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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941417/protective-role-of-liriodendrin-in-mice-with-dextran-sulphate-sodium-induced-ulcerative-colitis
#1
Zhen Zhang, Lei Yang, Botao Wang, Lanqiu Zhang, Qi Zhang, Dihua Li, Shukun Zhang, Hongwei Gao, Ximo Wang
Sargentodoxa cuneata, containing syringaresinol and its glycoside liriodendrin as the main bioactive compounds, is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine for treating intestinal inflammation. In our preliminary study, liriodendrin inhibited NF-kB activation in sepsis-induced acute lung injury. The present study was designed to investigate its effect on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in a mouse model and to explore the possible related mechanisms. Experimental colitis was established by giving mice drinking water containing 3% (w/v) DSS for 7days...
September 20, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941398/the-mechanisms-mediating-the-antiepileptic-effects-of-the-ketogenic-diet-and-potential-opportunities-for-improvement-with-metabolism-altering-drugs
#2
REVIEW
Neil A Youngson, Margaret J Morris, Bill Ballard
The ketogenic diet (KD) is increasingly being used to treat patients with intractable epilepsy. Despite decades of research, the reason for its success, when anticonvulsants have failed, is still not completely understood. There are, however, many candidate mechanisms which can be grouped into those that alter neuronal excitability at the synapse, and those that confer neuroprotection. The molecular underpinning of these mechanisms centres on the shift from glucose- to lipid-based energy generation that accompanies a high fat/low carbohydrate diet...
September 13, 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941391/chlorinated-paraffins-leaking-from-hand-blenders-can-lead-to-significant-human-exposures
#3
Bo Yuan, Anna Strid, Per Ola Darnerud, Cynthia A de Wit, Jessica Nyström, Åke Bergman
BACKGROUND: Chlorinated paraffins (CPs, polychlorinated n-alkanes) are versatile, high-production-volume chemicals. A previous study indicated that hand blenders leak CPs into prepared food. OBJECTIVES: (1) to estimate exposure to CPs from hand blender use compared to background CP exposure from diet; (2) to assess the risk from human dietary exposure to CPs from hand blender use; (3) to investigate how hand blenders leak out CPs. METHODS: CPs were analyzed in food market baskets, in cooking oil/water samples (1g oil/100mL water) mixed using 16 different hand blenders, and in dismantled components of the hand blenders...
September 20, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938792/gastrointestinal-microbial-population-of-turkey-meleagris-gallopavo-affected-by-hemorrhagic-enteritis-virus
#4
Sara D'Andreano, Armand Sànchez Bonastre, Olga Francino, Anna Cuscó Martí, Cristina Lecchi, Guido Grilli, Davide Giovanardi, Fabrizio Ceciliani
Hemorrhagic enteritis (HE) is an acute viral disease that affects avian species, particularly turkeys, compromising their commercial production and having a negative effect on animal welfare. Turkey adenovirus 3 (TAdV-3), is the main causal agent of the disease. In this study, we considered 3 groups of turkeys to achieve 2 purposes: 1) A preliminary investigation on the microbiota content in the 4 parts of healthy turkey's intestine (group A), namely duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and ceca was done; 2) an investigation on the relationship between natural infections with TAdV-3 and the intestinal microbiota in the jejunum, where HE mostly develops, comparing group A with animals with molecular positivity for the virus and with clinical signs of HE (group B) and animals with molecular positivity for the virus but without clinical signs (group C)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938787/influence-of-age-and-housing-systems-on-properties-of-tibia-and-humerus-of-lohmann-white-hens1-bone-properties-of-laying-hens-in-commercial-housing-systems
#5
P Regmi, N Nelson, R C Haut, M W Orth, D M Karcher
This study was aimed at analyzing bone properties of Lohmann White hens in different commercial housing systems at various points throughout production. Pullets reared in conventional cages (CC) were either continued in CC or moved to enriched colony cages (EN) at 19 weeks. Pullets reared in cage-free aviaries (AV) were moved to AV hen houses. Bone samples were collected from 60 hens at each of 18 and 72 wk and 30 hens at 26 and 56 wk from each housing system. Left tibiae and humeri were broken under uniform bending to analyze mechanical properties...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938786/prediction-of-egg-freshness-during-storage-using-electronic-nose
#6
Samuel M Yimenu, J Y Kim, B S Kim
The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of a fast gas chromatography (GC) e-nose for freshness discrimination and for prediction of storage time as well as sensory and internal quality changes during storage of hen eggs. All samples were obtained from the same egg production farm and stored at 20 °C for 20 d. Egg sampling was conducted every 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 16, and 20 d. During each sampling time, 4 egg cartons (each containing 10 eggs) were randomly selected: one carton for Haugh units, one carton for sensory evaluation and 2 cartons for the e-nose experiment...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938783/phytochemicals-reduce-aflatoxin-induced-toxicity-in-chicken-embryos
#7
Hsin-Bai Yin, Chi-Hung Chen, Michael J Darre, Ann M Donoghue, Dan J Donoghue, Kumar Venkitanarayanan
