone played an important role as refugia of various flora and fauna, and the southern Korean Peninsula also served as a refugium for many small mammals in East Asia during the Pleistocene. The Asian lesser white-toothed shrew, Crocidura shantungensis, is a widely distributed species in East Asia, and is an appropriate model organism for exploring the role of the Korean Peninsula as a refugium of small mammals. Here, we investigated phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity based on the entire sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene (1140 bp)...
February 13, 2018: Genetica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441021/biology-of-platelet-purinergic-receptors-and-implications-for-platelet-heterogeneity
#8
REVIEW
Milka Koupenova, Katya Ravid
Platelets are small anucleated cells present only in mammals. Platelets mediate intravascular hemostatic balance, prevent interstitial bleeding, and have a major role in thrombosis. Activation of platelet purinergic receptors is instrumental in initiation of hemostasis and formation of the hemostatic plug, although this activation process becomes problematic in pathological settings of thrombosis. This review briefly outlines the roles and function of currently known platelet purinergic receptors (P1 and P2) in the setting of hemostasis and thrombosis...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438944/equilibrium-biopartitioning-of-organic-anions-a-case-study-for-humans-and-fish
#9
Kai-Uwe Goss, Kai Bittermann, Luise Henneberger, Lukas Linden
In this work we combine partition coefficients between water and membrane lipid, storage lipid, the plasma protein albumin as well as structural protein with the tissue dependent fraction of the respective phases in order to obtain a clearer picture on the relevance of various biological tissues for the bioaccumulation of 31 organic anions. Most of the partition coefficients are based on experimental data, supplemented by some predicted ones. The data suggest that the plasma protein, albumin, will be the major sorption matrix in mammals...
February 6, 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436497/genomics-of-end-pleistocene-population-replacement-in-a-small-mammal
#10
Petr Kotlík, Silvia Marková, Mateusz Konczal, Wiesław Babik, Jeremy B Searle
Current species distributions at high latitudes are the product of expansion from glacial refugia into previously uninhabitable areas at the end of the last glaciation. The traditional view of postglacial colonization is that southern populations expanded their ranges into unoccupied northern territories. Recent findings on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of British small mammals have challenged this simple colonization scenario by demonstrating a more complex genetic turnover in Britain during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition where one mtDNA clade of each species was replaced by another mtDNA clade of the same species...
February 14, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435239/rule-reversal-ecogeographical-patterns-of-body-size-variation-in-the-common-treeshrew-mammalia-scandentia
#11
Eric J Sargis, Virginie Millien, Neal Woodman, Link E Olson
There are a number of ecogeographical "rules" that describe patterns of geographical variation among organisms. The island rule predicts that populations of larger mammals on islands evolve smaller mean body size than their mainland counterparts, whereas smaller-bodied mammals evolve larger size. Bergmann's rule predicts that populations of a species in colder climates (generally at higher latitudes) have larger mean body sizes than conspecifics in warmer climates (at lower latitudes). These two rules are rarely tested together and neither has been rigorously tested in treeshrews, a clade of small-bodied mammals in their own order (Scandentia) broadly distributed in mainland Southeast Asia and on islands throughout much of the Sunda Shelf...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432157/flexible-usage-and-social-function-in-primate-vocalizations
#12
Dorothy L Cheney, Robert M Seyfarth
Vocalizations are a pervasive feature of nonhuman primate social life, yet we know surprisingly little about their function. We review studies supporting the hypothesis that many primate vocalizations function to facilitate social interactions by reducing uncertainty about the signaler's intentions and likely behavior. Such interactions help to establish and maintain the social bonds that increase reproductive success. Compared with humans, songbirds, and a few other mammals, primates have small vocal repertoires that show little acoustic modification during development...
February 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430442/effects-of-peep-on-lung-injury-pulmonary-function-systemic-circulation-and-mortality-in-animals-with-uninjured-lungs-a-systematic-review
#13
REVIEW
Anna Geke Algera, Luigi Pisani, Renato Carneiro de Freitas Chaves, Thiago Chaves Amorim, Thomas Cherpanath, Rogier Determann, Dave A Dongelmans, Frederique Paulus, Pieter Roel Tuinman, Paolo Pelosi, Marcelo Gama de Abreu, Marcus J Schultz, Ary Serpa Neto
It is well-known that positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) can prevent ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and improve pulmonary physiology in animals with injured lungs. It's uncertain whether PEEP has similar effects in animals with uninjured lungs. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing different PEEP levels in animals with uninjured lungs was performed. Trials in animals with injured lungs were excluded, as were trials that compared ventilation strategies that also differed with respect to other ventilation settings, e...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417273/borrelia-burgdorferi-in-small-mammal-reservoirs-in-kentucky-a-traditionally-non-endemic-state-for-lyme-disease
#14
Matthew J Buchholz, Cheryl Davis, Naomi S Rowland, Carl W Dick
The incidence of tick-borne zoonoses such as Lyme disease has steadily increased in the southeastern United States. Southeastern states accounted for 1500 of over 28,000 confirmed cases of Lyme disease reported in the United States during 2015. Borrelia burgdorferi, the etiologic agent of Lyme disease, is maintained in small mammal reservoirs and vectored to new hosts by ixodid ticks. This study examined ecological relationships of the B. burgdorferi/vector/reservoir system in order to understand the dynamics of Lyme disease risk in Kentucky...
