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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054164/a-new-primate-assemblage-from-la-verrerie-de-roches-middle%C3%A2-eocene-switzerland
#1
Raef Minwer-Barakat, Judit Marigó, Damien Becker, Loïc Costeur
Primates reached a great abundance and diversity during the Eocene, favored by warm temperatures and by the development of dense forests throughout the Northern Hemisphere. Here we describe new primate material from La Verrerie de Roches, a Middle Eocene karstic infill situated in the Jura Region (Switzerland), consisting of more than 80 dental remains. The primate assemblage from La Verrerie de Roches includes five different taxa. The best represented primate is Necrolemur aff. anadoni, similar in size and overall morphology to Necrolemur anadoni but resembling in some features the younger species Necrolemur antiquus...
December 2017: Journal of Human Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050731/spatial-avoidance-to-experimental-increase-of-intermittent-and-continuous-sound-in-two-captive-harbour-porpoises
#2
Annebelle C M Kok, J Pamela Engelberts, Ronald A Kastelein, Lean Helder-Hoek, Shirley Van de Voorde, Fleur Visser, Hans Slabbekoorn
The continuing rise in underwater sound levels in the oceans leads to disturbance of marine life. It is thought that one of the main impacts of sound exposure is the alteration of foraging behaviour of marine species, for example by deterring animals from a prey location, or by distracting them while they are trying to catch prey. So far, only limited knowledge is available on both mechanisms in the same species. The harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is a relatively small marine mammal that could quickly suffer fitness consequences from a reduction of foraging success...
October 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048992/eurasian-red-squirrels-show-little-seasonal-variation-in-metabolism-in-food-enriched-habitat
#3
James M Turner, Stephanie Reher, Lisa Warnecke, Kathrin H Dausmann
Energy expenditure and ambient temperature (Ta) are intrinsically linked through changes in an animal's metabolic rate. While the nature of this relationship is stable, the breadth of change in thermoregulatory cost varies with body size and physiological acclimatization to season. To explore seasonal metabolic changes of small mammals, we studied a population of Eurasian red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) in a seminatural environment with a year-round supply of natural and supplemented food. In each season we measured the metabolic rate of wild-caught red squirrels, using open-flow respirometry, and hypothesized that individuals would make adjustments to contend with seasonal weather conditions...
November 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046345/endoplasmic-reticulum-transmembrane-proteins-zdhhc1-and-sting-both-act-as-direct-adaptors-for-irf3-activation-in-teleost
#4
Xiaowen Xu, Meifeng Li, Zhen Wu, Haizhou Wang, Liqiang Wang, Keyi Huang, Xiancheng Liu, Qunhao Hou, Gang Lin, Chengyu Hu
IFN regulatory factor (IRF)3 is a central regulator for IFN-β expression in different types of pathogenic infections. Mammals have various pathogenic sensors that are involved in monitoring pathogen intrusions. These sensors can trigger IRF3-mediated antiviral responses through different pathways. Endoplasmic reticulum-associated proteins stimulator of IFN gene (STING) and zinc finger DHHC-type containing 1 (ZDHHC1) are critical mediators of IRF3 activation in response to viral DNA infections. In this study, grass carp STING and ZDHHC1 were found to have some similar molecular features and subcellular localization, and both were upregulated upon stimulation with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid, B-DNA, or Z-DNA...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045478/camera-trap-placement-and-the-potential-for-bias-due-to-trails-and-other-features
#5
Joseph M Kolowski, Tavis D Forrester
Camera trapping has become an increasingly widespread tool for wildlife ecologists, with large numbers of studies relying on photo capture rates or presence/absence information. It is increasingly clear that camera placement can directly impact this kind of data, yet these biases are poorly understood. We used a paired camera design to investigate the effect of small-scale habitat features on species richness estimates, and capture rate and detection probability of several mammal species in the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia, USA...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044377/heparosan-coated-liposomes-for-drug-delivery
#6
Rachel S Lane, F Michael Haller, Anais A E Chavaroche, Andrew Almond, Paul L DeAngelis
Liposomal encapsulation is a useful drug delivery strategy for small molecules, especially chemotherapeutic agents such as doxorubicin. Doxil® is a doxorubicin-containing liposome ("dox-liposome") that passively targets drug to tumors while reducing side effects caused by free drug permeating and poisoning healthy tissues. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) is the hydrophilic coating of Doxil® that protects the formulation from triggering the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS). Evading the MPS prolongs dox-liposome circulation time thus increasing drug deposition at the tumor site...
