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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101863/lessons-from-animal-models-of-cytoplasmic-intermediate-filament-proteins
#1
Jamal-Eddine Bouameur, Thomas M Magin
Cytoplasmic intermediate filaments (IFs) represent a major cytoskeletal network contributing to cell shape, adhesion and migration as well as to tissue resilience and renewal in numerous bilaterians, including mammals. The observation that IFs are dispensable in cultured mammalian cells, but cause tissue-specific, life-threatening disorders, has pushed the need to investigate their function in vivo. In keeping with human disease, the deletion or mutation of murine IF genes resulted in highly specific pathologies...
2017: Sub-cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100818/lowland-biotic-attrition-revisited-body-size-and-variation-among-climate-change-winners-and-losers
#2
Jedediah F Brodie, Matthew Strimas-Mackey, Jayasilan Mohd-Azlan, Alys Granados, Henry Bernard, Anthony J Giordano, Olga E Helmy
The responses of lowland tropical communities to climate change will critically influence global biodiversity but remain poorly understood. If species in these systems are unable to tolerate warming, the communities-currently the most diverse on Earth-may become depauperate ('biotic attrition'). In response to temperature changes, animals can adjust their distribution in space or their activity in time, but these two components of the niche are seldom considered together. We assessed the spatio-temporal niches of rainforest mammal species in Borneo across gradients in elevation and temperature...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100803/a-new-cue-for-torpor-induction-charcoal-ash-and-smoke
#3
Clare Stawski, Julia Nowack, Gerhard Körtner, Fritz Geiser
Recent work has shown that the use of torpor for energy conservation increases after forest fires in heterothermic mammals, probably in response to the reduction of food. However, the specific environmental cues for this increased torpor expression remain unknown. It is possible that smoke and the novel substrate of charcoal and ash act as signals for an impending period of starvation requiring torpor. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the combined cues of smoke, a charcoal/ash substrate and food shortage will enhance torpor expression in a small forest-dwelling marsupial, the yellow-footed antechinus (Antechinus flavipes), because like other animals that live in fire-prone habitats they must effectively respond to fires to ensure survival...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092684/biallelic-mutations-in-the-3-exonuclease-toe1-cause-pontocerebellar-hypoplasia-and-uncover-a-role-in-snrna-processing
#4
Rea M Lardelli, Ashleigh E Schaffer, Veerle R C Eggens, Maha S Zaki, Stephanie Grainger, Shashank Sathe, Eric L Van Nostrand, Zinayida Schlachetzki, Basak Rosti, Naiara Akizu, Eric Scott, Jennifer L Silhavy, Laura Dean Heckman, Rasim Ozgur Rosti, Esra Dikoglu, Anne Gregor, Alicia Guemez-Gamboa, Damir Musaev, Rohit Mande, Ari Widjaja, Tim L Shaw, Sebastian Markmiller, Isaac Marin-Valencia, Justin H Davies, Linda de Meirleir, Hulya Kayserili, Umut Altunoglu, Mary Louise Freckmann, Linda Warwick, David Chitayat, Susan Blaser, Ahmet Okay Çağlayan, Kaya Bilguvar, Huseyin Per, Christina Fagerberg, Henrik T Christesen, Maria Kibaek, Kimberly A Aldinger, David Manchester, Naomichi Matsumoto, Kazuhiro Muramatsu, Hirotomo Saitsu, Masaaki Shiina, Kazuhiro Ogata, Nicola Foulds, William B Dobyns, Neil C Chi, David Traver, Luigina Spaccini, Stefania Maria Bova, Stacey B Gabriel, Murat Gunel, Enza Maria Valente, Marie-Cecile Nassogne, Eric J Bennett, Gene W Yeo, Frank Baas, Jens Lykke-Andersen, Joseph G Gleeson
Deadenylases are best known for degrading the poly(A) tail during mRNA decay. The deadenylase family has expanded throughout evolution and, in mammals, consists of 12 Mg(2+)-dependent 3'-end RNases with substrate specificity that is mostly unknown. Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 7 (PCH7) is a unique recessive syndrome characterized by neurodegeneration and ambiguous genitalia. We studied 12 human families with PCH7, uncovering biallelic, loss-of-function mutations in TOE1, which encodes an unconventional deadenylase...
