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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675816/brc4env-a-network-of-biological-resource-centres-for-research-in-environmental-and-agricultural-sciences
#1
Christian Mougin, Emmanuelle Artige, Frédéric Marchand, Samuel Mondy, Céline Ratié, Nadine Sellier, Philippe Castagnone-Sereno, Armelle Cœur D'Acier, Daniel Esmenjaud, Céline Faivre-Primot, Laurent Granjon, Valérie Hamelet, Frederic Lange, Sylvie Pagès, Frédéric Rimet, Nicolas Ris, Guillaume Sallé
The Biological Resource Centre for the Environment BRC4Env is a network of Biological Resource Centres (BRCs) and collections whose leading objectives are to improve the visibility of genetic and biological resources maintained by its BRCs and collections and to facilitate their use by a large research community, from agriculture research to life sciences and environmental sciences. Its added value relies on sharing skills, harmonizing practices, triggering projects in comparative biology, and ultimately proposing a single-entry portal to facilitate access to documented samples, taking into account the partnership policies of research institutions as well as the legal frame which varies with the biological nature of resources...
April 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674787/distinct-isotopic-signatures-reveal-effect-of-ecoregion-on-small-mammals-of-ghana
#2
Nyeema C Harris, Reuben A Garshong, Morgan Gray
Species reside in dynamic environments, simultaneously experiencing variations in climatic conditions, habitat availability and quality, interspecific interactions, and anthropogenic pressures. We investigated variation in foraging ecology of the small mammal community between land-use classifications (i.e., protected national parks and unprotected lands abutting them) in Mole National Park (MNP) and Digya National Park (DNP), representing distinct ecoregions of Ghana. In 5,064 trap nights, we sampled 153 individuals of 23 species within the 2 national parks and adjacent lands outside protected boundaries to describe variation in community composition...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Mammalogy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670434/small-terrestrial-mammals-of-albania-distribution-and-diversity-mammalia-eulipotyphla-rodentia
#3
Ferdinand Bego, Enerit Saçdanaku, Michela Pacifici, Carlo Rondinini
In this paper new records are reported for 23 species of small terrestrial mammals (STM) of Albania collected during the field work campaigns organised in the framework of the project "Strengthening capacity in National Nature Protection - preparation for Natura 2000 network" (NaturAL) in Albania during the summer and autumn of 2016 and 2017 Data on small mammals were primarily collected through Sherman live-trapping campaigns in six high priority protected areas of Albania: Korab-Koritnik, Bredhi i Hotovës, Tomorri, Llogara-Karaburun, Divjakë-Karavasta, Liqeni i Shkodrës (Skadar lake), Lëpushë-Vermosh...
2018: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670288/structural-basis-of-ligand-binding-modes-at-the-neuropeptide-y-y-1-receptor
#4
Zhenlin Yang, Shuo Han, Max Keller, Anette Kaiser, Brian J Bender, Mathias Bosse, Kerstin Burkert, Lisa M Kögler, David Wifling, Guenther Bernhardt, Nicole Plank, Timo Littmann, Peter Schmidt, Cuiying Yi, Beibei Li, Sheng Ye, Rongguang Zhang, Bo Xu, Dan Larhammar, Raymond C Stevens, Daniel Huster, Jens Meiler, Qiang Zhao, Annette G Beck-Sickinger, Armin Buschauer, Beili Wu
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptors belong to the G-protein-coupled receptor superfamily and have important roles in food intake, anxiety and cancer biology 1,2 . The NPY-Y receptor system has emerged as one of the most complex networks with three peptide ligands (NPY, peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide) binding to four receptors in most mammals, namely the Y1 , Y2 , Y4 and Y5 receptors, with different affinity and selectivity 3 . NPY is the most powerful stimulant of food intake and this effect is primarily mediated by the Y1 receptor (Y1 R) 4 ...
April 18, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669888/malaria-in-farmed-ungulates-an-exciting-new-system-for-comparative-parasitology
#5
Susan L Perkins
A wide array of vertebrates can serve as the intermediate hosts to malaria parasites (Apicomplexa: Haemosporida), such as birds, lizards, and several groups of mammals, including primates, bats, rodents, and ungulates. The latter group of hosts has not been intensively studied since early descriptions of a small set of taxa were published, but new reports of these parasites in both expected and new hosts have recently been published. A new paper reports the presence of Plasmodium odocoilei in farmed white-tailed deer in Florida, particularly in animals less than 1 year old, and provides evidence that the parasites may contribute to mortality in fawns...
April 25, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661988/the-effect-of-axon-resealing-on-retrograde-neuronal-death-after-spinal-cord-injury-in-lamprey
#6
Guixin Zhang, William Rodemer, Taemin Lee, Jianli Hu, Michael E Selzer
Failure of axon regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals is due to both extrinsic inhibitory factors and to neuron-intrinsic factors. The importance of intrinsic factors is illustrated in the sea lamprey by the 18 pairs of large, individually identified reticulospinal (RS) neurons, whose axons are located in the same spinal cord tracts but vary greatly in their ability to regenerate after spinal cord transection (TX). The neurons that are bad regenerators also undergo very delayed apoptosis, signaled early by activation of caspases...