November 1, 2017: Glycobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042243/extracellular-self-dna-as-a-damage-associated-molecular-pattern-damp-that-triggers-self-specific-immunity-induction-in-plants
#7
Dalia Duran-Flores, Martin Heil
Mammals sense self or non-self extracellular or extranuclear DNA fragments (hereinafter collectively termed eDNA) as indicators of injury or infection and respond with immunity. We hypothesised that eDNA acts as a damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) also in plants and that it contributes to self versus non-self discrimination. Treating plants and suspension-cultured cells of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) with fragmented self eDNA (obtained from other plants of the same species) induced early, immunity-related signalling responses such as H2O2 generation and MAPK activation, decreased the infection by a bacterial pathogen (Pseudomonas syringae) and increased an indirect defence to herbivores (extrafloral nectar secretion)...
October 14, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040576/to-everything-there-is-a-season-summer-to-winter-food-webs-and-the-functional-traits-of-keystone-species
#8
Murray M Humphries, Emily K Studd, Allyson K Menzies, Stan Boutin
From a trophic perspective, a seasonal increase in air temperature and photoperiod propagates as bottom-up pulse of primary production by plants, secondary production by herbivores, and tertiary production by carnivores. However, food web seasonality reflects not only abiotic variation in temperature and photoperiod, but also the composition of the biotic community and their functional responses to this variation. Some plants and animals-here referred to as seasonal specialists-decouple from food webs in winter through migration or various forms of metabolic arrest (e...
October 12, 2017: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038588/patterns-and-underlying-mechanisms-of-non-volant-small-mammal-richness-along-two-contrasting-mountain-slopes-in-southwestern-china
#9
Zhongzheng Chen, Kai He, Feng Cheng, Laxman Khanal, Xuelong Jiang
The species richness patterns of small mammals and the processes shaping them in two gradients of a mountain with different spatial and climatic characteristics were examined using standard sampling scheme. We trapped 2,006 small mammals representing 37 species, along elevational gradients on both western and eastern slopes of the Ailao Mountains, Southwest China. Using mid-domain effect model, model selection and model averaging, we examined the effects of slope, area, mean annual temperature (MAT), mean annual humidity (MAH), productivity, plant species richness (PSR) and the mid-domain effect (MDE) on the patterns of small mammal diversity...
October 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037475/chronic-arsenicosis-and-cadmium-exposure-in-wild-snowshoe-hares-lepus-americanus-breeding-near-yellowknife-northwest-territories-canada-part-1-evaluation-of-oxidative-stress-antioxidant-activities-and-hepatic-damage
#10
S Amuno, A Jamwal, B Grahn, S Niyogi
Previous gold mining activities and arsenopyrite ore roasting activities at the Giant mine site (1948 to 2004) resulted in the release of high amounts of arsenic and trace metals into the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. While elevated levels of arsenic has been consistently reported in surface soils and vegetation near the vicinity of the Giant mine area and in surrounding locations, systematic studies evaluating the overall health status of terrestrial small mammals endemic to the area are lacking...
October 13, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037369/ambient-temperature-and-humidity-modulate-the-behavioural-thermoregulation-of-a-small-arboreal-mammal-callicebus-bernhardi
#11
Karine G D Lopes, Júlio César Bicca-Marques
Maintaining a constant body temperature is critical to the proper functioning of metabolic reactions. Behavioural thermoregulation strategies may minimize the cost of energetic balance when an animal is outside its thermoneutral zone. We investigated whether ambient temperature and relative air humidity influence the use of behavioural strategies by a group of Prince Bernhard's titi monkeys (Callicebus bernhardi) living in a forest fragment. We monitored a social group composed of four individuals (an adult couple and two juveniles) for 1010h from March to September 2015...
October 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036447/plant-exosomes-using-an-unconventional-exit-to-prevent-pathogen-entry
#12
Line Lykke Hansen, Mads Eggert Nielsen
The ability to ward off filamentous pathogens, such as powdery mildew fungi, is one of the best studied examples of membrane trafficking-dependent disease resistance in plants. Here, papilla formation at the site of attack is essential for the pre-invasive immunity, whereas the encasement can hamper disease post-invasively. Exosomes containing antifungal peptides and small RNAs are thought to play a vital role in forming papillae and encasements that block fungal growth. While exosomes are well described in mammals, and have been shown to play important roles in cell-cell communication regulating development and disease, their function is not well-known in plants...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035861/the-molecular-identification-of-calodium-hepaticum-in-the-wild-brown-rat-rattus-norvegicus-in-poland
#13
Katarzyna Buńkowska-Gawlik, Agnieszka Perec-Matysiak, Klaudia Burzyńska, Joanna Hildebrand
Calodium hepaticum is a parasitic nematode found primarily in rodents but known to infect numerous other mammal species, and causing in humans the hepatic calodiasis. Herein, we present the first finding of C. hepaticum in Rattus norvegicus in Poland. In this study, we have used the combined pepsin-HCl digestion and molecular techniques to detect C. hepaticum infection in the liver. The results confirm the usefulness of molecular approaches for investigating the biology and epidemiology of C. hepaticum. Additionally in this study, the parts of the small subunit rRNA (18S rRNA) gene of Aonchotheca annulosa from bank vole, Aonchotheca erinacei and Eucoleus sp...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035837/testicular-cytology-by-fine-needle-aspiration-in-domestic-cats
#14
D P Leme, E Visacre, V B Castro, M D Lopes
In cases where semen collection in tom-cats is not possible, FNA of testes is the alternative to evaluate sperm production. Although this technique for the diagnosis of fertility problems has been well discussed in other mammals (men, dogs, stallions), data for domestic cats are limited. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the reliability of FNA using needles of small diameters (22G and 29G) in testes of domestic cats of different ages to assess the spermatogenesis status and to present description of germ cells and Sertoli cells for cytological examinations...