January 16, 2017: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089780/co-feeding-transmission-facilitates-strain-coexistence-in-borrelia-burgdorferi-the-lyme-disease-agent
#5
S L States, C I Huang, S Davis, D M Tufts, M A Diuk-Wasser
Coexistence of multiple tick-borne pathogens or strains is common in natural hosts and can be facilitated by resource partitioning of the host species, within-host localization, or by different transmission pathways. Most vector-borne pathogens are transmitted horizontally via systemic host infection, but transmission may occur in the absence of systemic infection between two vectors feeding in close proximity, enabling pathogens to minimize competition and escape the host immune response. In a laboratory study, we demonstrated that co-feeding transmission can occur for a rapidly-cleared strain of Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease agent, between two stages of the tick vector Ixodes scapularis while feeding on their dominant host, Peromyscus leucopus...
December 26, 2016: Epidemics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080908/antidog-igg-secondary-antibody-successfully-detects-igg-in-a-variety-of-aquatic-mammals
#6
Katherine Roehl, Mark Jankowski, Erik Hofmeister
Serological tests play an important role in the detection of wildlife diseases. However, while there are many commercial assays and reagents available for domestic species, there is a need to develop efficient serological assays for wildlife. In recent years, marine mammals have represented a wildlife group with emerging infectious diseases, such as influenza, brucellosis, and leptospirosis. However, with the exception of disease-agent-specific assays or functional assays, few reports describe the use of antibody detection assays in marine mammals...
December 2016: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075239/hantavirus-strains-in-east-africa-related-to-western-african-hantaviruses
#7
Jana Těšíková, Anna Bryjová, Josef Bryja, Leonid A Lavrenchenko, Joëlle Goüy de Bellocq
Hantaviruses are RNA viruses primarily carried by rodents, soricomorphs, and bats. The data about the distribution and genetic diversity of these viruses are often limited, especially in most regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, the majority of representatives were identified in western African localities, while only three hantaviruses have been reported in East Africa to date. In this study, a total of 1866 small mammals captured between 2009 and 2014 in various countries of Eastern Africa (Ethiopia, Zambia, Mozambique, Kenya, and Tanzania) were molecularly screened for the presence of hantaviruses...
January 11, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075073/resolving-the-relationships-of-paleocene-placental-mammals
#8
Thomas J D Halliday, Paul Upchurch, Anjali Goswami
The 'Age of Mammals' began in the Paleocene epoch, the 10 million year interval immediately following the Cretaceous-Palaeogene mass extinction. The apparently rapid shift in mammalian ecomorphs from small, largely insectivorous forms to many small-to-large-bodied, diverse taxa has driven a hypothesis that the end-Cretaceous heralded an adaptive radiation in placental mammal evolution. However, the affinities of most Paleocene mammals have remained unresolved, despite significant advances in understanding the relationships of the extant orders, hindering efforts to reconstruct robustly the origin and early evolution of placental mammals...
February 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074650/revisiting-the-val-ile-mutation-in-mammalian-and-bacterial-no-synthases-a-spectroscopic-and-kinetic-study
#9
Marine Weisslocker-Schaetzel, Mehdi Lembrouk, Jerome Santolini, Pierre Dorlet
Nitric oxide (NO) is produced in mammals by the nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms at a catalytic site comprising a heme associated with a biopterin cofactor. Through genome sequencing, proteins with high homology to the oxygenase domain of NOSs have been identified, in particular in bacteria. The active site is highly conserved except for a valine residue in the distal pocket that is replaced by an isoleucine in bacteria. This switch was previously reported to influence the kinetics of the reaction. We have used the V346I mutant of the mouse inducible NOS (iNOS) as well as the I224V mutant of the NOS from Bacillus subtilis (bsNOS) to study their spectroscopic signatures in solution and look for potential structural differences compared to their respective wild types...
