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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346994/gc-ms-analysis-and-potential-cytotoxic-activity-of-calyptranthes-grandifolia-o-berg-calyptranthes-tricona-d-legrand-and-myrciaria-plinioides-d-legrand-essential-oil-in-raw264-7-and-cho-k1-cells
#1
D Faleiro, S M Immich, F Majolo, L Mayer, E M Ethur, M I Goettert
The search for new bioactive substances derived from natural products is daily growing. Among biologically active products used in therapeutic approaches, essential oils are described with wide range of therapeutic and pharmacological potential. Plants from Myrtaceae family have the presence of essential oils in its composition. Calyptranthes grandifolia, Calyptranthes tricona and Myrciaria plinioides species belong to this family and are used by the local population. However, there are no reports in the literature describing relevant characteristics about the potential and possible activities of these species...
March 22, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346980/ecological-intensification-to-mitigate-impacts-of-conventional-intensive-land-use-on-pollinators-and-pollination
#2
REVIEW
Anikó Kovács-Hostyánszki, Anahí Espíndola, Adam J Vanbergen, Josef Settele, Claire Kremen, Lynn V Dicks
Worldwide, human appropriation of ecosystems is disrupting plant-pollinator communities and pollination function through habitat conversion and landscape homogenisation. Conversion to agriculture is destroying and degrading semi-natural ecosystems while conventional land-use intensification (e.g. industrial management of large-scale monocultures with high chemical inputs) homogenises landscape structure and quality. Together, these anthropogenic processes reduce the connectivity of populations and erode floral and nesting resources to undermine pollinator abundance and diversity, and ultimately pollination services...
March 27, 2017: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346939/a-b12-dependent-radical-sam-enzyme-involved-in-oxetanocin-a-biosynthesis
#3
Jennifer Bridwell-Rabb, Aoshu Zhong, He G Sun, Catherine L Drennan, Hung-Wen Liu
Oxetanocin A (OXT-A) is a potent antitumour, antiviral and antibacterial compound. Biosynthesis of OXT-A has been linked to a plasmid-borne Bacillus megaterium gene cluster that contains four genes: oxsA, oxsB, oxrA and oxrB. Here we show that both the oxsA and oxsB genes are required for the production of OXT-A. Biochemical analysis of the encoded proteins, a cobalamin (Cbl)-dependent S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) radical enzyme, OxsB, and an HD-domain phosphohydrolase, OxsA, reveals that OXT-A is derived from a 2'-deoxyadenosine phosphate in an OxsB-catalysed ring contraction reaction initiated by hydrogen atom abstraction from C2'...
March 27, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346928/diet-and-gut-microbiota-in-health-and-disease
#4
Ting-Chin David Shen
Gut microbiota plays an important role in host health maintenance and disease pathogenesis. The development of a stable and diverse gut microbiota is essential to various host physiologic functions such as immunoregulation, pathogen prevention, energy harvest, and metabolism. At the same time, a dysbiotic gut microbiota associated with disease is altered in structure and function, and often characterized by a decrease in species richness and proliferation of pathogenic bacterial taxa. As a shared substrate between the host and the gut microbiota, diet significantly impacts the health and disease states of the host both directly and through gut microbial metabolite production...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346927/microbiota-in-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-in-infancy-implications-for-management
#5
Thomas R Abrahamsson, Richard Y Wu, Philip M Sherman
The complex and diverse intestinal microbiome is recognized as important in promoting human health. An altered gut microflora, referred to as dysbiosis, is increasingly recognized as having an etiologic role in a variety of conditions, including functional gastrointestinal disorders: colic in infants and irritable bowel syndrome in older children. Probiotics are defined as live microorganisms that, if ingested in sufficient amounts, restore microbial homeostasis and have a benefit on health. Randomized controlled trials indicate that probiotics can be effective in a variety of intestinal conditions, including colic and irritable bowel syndrome...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346910/occurrence-temporal-variation-and-estrogenic-burden-of-five-parabens-in-sewage-sludge-collected-across-the-united-states
#6
Jing Chen, Benny F G Pycke, Bruce J Brownawell, Chad A Kinney, Edward T Furlong, Dana W Kolpin, Rolf U Halden
Five parabens used as preservatives in pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) were measured in sewage sludges collected at 14 U.S. wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) located in nine states. Detected concentration ranges (ng/g, dry weight) and frequencies were as follows: methyl paraben (15.9 to 203.0; 100%), propyl paraben (0.5 to 7.7; 100%), ethyl paraben (<0.6 to 2.6; 63%), butyl paraben (<0.4 to 4.3; 42%) and benzyl paraben (<0.4 to 3.3; 26%). The estrogenicity inherent to the sum of parabens detected in sewage sludge (ranging from 10...
