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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227596/a-180-nm-cmos-analog-adaptive-sampler-for-blood-pressure-feature-extraction
#1
Callum Laurenson, Francois Rivet, Mehmet R Yuce, Jean-Michel Redoute, Callum Laurenson, Francois Rivet, Mehmet R Yuce, Jean-Michel Redoute, Jean-Michel Redoute, Francois Rivet, Mehmet R Yuce, Callum Laurenson
This paper presents an analogue feature detector for extraction and sampling of key-points on an arterial blood pressure signal in both humans and small mammals used as human physiological models. A CMOS integrated circuit was implemented in UMC 180nm technology, utilizing the proposed sampling method to greatly reduce the number of samples necessary for meaningful reconstruction of the low bandwidth signal. This circuit was interfaced with an external ADC to fully extract the feature points, and evaluate the system performance...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222925/linking-national-wood-consumption-with-global-biodiversity-and-ecosystem-service-losses
#2
Abhishek Chaudhary, L Roman Carrasco, Thomas Kastner
Identifying the global hotspots of forestry driven species, ecosystem services losses and informing the consuming nations of their environmental footprint domestically and abroad is essential to design demand side interventions and induce sustainable production methods. Here we first use countryside species area relationship model to project species extinctions of four vertebrate taxa (mammals, birds, amphibians and reptiles) due to forest land use in 174 countries. We combine the projected extinctions with a global database on the monetary value of ecosystem services provided by different biomes and with bilateral trade data of wood products to calculate species extinctions and ecosystem services losses inflicted by national wood consumption and international wood trade...
February 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220606/lamarck-rises-from-his-grave-parental-environment-induced-epigenetic-inheritance-in-model-organisms-and-humans
#3
Yan Wang, Huijie Liu, Zhongsheng Sun
Organisms can change their physiological/behavioural traits to adapt and survive in changed environments. However, whether these acquired traits can be inherited across generations through non-genetic alterations has been a topic of debate for over a century. Emerging evidence indicates that both ancestral and parental experiences, including nutrition, environmental toxins, nurturing behaviour, and social stress, can have powerful effects on the physiological, metabolic and cellular functions in an organism...
February 20, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218572/ictv-virus-taxonomy-profile-flaviviridae
#4
Peter Simmonds, Paul Becher, Jens Bukh, Ernest A Gould, Gregor Meyers, Tom Monath, Scott Muerhoff, Alexander Pletnev, Rebecca Rico-Hesse, Donald B Smith, Jack T Stapleton, Ictv Report Consortium
The Flaviviridae is a family of small enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 9000-13 000 bases. Most infect mammals and birds. Many flaviviruses are host-specific and pathogenic, such as hepatitis C virus in the genus Hepacivirus. The majority of known members in the genus Flavivirus are arthropod borne, and many are important human and veterinary pathogens (e.g. yellow fever virus, dengue virus). This is a summary of the current International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) report on the taxonomy of the Flaviviridae, which is available at www...
January 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214707/shortcuts-to-a-functional-adipose-tissue-the-role-of-small-non-coding-rnas
#5
REVIEW
Bruna B Brandão, Beatriz A Guerra, Marcelo A Mori
Metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes are a major public health issue worldwide. These diseases are often linked to a dysfunctional adipose tissue. Fat is a large, heterogenic, pleiotropic and rather complex tissue. It is found in virtually all cavities of the human body, shows unique plasticity among tissues, and harbors many cell types in addition to its main functional unit - the adipocyte. Adipose tissue function varies depending on the localization of the fat depot, the cell composition of the tissue and the energy status of the organism...
February 7, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213654/molecular-epidemiology-of-leptospira-serogroup-pomona-infections-among-wild-and-domestic-animals-in-spain
#6
Z J Arent, C Gilmore, J M San-Miguel Ayanz, L Quevedo Neyra, F J García-Peña
Strains of Leptospira serogroup Pomona are known to cause widespread animal infections in many parts of the world. Forty-three isolates retrieved from domestic animals and wild small mammals suggest that serogroup Pomona is epidemiologically relevant in Spain. This is supported by the high prevalence of serovar Pomona antibodies in livestock and wild animals. In this study, the strains were serologically and genetically characterized in an attempt to elucidate their epidemiology. Serological typing was based on the microscopic agglutination test but molecular typing involved species-specific polymerase chain reaction, restriction endonuclease analysis, and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis...
February 17, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213638/hung-out-to-dry-intraspecific-variation-in-water-loss-in-a-hibernating-bat
#7
Brandon J Klüg-Baerwald, R Mark Brigham
Hibernation is a period of water deficit for some small mammals, and humidity strongly influences hibernation patterns. Dry conditions reduce length of torpor bouts, stimulate arousals, and decrease overwinter survival. To mitigate these effects, many small mammals hibernate in near saturated (100% RH) conditions. However, big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) hibernate in a wider variety of conditions and tolerate lower humidity than most other bats. To assess arid tolerance in this species, we compared torpid metabolic rates (TMR) and rates of total evaporative water loss (TEWL) between two populations of E...