January 11, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074638/clinical-management-of-candida-albicans-keratomycosis-in-a-bottlenose-dolphin-tursiops-truncatus
#10
Claire A Simeone, John P Traversi, Jenny M Meegan, Carolina LeBert, Carmen M H Colitz, Eric D Jensen
OBJECTIVE: Corneal ulceration secondary to trauma commonly affects marine mammals, often with opportunistic secondary bacterial or fungal infections. This report characterizes the combined use of auriculopalpebral and ophthalmic nerve blocks, adipose-derived stem cells, and subconjunctival injections for successful treatment of corneal trauma and infection in dolphins. ANIMAL STUDIED: An 11-year-old, female bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) presented with bilateral diffuse corneal opacities, which progressed to keratomycosis caused by Candida albicans...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072840/locomotor-activity-and-body-temperature-patterns-over-a-temperature-gradient-in-the-highveld-mole-rat-cryptomys-hottentotus-pretoriae
#11
Meghan Haupt, Nigel C Bennett, Maria K Oosthuizen
African mole-rats are strictly subterranean mammals that live in extensive burrow systems. High humidity levels in the burrows prevent mole-rats from thermoregulating using evaporative cooling. However, the relatively stable environment of the burrows promotes moderate temperatures and small daily temperature fluctuations. Mole-rats therefore display a relatively wide range of thermoregulation abilities. Some species cannot maintain their body temperatures at a constant level, whereas others employ behavioural thermoregulation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070275/altered-natal-dispersal-at-the-range-periphery-the-role-of-behavior-resources-and-maternal-condition
#12
Melissa J Merrick, John L Koprowski
Natal dispersal outcomes are an interplay between environmental conditions and individual phenotypes. Peripheral, isolated populations may experience altered environmental conditions and natal dispersal patterns that differ from populations in contiguous landscapes. We document nonphilopatric, sex-biased natal dispersal in an endangered small mammal, the Mt. Graham red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis), restricted to a single mountain. Other North American red squirrel populations are shown to have sex-unbiased, philopatric natal dispersal...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069101/immune-responses-in-mice-vaccinated-with-a-dna-vaccine-expressing-serine-protease-like-protein-from-the-new-born-larval-stage-of-trichinella-spiralis
#13
Jing Xu, Xue Bai, Li Bo Wang, Hai Ning Shi, Joke W B VAN DER Giessen, Pascal Boireau, Ming Yuan Liu, Xiao Lei Liu
Trichinella spiralis is a parasitic helminth that can infect almost all mammals, including humans. Trichinella spiralis infection elicits a typical type 2 immune responses, while suppresses type 1 immune responses, which is in favour of their parasitism. DNA vaccines have been shown to be capable of eliciting balanced CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses as well as humoral immune responses in small-animal models, which will be advantage to induce protective immune response against helminth infection. In this study, serine protease (Ts-NBLsp) was encoded by a cDNA fragment of new-born T...
January 10, 2017: Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068343/the-fleas-siphonaptera-in-iran-diversity-host-range-and-medical-importance
#14
Naseh Maleki-Ravasan, Samaneh Solhjouy-Fard, Jean-Claude Beaucournu, Anne Laudisoit, Ehsan Mostafavi
BACKGROUND: Flea-borne diseases have a wide distribution in the world. Studies on the identity, abundance, distribution and seasonality of the potential vectors of pathogenic agents (e.g. Yersinia pestis, Francisella tularensis, and Rickettsia felis) are necessary tools for controlling and preventing such diseases outbreaks. The improvements of diagnostic tools are partly responsible for an easier detection of otherwise unnoticed agents in the ectoparasitic fauna and as such a good taxonomical knowledge of the potential vectors is crucial...