April 14, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661930/the-critical-role-of-zinc-in-a-new-murine-model-of-enterotoxigenic-e-coli-etec-diarrhea
#7
D T Bolick, P H Q S Medeiros, S E Ledwaba, A A M Lima, J P Nataro, E M Barry, R L Guerrant
Enterotoxigenic E. coli are major causes of traveler's diarrhea as well as endemic diarrhea and stunting in children in developing areas. However a small mammal model has been badly needed to better understand and assess mechanisms, vaccines and interventions. We report a murine model of ETEC diarrhea, weight loss and enteropathy, and investigate the role of zinc on the outcomes. LT+ST producing enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) given to weaned C57BL/6 mice after antibiotic disruption of normal microbiota cause growth impairment, watery diarrhea, heavy stool shedding and mild to moderate intestinal inflammation, the latter worse with zinc deficiency...
April 16, 2018: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656468/seed-dispersal-in-the-mycoheterotrophic-orchid-yoania-japonica-further-evidence-for-endozoochory-by-camel-crickets
#8
Kenji Suetsugu
• Although orthopterans are rarely considered to be effective seed dispersal agents, the large flightless crickets known as weta have been suggested to function as ecological replacements for small mammals in New Zealand, where such mammals are absent. In addition, a recent study reported that camel crickets mediate seed dispersal of several heterotrophic plants including Yoania amagiensis in Japan. • I investigated the seed dispersal mechanism of Yoania japonica because the fruit morphology is similar to Yoania amagiensis...
April 14, 2018: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656092/sleep-deprivation-impairs-cognitive-performance-in-zebrafish-a-matter-of-fact
#9
Jaquelinne Pinheiro-da-Silva, Steven Tran, Ana Carolina Luchiari
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) has become a valuable model organism for behavioral studies examining learning and memory. Its diurnal circadian rhythm and characterized sleep-like state make it comparable to mammals, features that have contributed to establishing this small vertebrate as a translational model for sleep research. Despite sleep being an evolutionarily conserved behavior, its mechanisms and functions are still debated. Sleep deprivation is commonly associated with decreased attention, reduced responsiveness to external stimuli, altered locomotor activity and impaired performance on cognitive tasks...
April 12, 2018: Behavioural Processes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655477/cardiovascular-drugs-in-avian-small-mammal-and-reptile-medicine
#10
Brenna Colleen Fitzgerald, Sara Dias, Jaume Martorell
Cardiovascular disease, including congestive heart failure, pericardial disease, and atherosclerosis, is becoming increasingly better recognized in companion birds, small mammals, and reptiles. A wide range of medications is available to treat these conditions, including diuretics, vasodilators, positive and negative inotropes, antiarrhythmic agents, and pentoxifylline. This review systematically discusses each of these drug classes and their potential applications in exotic species. Although treatment approaches remain largely empirical and extrapolated from small animal and human medicine, the management strategies presented here have the potential to both maintain quality of life and extend survival time for the exotic cardiac patient...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655469/low-stress-medication-techniques-in-birds-and-small-mammals
#11
REVIEW
Brian L Speer, Melody Hennigh, Bernice Muntz, Yvonne R A van Zeeland
Low-stress medication principles and techniques are key aspects of optimal health care delivery for birds and small mammals. When paired with the medical details of patient management, by balancing medication techniques, the probability of clinical success on the highest ethical and welfare criteria can be greatly enhanced. This review addresses both the effects and the disadvantages of using forceful, coercive, and fear-evoking methods as well as the benefits, principles, and possible applications of low-stress medication in the veterinary setting...
May 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Exotic Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651236/substrates-for-neuronal-cotransmission-with-neuropeptides-and-small-molecule-neurotransmitters-in-drosophila
#12
REVIEW
Dick R Nässel
It has been known for more than 40 years that individual neurons can produce more than one neurotransmitter and that neuropeptides often are colocalized with small molecule neurotransmitters (SMNs). Over the years much progress has been made in understanding the functional consequences of cotransmission in the nervous system of mammals. There are also some excellent invertebrate models that have revealed roles of coexpressed neuropeptides and SMNs in increasing complexity, flexibility, and dynamics in neuronal signaling...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649721/effect-of-season-on-reproductive-behaviors-and-fertilization-success-in-cavies-cavia-aperea
#13
Romy Hribal, Kathrin Rübensam, Sandra Bernhardt, Katarina Jewgenow, Anja Guenther
Finding the optimal timing for breeding is crucial for small mammals to ensure survival and maximize lifetime reproductive success. Species living in temperate regions therefore often restrict breeding to seasons with favorable food and weather conditions. Although caviomorph rodents such as guinea pigs are described as non-seasonal breeders, a series of recent publications has shown seasonal adaptations in litter size, offspring birth mass and maternal investment. Here, we aim to test if seasonal patterns of litter size variation found in earlier studies, are mediated by seasonal differences in female estrus length, fertilization rate and mating behavior...