October 9, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035294/predicting-amyloidogenic-proteins-in-the-proteomes-of-plants
#15
Kirill S Antonets, Anton A Nizhnikov
Amyloids are protein fibrils with characteristic spatial structure. Though amyloids were long perceived to be pathogens that cause dozens of incurable pathologies in humans and mammals, it is currently clear that amyloids also represent a functionally important form of protein structure implicated in a variety of biological processes in organisms ranging from archaea and bacteria to fungi and animals. Despite their social significance, plants remain the most poorly studied group of organisms in the field of amyloid biology...
October 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034331/extensive-core-microbiome-in-drone-captured-whale-blow-supports-a-framework-for-health-monitoring
#16
Amy Apprill, Carolyn A Miller, Michael J Moore, John W Durban, Holly Fearnbach, Lance G Barrett-Lennard
The pulmonary system is a common site for bacterial infections in cetaceans, but very little is known about their respiratory microbiome. We used a small, unmanned hexacopter to collect exhaled breath condensate (blow) from two geographically distinct populations of apparently healthy humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), sampled in the Massachusetts coastal waters off Cape Cod (n = 17) and coastal waters around Vancouver Island (n = 9). Bacterial and archaeal small-subunit rRNA genes were amplified and sequenced from blow samples, including many of sparse volume, as well as seawater and other controls, to characterize the associated microbial community...
September 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032223/glyphosate-and-roundup-%C3%A2-alter-morphology-and-behavior-in-zebrafish
#17
Daiane Bridi, Stefani Altenhofen, Jonas Brum Gonzalez, Gustavo Kellerman Reolon, Carla Denise Bonan
Glyphosate has become the most widely used herbicide in the world, due to the wide scale adoption of transgenic glyphosate resistant crops after its introduction in 1996. Glyphosate may be used alone, but it is commonly applied as an active ingredient of the herbicide Roundup(®). This pesticide contains several adjuvants, which may promote an unknown toxicity. The indiscriminate application poses numerous problems, both for the health of the applicators and consumers, and for the environment, contaminating the soil, water and leading to the death of plants and animals...
October 11, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031931/global-analysis-of-ago2-bound-rnas-reveals-that-mirnas-induce-cleavage-of-target-rnas-with-limited-complementarity
#18
Eunsun Jung, Youngmo Seong, Bohyun Jeon, Hoseok Song, Young-Soo Kwon
Among the four Argonaute family members in mammals, only AGO2 protein retains endonuclease activity and facilitates cleavage of target RNAs base-pairing with highly complementary guide RNAs. Despite the deeply conserved catalytic activity, only a small number of targets have been reported to extensively base pair with cognate miRNAs to be cleaved by AGO2. Here, we analyzed AGO2-bound RNAs by CrossLinking ImmunoPrecipitation (CLIP) of genetically modified cells that express epitope-tagged AGO2 from the native genomic locus...
October 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030593/fish-perform-like-mammals-and-birds-in-inhibitory-motor-control-tasks
#19
Tyrone Lucon-Xiccato, Elia Gatto, Angelo Bisazza
Inhibitory control is an executive function that positively predicts performance in several cognitive tasks and has been considered typical of vertebrates with large and complex nervous systems such as primates. However, evidence is growing that some fish species have evolved complex cognitive abilities in spite of their relatively small brain size. We tested whether fish might also show enhanced inhibitory control by subjecting guppies, Poecilia reticulata, to the motor task used to test warm-blooded vertebrates...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028987/in-silico-structural-modelling-of-multiple-epigenetic-marks-on-dna
#20
Konrad Krawczyk, Samuel Demharter, Bernhard Knapp, Charlotte M Deane, Peter Minary
Summary: There are four known epigenetic cytosine modifications in mammals: 5mC, 5hmC, 5fC and 5caC. The biological effects of 5mC are well understood but the roles of the remaining modifications remain elusive. Experimental and computational studies suggest that a single epigenetic mark has little structural effect but six of them can radically change the structure of DNA to a new form, F-DNA. Investigating the collective effect of multiple epigenetic marks requires the ability to interrogate all possible combinations of epigenetic states (e...
September 25, 2017: Bioinformatics
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