Aflatoxins (AF) are toxic metabolites produced by molds, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, which frequently contaminate poultry feed ingredients. Ingestion of AF-contaminated feed by chickens leads to deleterious effects, including decreased bird performance and reduced egg production. Moreover, AF residues in fertilized eggs result in huge economic losses by decreasing embryo viability and hatchability. This study investigated the efficacy of 2 generally recognized as safe phytochemicals, namely carvacrol (CR) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (TC), in protecting chicken embryos from AF-induced toxicity...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938782/perch-use-by-broiler-breeders-and-its-implication-on-health-and-production
#8
S G Gebhardt-Henrich, M J Toscano, H Würbel
Broiler breeders are commonly kept without perches, although perching has been shown to be a high-priority behavior in laying hens. We studied whether broiler breeders used elevated perches of different lengths during the night and how access to perches affected health and production. Using the Ross 308 hybrid, pens offering 4 different perch spaces per bird (5, 10, 14, and 20 cm) in a cross-over design were compared with pens without perches. The number of birds on perches at midnight were recorded 7 times during production...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938781/differences-in-egg-nutrient-availability-and-embryo-development-in-white-layer-breeder-genotypes
#9
E E Onbasilar, M Kahraman, O Ahlat, Ö F Güngör, A Çalik, S Taban, S Yalçin
Because of consumers' preferences and also due to changes in production systems, the importance of pure breeds has increased again. There are a lot of differences among breeds which have been studied extensively, however, the differences during the incubation period are not yet fully known. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the composition of the egg parts, absorption of nutrients, and development of embryos from different genotypes. A total of 354 fresh hatching eggs were obtained from one hybrid (Lohman White, LW) and two pure breeds (Denizli and Gerze)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938780/effects-of-dietary-threonine-supplementation-on-intestinal-barrier-function-and-gut-microbiota-of-laying-hens
#10
X Y Dong, M M M Azzam, X T Zou
The effects of supplemental dietary threonine (Thr) on laying performance, expression of intestinal mucin 2 (MUC2) and secretory IgA (sIgA), and intestinal microbiota of laying hens fed a low CP diet were investigated. A total of 240 Lohmann Brown laying hens, 28 wk of age, was allocated to 3 dietary treatments, each of which included 5 replicates of 16 hens. Hens were fed a control diet (16% CP), a low CP diet (14% CP), or a low CP diet supplemented with 0.3% L-Thr for 12 weeks. Chemical analyses of the diets for Thr are 0...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938776/meta-analytic-study-of-organic-acids-as-an-alternative-performance-enhancing-feed-additive-to-antibiotics-for-broiler-chickens
#11
G V Polycarpo, I Andretta, M Kipper, V C Cruz-Polycarpo, J C Dadalt, P H M Rodrigues, R Albuquerque
The effect of organic acids as an alternative to antibiotics on the performance of broiler chickens was evaluated by meta-analysis, identifying and quantifying the main factors that influence results. A total of 51,960 broilers from 121 articles published between 1991 and 2016 were used. Interactions of additives [non-supplemented group (control), organic acids, and growth promoter antibiotics] with microbial challenge (with or without inoculation of pathogenic microorganisms) were studied on performance variables...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938775/effects-of-different-types-of-dark-brooders-on-injurious-pecking-damage-and-production-related-traits-at-rear-and-lay-in-layers
#12
A B Riber, D A Guzman
Injurious pecking (IP) remains one of the major welfare challenges in housing of laying hens worldwide due to the negative consequences it inflicts on animal welfare and economy. One potential solution to reduce IP is the use of dark brooders as the primary heat source during rearing. The objective was to investigate effects of rearing layer chicks with different management strategies and size allowances of dark brooders on IP and production-related traits during rear and lay. Groups of 100 to 103 Isa Warren chicks were reared either with one of 4 brooder types (n = 4 per treatment) or with whole-house heating (control: n = 6)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938774/evaluation-of-encapsulated-sodium-butyrate-on-growth-performance-energy-digestibility-gut-development-and-salmonella-colonization-in-broilers
#13
J D Liu, H O Bayir, D E Cosby, N A Cox, S M Williams, J Fowler
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of an encapsulated sodium butyrate (Na-B) with targeted releasing times on broiler performance, energy digestibility, intestinal morphology, and ceca Salmonella colonization. In experiment 1, 3 different Na-B products (CMA, CMP, and CMS) were evaluated following a challenge with a nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella typhimurium (STNAR). Cobb-Cobb male birds were placed 8 per pen into 6 replicates for each treatment. Treatments included 6 Na-B treatments (500 and 1,000 ppm of each product) plus 2 control (non-challenged and challenged)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938772/susceptibility-to-keel-bone-fractures-in-laying-hens-and-the-role-of-genetic-variation
#14
Laura Candelotto, Ariane Stratmann, Sabine G Gebhardt-Henrich, Christina Rufener, Teun van de Braak, Michael J Toscano