April 5, 2018: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649441/small-intestine-microbiota-regulate-host-digestive-and-absorptive-adaptive-responses-to-dietary-lipids
#14
Kristina Martinez-Guryn, Nathaniel Hubert, Katya Frazier, Saskia Urlass, Mark W Musch, Patricia Ojeda, Joseph F Pierre, Jun Miyoshi, Timothy J Sontag, Candace M Cham, Catherine A Reardon, Vanessa Leone, Eugene B Chang
The gut microbiota play important roles in lipid metabolism and absorption. However, the contribution of the small bowel microbiota of mammals to these diet-microbe interactions remains unclear. We determine that germ-free (GF) mice are resistant to diet-induced obesity and malabsorb fat with specifically impaired lipid digestion and absorption within the small intestine. Small bowel microbes are essential for host adaptation to dietary lipid changes by regulating gut epithelial processes involved in their digestion and absorption...
April 11, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643837/insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-proteins-and-igfbp-proteases-a-dynamic-system-regulating-the-ovarian-folliculogenesis
#15
REVIEW
Sabine Mazerbourg, Philippe Monget
The aim of the present article is to update our understanding of the expression of the insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs), IGFBP proteases and their implication in the different processes of ovarian folliculogenesis in mammals. In the studied species, IGFs and several small-molecular weight IGFBPs (in particular IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-4) are considered, respectively, as stimulators and inhibitors of follicular growth and maturation. IGFs play a key role in sensitizing ovarian granulosa cells to FSH action during terminal follicular growth...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627866/replication-timing-of-large-sorex-granarius-soricidae-eulipotyphla-telomeres
#16
Julia M Minina, Tatjana V Karamysheva, Nicolaj B Rubtsov, Natalia S Zhdanova
Previously, we described the unique feature of telomeric regions in Iberian shrew Sorex granarius: its telomeres have two ranges of size, very small (3.8 kb of telomeric repeats on average) and very large discontinuous telomeres (213 kb) interrupted with 18S rDNA. In this study, we have demonstrated extraordinary replication pattern of S. granarius large telomeres that have not been shown before in other studied mammal. Using the ReD-FISH procedure, we observed prolonged, through S period, large telomere replication...
April 7, 2018: Protoplasma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627754/long-term-dim-light-during-nighttime-changes-activity-patterns-and-space-use-in-experimental-small-mammal-populations
#17
Julia Hoffmann, Rupert Palme, Jana Anja Eccard
Artificial light at night (ALAN) is spreading worldwide and thereby is increasingly interfering with natural dark-light cycles. Meanwhile, effects of very low intensities of light pollution on animals have rarely been investigated. We explored the effects of low intensity ALAN over seven months in eight experimental bank vole (Myodes glareolus) populations in large grassland enclosures over winter and early breeding season, using LED garden lamps. Initial populations consisted of eight individuals (32 animals per hectare) in enclosures with or without ALAN...
April 5, 2018: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627725/proteolysis-targeting-chimeras-protacs-of-anaplastic-lymphoma-kinase-alk
#18
Chengwei Zhang, Xiao-Ran Han, Xiaobao Yang, Biao Jiang, Jing Liu, Yue Xiong, Jian Jin
Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) activation has been associated with many types of human cancer. Significant efforts have been devoted to the development of ALK inhibitors to antagonize the kinase activity of ALK. Four ALK inhibitors have been approved by the FDA to date for treating patients with ALK-positive non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC). However, drug resistance has been observed in the majority of patients treated with these inhibitors. New therapeutic strategies (e.g., compounds with novel mechanisms of action) are needed to overcome the drug resistance issue...
March 27, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623412/staying-hot-to-fight-the-heat-high-body-temperatures-accompany-a-diurnal-endothermic-lifestyle-in-the-tropics
#19
Danielle L Levesque, Andrew Alek Tuen, Barry G Lovegrove
Much of our knowledge of the thermoregulation of endotherms has been obtained from species inhabiting cold and temperate climates, our knowledge of the thermoregulatory physiology of tropical endotherms is scarce. We studied the thermoregulatory physiology of a small, tropical mammal, the large treeshrew (Tupaia tana, Order Scandentia) by recording the body temperatures of free-ranging individuals, and by measuring the resting metabolic rates of wild individuals held temporarily in captivity. The amplitude of daily body temperature (~ 4 °C) was higher in treeshrews than in many homeothermic eutherian mammals; a consequence of high active-phase body temperatures (~ 40 °C), and relatively low rest-phase body temperatures (~ 36 °C)...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619590/a-novel-high-resolution-method-for-the-respiration-rate-and-breathing-waveforms-remote-monitoring
#20
Boris G Vainer
A search for robust noninvasive methods permitting to discern the respiration subtle peculiarities in mammals is a topical issue. A novel approach called "sorption-enhanced infrared thermography" (SEIRT), helping to solve this problem, is described. Its benefits spring from the integration of the infrared thermography (IRT) and chemical physics (phase transition heat release/absorption) within a single method. The SEIRT opportunities were verified in the investigation of 42 humans, 49 rats and 4 minipigs whose breathing waveforms were revealed to the last detail...
April 4, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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