February 17, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212791/echinococcosis-control-and-prevention
#8
P S Craig, D Hegglin, M W Lightowlers, P R Torgerson, Q Wang
Human cystic echinococcosis (CE) has been eliminated or significantly reduced as a public health problem in several previously highly endemic regions. This has been achieved by the long-term application of prevention and control measures primarily targeted to deworming dogs, health education, meat inspection, and effective surveillance in livestock and human populations. Human CE, however, remains a serious neglected zoonotic disease in many resource-poor pastoral regions. The incidence of human alveolar echinococcosis (AE) has increased in continental Europe and is a major public health problem in parts of Eurasia...
2017: Advances in Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209646/rete-mirabile-associated-with-pial-arteriovenous-fistula-imaging-features-with-literature-review
#9
Prabath Kumar Mondel, Rashmi Saraf, Uday S Limaye
A rete mirabile is a vascular network of intercommunicating small arteries or arterioles that replace the definitive adult artery supplying the brain. It supplies the brain in lower mammals but is not seen in normal human embryological development. A 26-year-old man presented with worsening tinnitus that was interfering with his sleep. On CT and digital subtraction angiography he was found to have a temporal lobe pial arteriovenous fistula with bilateral carotid and vertebral rete mirabile. The patient was offered open surgical and endovascular treatment options for pial arteriovenous fistula but he refused both and opted for conservative medical management...
February 16, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203388/on-the-development-of-the-chondrocranium-and-the-histological-anatomy-of-the-head-in-perinatal-stages-of-marsupial-mammals
#10
REVIEW
Marcelo R Sánchez-Villagra, Analía M Forasiepi
An overview of the literature on the chondrocranium of marsupial mammals reveals a relative conservatism in shape and structures. We document the histological cranial anatomy of individuals representing Monodelphis domestica, Dromiciops gliroides, Perameles sp. and Macropus eugenii. The marsupial chondrocranium is generally characterized by the great breadth of the lamina basalis, absence of pila metoptica and large otic capsules. Its most anterior portion (cupula nasi anterior) is robust, and anterior to it there are well-developed tactile sensory structures, functionally important in the neonate...
2017: Zoological Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202055/harmonizing-methods-for-wildlife-abundance-estimation-and-pathogen-detection-in-europe-a-questionnaire-survey-on-three-selected-host-pathogen-combinations
#11
Jana Sonnenburg, Marie-Pierre Ryser-Degiorgis, Thijs Kuiken, Ezio Ferroglio, Rainer G Ulrich, Franz J Conraths, Christian Gortázar, Christoph Staubach
BACKGROUND: The need for wildlife health surveillance as part of disease control in wildlife, domestic animals and humans on the global level is widely recognized. However, the objectives, methods and intensity of existing wildlife health surveillance programs vary greatly among European countries, resulting in a patchwork of data that are difficult to merge and compare. This survey aimed at evaluating the need and potential for data harmonization in wildlife health in Europe. The specific objective was to collect information on methods currently used to estimate host abundance and pathogen prevalence...
February 16, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187551/systematics-of-a-small-i-gehyra-i-squamata-gekkonidae-from-the-einasleigh-uplands-queensland-description-of-a-new-range-restricted-species
#12
Gayleen Bourke, Renae C Pratt, Eric Vanderduys, Craig Moritz
The tropical savannah landscapes of Australia's north, though previously overshadowed by the biodiverse rainforests of the Wet Tropics, are themselves now attracting interest for their biological significance and uniqueness. The Einasleigh Uplands region of north-east Queensland is home to a diverse group of mammals and reptiles and was previously recognised for its importance in shaping speciation in birds. Here we add a small saxicoline gecko to a growing list of recently described reptiles that are endemic to this region...
February 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182563/a-high-throughput-small-molecule-screen-identifies-synergism-between-dna-methylation-and-aurora-kinase-pathways-for-x-reactivation
#13
Derek Lessing, Thomas O Dial, Chunyao Wei, Bernhard Payer, Lieselot L G Carrette, Barry Kesner, Attila Szanto, Ajit Jadhav, David J Maloney, Anton Simeonov, Jimmy Theriault, Thomas Hasaka, Antonio Bedalov, Marisa S Bartolomei, Jeannie T Lee
X-chromosome inactivation is a mechanism of dosage compensation in which one of the two X chromosomes in female mammals is transcriptionally silenced. Once established, silencing of the inactive X (Xi) is robust and difficult to reverse pharmacologically. However, the Xi is a reservoir of >1,000 functional genes that could be potentially tapped to treat X-linked disease. To identify compounds that could reactivate the Xi, here we screened ∼367,000 small molecules in an automated high-content screen using an Xi-linked GFP reporter in mouse fibroblasts...