Keel bone fractures are a well-known welfare problem in modern commercial laying hen systems. The present study sought to identify genetic variation in relation to keel bone fracture susceptibility of 4 distinct crossbred and one pure line, and by extension, possible breeding traits. Susceptibility to fractures were assessed using an ex vivo impact testing protocol in combination with a study design that minimized environmental variation to focus on genetic differences. The 5 crossbred/pure lines differed in their susceptibility to keel bone fractures with the greatest likelihood of fracture in one of the 3 commercial lines and the lowest susceptibility to fractures in one of the experimental lines...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938769/recent-advances-in-avian-egg-science-a-review
#15
Philippe B Wilson
Eggs and egg products form an integral part of the food chain. As such, research into egg structure, function, and production has made an important contribution to the field of poultry science. The past decade has seen significant advances in avian egg science research, with work supplementing our understanding of the nature of the avian egg, and its biological, chemical, and physical properties. Eggshell color, strength, and chemical composition, poultry nutrition, and genetics have all been intensively studied recently, with significant progress being made in a number of these areas...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938767/isothermal-gelation-behavior-of-myofibrillar-proteins-from-white-and-red-chicken-meat-at-different-temperatures
#16
S Glorieux, L Steen, H Paelinck, I Foubert, I Fraeye
This paper provides insights in the isothermal gelation behavior of white and red chicken myofibrillar proteins (CMP) at different temperatures (20 to 80°C) and the underlying aggregation mechanism, allowing understanding of structure formation in poultry products during thermal processing. At low temperatures (20 to 60°C), an increase in aromatic surface hydrophobicity (SoANS) was found, suggesting potential formation of hydrophobic interactions between CMP. At higher temperatures (60 to 80°C), high SoANS and a significant decrease in total sulfhydryl amount (SH-amount) strongly indicate the presence of hydrophobic interactions and disulfide bonding, resulting in aggregation, as suggested by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE)...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938765/advanced-oxidation-process-sanitization-of-hatching-eggs-reduces-salmonella-in-broiler-chicks
#17
A C Rehkopf, J A Byrd, C D Coufal, T Duong
The microbial quality of eggs entering the hatchery is an important critical control point for biosecurity, pathogen reduction, and food safety programs in poultry production. Developing interventions to reduce Salmonella contamination of eggs is important to improving the microbial food safety of poultry and poultry products. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and ultraviolet light (UV) Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP) has been previously demonstrated to be effective in reducing Salmonella on the surface of experimentally contaminated eggs...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938631/microrna-455-targets-cullin-3-to-activate-nrf2-signaling-and-protect-human-osteoblasts-from-hydrogen-peroxide
#18
Dawei Xu, Hao Zhu, Chengniu Wang, Xinhui Zhu, Genxiang Liu, Chu Chen, Zhiming Cui
Over-production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) will lead to human osteoblast dysfunction and apoptosis, causing progression of osteoporosis and osteonecrosis. NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a well-characterized anti-oxidant signaling. Cullin 3 (Cul3) ubiquitin E3 ligase dictates Nrf2 degradation. We demonstrate that microRNA-455 ("miR-455") is a putative Cul3-targeting microRNA. Forced-expression of miR-455 in both hFOB1. 19 osteoblast cell line and primary human osteoblasts induced Cul3 degradation and Nrf2 protein stabilization, which led to subsequent transcription of ARE (anti-oxidant response element)-dependent genes (NQO1, HO1 and GCLC)...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938606/oroxylin-a-inhibits-colitis-by-inactivating-nlrp3-inflammasome
#19
Wei Zhou, Xiuting Liu, Xin Zhang, Jingjing Tang, Zhiyu Li, Qing Wang, Rong Hu
NLRP3 inflammasome is a novel therapeutic target for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of a bioactive flavonoid-oroxylin A on the treatment of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced murine colitis via targeting NLRP3 inflammasome. In this study, we found that oroxylin A attenuated experimental colitis in mice, including loss of body weights, shortening of the colon lengths and infiltration of inflammatory cells. The production of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α in colon was also markedly reduced by oroxylin A...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938588/calreticulin-modulates-the-intracellular-survival-of-mycobacteria-by-regulating-er-stress-mediated-apoptosis
#20
Sung Hee Jo, Ji-Ae Choi, Yun-Ji Lim, Junghwan Lee, Soo-Na Cho, Sung-Man Oh, Dam Go, Seon-Hwa Kim, Chang-Hwa Song
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress-mediated apoptosis is a host defense mechanism against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. Calreticulin (CRT) is the major calcium-binding chaperone protein. Previous reports have suggested a close relationship between the cell-surface expression of CRT and apoptosis. In this study, the role of CRT during Mtb infection was examined. The results showed that Mtb infection induces CRT production by macrophages and that CRT levels are correlated with the degree of apoptotic cell death...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
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