January 9, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068076/bioavailability-and-kidney-responses-to-diclofenac-in-the-fathead-minnow-pimephales-promelas
#15
Lisa K Bickley, Ronny van Aerle, Andrew Ross Brown, Adam Hargreaves, Russell Huby, Victoria Cammack, Richard Jackson, Eduarda M Santos, Charles R Tyler
Diclofenac is one of the most widely prescribed non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs worldwide. It is frequently detected in surface waters; however, whether this pharmaceutical poses a risk to aquatic organisms is debated. Here we quantified the uptake of diclofenac by the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) following aqueous exposure (0.2 to 25.0 µg L(-1)) for 21 days, and evaluated the tissue and biomolecular responses in the kidney. Diclofenac accumulated in a concentration- and time- dependent manner in the plasma of exposed fish...
January 9, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065606/neurons-responsive-to-global-visual-motion-have-unique-tuning-properties-in-hummingbirds
#16
Andrea H Gaede, Benjamin Goller, Jessica P M Lam, Douglas R Wylie, Douglas L Altshuler
Neurons in animal visual systems that respond to global optic flow exhibit selectivity for motion direction and/or velocity. The avian lentiformis mesencephali (LM), known in mammals as the nucleus of the optic tract (NOT), is a key nucleus for global motion processing [1-4]. In all animals tested, it has been found that the majority of LM and NOT neurons are tuned to temporo-nasal (back-to-front) motion [4-11]. Moreover, the monocular gain of the optokinetic response is higher in this direction, compared to naso-temporal (front-to-back) motion [12, 13]...
December 29, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062591/epigenetic-processes-in-flowering-plant-reproduction
#17
REVIEW
Guifeng Wang, Claudia Köhler
Seeds provide up to 70% of the energy intake of the human population, emphasizing the relevance of understanding the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms controlling seed formation. In flowering plants, seeds are the product of a double fertilization event, leading to the formation of the embryo and the endosperm surrounded by maternal tissues. Analogous to mammals, plants undergo extensive epigenetic reprogramming during both gamete formation and early seed development, a process that is supposed to be required to enforce silencing of transposable elements and thus to maintain genome stability...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057728/the-effects-of-increasing-the-number-of-taxa-on-inferences-of-molecular-convergence
#18
Gregg W C Thomas, Matthew W Hahn, Yoonsoo Hahn
Convergent evolution provides insight into the link between phenotype and genotype. Recently, large-scale comparative studies of convergent evolution have become possible, but researchers are still trying to determine the best way to design these types of analyses. One aspect of molecular convergence studies that has not yet been investigated is how taxonomic sample size affects inferences of molecular convergence. Here we show that increased sample size decreases the amount of inferred molecular convergence associated with the three convergent transitions to a marine environment in mammals...
January 4, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056966/pseudorabies-virus-infection-aujeszky-s-disease-in-an-iberian-lynx-lynx-pardinus-in-spain-a-case-report
#19
A Javier Masot, María Gil, David Risco, Olga M Jiménez, José I Núñez, Eloy Redondo
BACKGROUND: The only natural hosts of Pseudorabies virus (PRV) are members of the family Suidae (Sus scrofa scrofa). In species other than suids infection is normally fatal. In these mammals, including carnivores, PRV typically causes serious neurologic disease. The endangered Iberian lynx (Lynx pardinus) is a wild feline endemic to south-western Europe (Iberian Peninsula). The Iberian lynx was found to be the world's most endangered felid species in 2002. In wild felines, PRV infection has only been previously reported once in a Florida panther in 1994...
January 5, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053246/orientation-selectivity-in-the-visual-cortex-of-the-nine-banded-armadillo
#20
Benjamin Scholl, Johnathan Rylee, Jeffrey J Luci, Nicholas J Priebe, Jeff Padberg
Orientation selectivity in primary visual cortex (V1) has been proposed to reflect a canonical computation performed by the neocortical circuitry.  While orientation selectivity has been reported in all mammals examined to date, the degree of selectivity and the functional organization of selectivity varies across clades. The differences in degree of orientation selectivity are large from reports in marsupials that only a small subset of neurons are selective to studies in carnivores in which it is rare to find a neuron lacking selectivity...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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