February 7, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415707/threatened-species-richness-along-a-himalayan-elevational-gradient-quantifying-the-influences-of-human-population-density-range-size-and-geometric-constraints
#15
Prakash Kumar Paudel, Jan Sipos, Jedediah F Brodie
BACKGROUND: A crucial step in conserving biodiversity is to identify the distributions of threatened species and the factors associated with species threat status. In the biodiversity hotspot of the Himalaya, very little is known about which locations harbour the highest diversity of threatened species and whether diversity of such species is related to area, mid-domain effects (MDE), range size, or human density. In this study, we assessed the drivers of variation in richness of threatened birds, mammals, reptiles, actinopterygii, and amphibians along an elevational gradient in Nepal Himalaya...
February 7, 2018: BMC Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414685/the-small-intestine-converts-dietary-fructose-into-glucose-and-organic-acids
#16
Cholsoon Jang, Sheng Hui, Wenyun Lu, Alexis J Cowan, Raphael J Morscher, Gina Lee, Wei Liu, Gregory J Tesz, Morris J Birnbaum, Joshua D Rabinowitz
Excessive consumption of sweets is a risk factor for metabolic syndrome. A major chemical feature of sweets is fructose. Despite strong ties between fructose and disease, the metabolic fate of fructose in mammals remains incompletely understood. Here we use isotope tracing and mass spectrometry to track the fate of glucose and fructose carbons in vivo, finding that dietary fructose is cleared by the small intestine. Clearance requires the fructose-phosphorylating enzyme ketohexokinase. Low doses of fructose are ∼90% cleared by the intestine, with only trace fructose but extensive fructose-derived glucose, lactate, and glycerate found in the portal blood...
February 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414342/dep-and-dbp-induce-cytotoxicity-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-and-abnormally-enhance-neural-ectoderm-development
#17
Nuoya Yin, Shengxian Liang, Shaojun Liang, Bowen Hu, Renjun Yang, Qunfang Zhou, Guibin Jiang, Francesco Faiola
Diethyl phthalate (DEP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) are two typical small phthalate esters, extensively used in personal care and consumer products. Although previous studies have linked phthalate esters to several health issues, it is still unclear whether they can affects the early stages of embryonic development. In this study, we evaluated the early developmental neurotoxicity as well as the cytotoxicity of DEP and DBP, using mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Our results showed that both DEP and DBP could decrease mESC viability in a dose-dependent manner...
February 1, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412491/a-semiarid-fruit-agroecosystem-as-a-conservation-friendly-option-for-small-mammals-in-an-anthropized-landscape-in-mexico
#18
Mónica E Riojas-López, Eric Mellink, Jaime Luévano
Many studies have addressed the potential of low-input agroecosystems for biological conservation. However, most have been carried out on annual agroecosystems in temperate, developed countries. As agricultural surface will increase and natural protected areas alone will not warrant the conservation of biodiversity, it is crucial to include different types of agroecosystems in research and conservation efforts. In Mexico, perennial, low-input, fruit-oriented nopal orchards (Opuntia spp.), one of the few crops suitable for semiarid areas, are the 10th out of 61 most important fruit crops grown in the country...
February 7, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411967/drosophila-as-a-model-system-for-neurotransmitter-measurements
#19
Mimi Shin, Jeffrey M Copeland, B Jill Venton
Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly, is an important, simple model organism for studying the effects of genetic mutations on neuronal activity and behavior. Biologists use Drosophila for neuroscience studies because of its genetic tractability, complex behaviors, well-known and simple neuroanatomy, and many orthologs to human genes. Neurochemical measurements in Drosophila are challenging due to the small size of the central nervous system. Recently, methods have been developed to measure real-time neurotransmitter release and clearance in both larvae and adults using electrochemistry...
February 7, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410319/genetic-cartography-of-longevity-in-humans-and-mice-current-landscape-and-horizons
#20
REVIEW
Michael Hook, Suheeta Roy, Evan G Williams, Maroun Bou Sleiman, Khyobeni Mozhui, James F Nelson, Lu Lu, Johan Auwerx, Robert W Williams
Aging is a complex and highly variable process. Heritability of longevity among humans and other species is low, and this finding has given rise to the idea that it may be futile to search for DNA variants that modulate aging. We argue that the problem in mapping longevity genes is mainly one of low power and the genetic and environmental complexity of aging. In this review we highlight progress made in mapping genes and molecular networks associated with longevity, paying special attention to work in mice and humans...
February 2, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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