December 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179519/low-frequency-hearing-preceded-the-evolution-of-giant-body-size-and-filter-feeding-in-baleen-whales
#14
Travis Park, Alistair R Evans, Stephen J Gallagher, Erich M G Fitzgerald
Living baleen whales (mysticetes) produce and hear the lowest-frequency (infrasonic) sounds among mammals. There is currently debate over whether the ancestor of crown cetaceans (Neoceti) was able to detect low frequencies. However, the lack of information on the most archaic fossil mysticetes has prevented us from determining the earliest evolution of their extreme acoustic biology. Here, we report the first anatomical analyses and frequency range estimation of the inner ear in Oligocene (34-23 Ma) fossils of archaic toothed mysticetes from Australia and the USA...
February 8, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178279/snow-leopard-and-himalayan-wolf-food-habits-and-prey-selection-in-the-central-himalayas-nepal
#15
Madhu Chetri, Morten Odden, Per Wegge
Top carnivores play an important role in maintaining energy flow and functioning of the ecosystem, and a clear understanding of their diets and foraging strategies is essential for developing effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we compared diets and prey selection of snow leopards and wolves based on analyses of genotyped scats (snow leopards n = 182, wolves n = 57), collected within 26 sampling grid cells (5×5 km) that were distributed across a vast landscape of ca 5000 km2 in the Central Himalayas, Nepal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174021/biogenesis-and-function-of-ago-associated-rnas
#16
REVIEW
Iben Daugaard, Thomas Birkballe Hansen
Numerous sophisticated high-throughput sequencing technologies have been developed over the past decade, and these have enabled the discovery of a diverse catalog of small non-coding (nc)RNA molecules that function as regulatory entities by associating with Argonaute (Ago) proteins. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are currently the best-described class of post-transcriptional regulators that follow a specific biogenesis pathway characterized by Drosha/DGCR8 and Dicer processing. However, more exotic miRNA-like species that bypass particular steps of the canonical miRNA biogenesis pathway continue to emerge, with one of the most recent additions being the agotrons, which escape both Drosha/DGCR8- and Dicer-processing...
February 4, 2017: Trends in Genetics: TIG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171704/subdivision-design-and-stewardship-affect-bird-and-mammal-use-of-conservation-developments
#17
Cooper M Farr, Liba Pejchar, Sarah E Reed
Developing effective tools for conservation on private lands is increasingly important for global biodiversity conservation; private lands are located in more productive and biologically diverse areas, and they face accelerated rates of land conversion. One strategy is conservation development (CD) subdivisions, which cluster houses in a small portion of a property and preserve the remaining land as protected open space. Despite widespread use, the characteristics that make CD more or less effective at achieving biodiversity conservation are not well understood...
February 7, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166217/drugs-and-drug-like-molecules-can-modulate-the-function-of-mucosal-associated-invariant-t-cells
#18
Andrew N Keller, Sidonia B G Eckle, Weijun Xu, Ligong Liu, Victoria A Hughes, Jeffrey Y W Mak, Bronwyn S Meehan, Troi Pediongco, Richard W Birkinshaw, Zhenjun Chen, Huimeng Wang, Criselle D'Souza, Lars Kjer-Nielsen, Nicholas A Gherardin, Dale I Godfrey, Lyudmila Kostenko, Alexandra J Corbett, Anthony W Purcell, David P Fairlie, James McCluskey, Jamie Rossjohn
The major-histocompatibility-complex-(MHC)-class-I-related molecule MR1 can present activating and non-activating vitamin-B-based ligands to mucosal-associated invariant T cells (MAIT cells). Whether MR1 binds other ligands is unknown. Here we identified a range of small organic molecules, drugs, drug metabolites and drug-like molecules, including salicylates and diclofenac, as MR1-binding ligands. Some of these ligands inhibited MAIT cells ex vivo and in vivo, while others, including diclofenac metabolites, were agonists...
February 6, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165341/nuclear-receptors-emerging-drug-targets-for-parasitic-diseases
#19
Zhu Wang, Nathaniel E Schaffer, Steven A Kliewer, David J Mangelsdorf
Parasitic worms infect billions of people worldwide. Current treatments rely on a small group of drugs that have been used for decades. A shortcoming of these drugs is their inability to target the intractable infectious stage of the parasite. As well-known therapeutic targets in mammals, nuclear receptors have begun to be studied in parasitic worms, where they are widely distributed and play key roles in governing metabolic and developmental transcriptional networks. One such nuclear receptor is DAF-12, which is required for normal nematode development, including the all-important infectious stage...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165148/a-correlative-study-of-the-allantois-in-pig-and-rabbit-highlighting-the-diversity-of-extraembryonic-tissues-in-four-mammalian-species-including-mouse-and-man
#20
Waad Hassan, Christoph Viebahn
Despite its conserved role in placenta and umbilical cord formation, the mammalian allantois shows remarkable diversity in size and form as well as in the timing of its appearance and attachment to the chorion. In the mouse, the common allantoic diverticulum is lacking; instead, the allantoic core domain is defined as a progenitor center for allantoic development. In this study, the allantoises of the pig and the rabbit as two nonrodent mammals of increasing significance in biomedical research are compared (1) morphologically using high resolution light and electron microscopy and (2) molecularly using brachyury mRNA expression as a mesodermal marker...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Morphology
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