March 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346908/different-effects-of-biochar-and-a-nitrification-inhibitor-application-on-paddy-soil-denitrification-a-field-experiment-over-two-consecutive-rice-growing-seasons
#7
Shuwei Wang, Jun Shan, Yongqiu Xia, Quan Tang, Longlong Xia, Jinghui Lin, Xiaoyuan Yan
Biochar and nitrification inhibitors are increasingly being proposed as amendments to improve nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). However, their effects on soil denitrification and the major N loss in rice paddies over an entire rice-growing season are not well understood. In this study, using intact soil core incubation combined with N2/Ar technique, the impacts of biochar and a nitrification inhibitor (Ni), 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)-pyridine, on rice yield and soil denitrification, as well as ammonia (NH3) volatilization, were investigated over two rice-growing seasons in the Taihu Lake region of China...
March 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346903/the-oceanus-statue-of-the-fontana-di-trevi-rome-the-analysis-of-black-crust-as-a-tool-to-investigate-the-urban-air-pollution-and-its-impact-on-the-stone-degradation
#8
Mauro F La Russa, Paola Fermo, Valeria Comite, Cristina M Belfiore, Donatella Barca, Annamaria Cerioni, Marina De Santis, Lorena Francesca Barbagallo, Michela Ricca, Silvestro A Ruffolo
This paper deals with the analysis of black crust coming from the statue of Oceanus belonging to the Fontana di Trevi (Rome). This monument is undoubtedly one of the main touristic attractions of Rome. During the restoration held between 2014 and 2015, some diagnostic analyses had been carried out. It has been highlighted that the sheltered surfaces suffer the formation of black crust, especially on the marble statues. The possibility to sample those degradation products, together with the unaltered substrate, represented an excellent opportunity to characterize the marble itself, to assess the impact of the urban air pollution on the stone material, and to detect the pollutant on a precise timescale...
March 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346901/boundary-work-for-implementing-adaptive-management-a-water-sector-application
#9
Blal Adem Esmail, Davide Geneletti, Christian Albert
Boundary work, defined as effort to mediate between knowledge and action, is a promising approach for facilitating knowledge co-production for sustainable development. Here, we investigate a case study of knowledge co-production, to assess the applicability of boundary work as a conceptual framework to support implementing adaptive management in the water sector. We refer to a boundary work classification recently proposed by Clark et al., (2016), based on three types of knowledge uses, i.e. enlightenment, decision-, and negotiation-support, and three types of sources, i...
March 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346900/growing-season-variability-in-carbon-dioxide-exchange-of-irrigated-and-rainfed-soybean-in-the-southern-united-states
#10
Pradeep Wagle, Prasanna H Gowda, Saseendran S Anapalli, Krishna N Reddy, Brian K Northup
Measurement of carbon dynamics of soybean (Glycine max L.) ecosystems outside Corn Belt of the United States (U.S.) is lacking. This study examines the seasonal variability of net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) and its components (gross primary production, GPP and ecosystem respiration, ER), and relevant controlling environmental factors between rainfed (El Reno, Oklahoma) and irrigated (Stoneville, Mississippi) soybean fields in the southern U.S. during the 2016 growing season. Grain yield was about 1.6tha(-1) for rainfed soybean and 4...
March 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346893/biochemical-transformation-of-lignin-for-deriving-valued-commodities-from-lignocellulose
#11
REVIEW
Daniel L Gall, John Ralph, Timothy J Donohue, Daniel R Noguera
The biochemical properties of lignin present major obstacles to deriving societally beneficial entities from lignocellulosic biomass, an abundant and renewable feedstock. Similar to other biopolymers such as polysaccharides, polypeptides, and ribonucleic acids, lignin polymers are derived from multiple types of monomeric units. However, lignin's renowned recalcitrance is largely attributable to its racemic nature and the variety of covalent inter-unit linkages through which its aromatic monomers are linked...
March 24, 2017: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346888/oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-biomarkers-in-chronic-schizophrenia
#12
Karine Maria Boll, Cristiano Noto, Kamila Landucci Bonifácio, Chiara Cristina Bortolasci, Ary Gadelha, Rodrigo Affonseca Bressan, Décio Sabbatini Barbosa, Michael Maes, Estefania Gastaldello Moreira
There is evidence that the acute phase of schizophrenia (SCZ) is accompanied by specific changes in oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) biomarkers. There are, however, no firm data regarding these biomarkers in chronic SCZ. Therefore, this study aimed to delineate O&NS biomarkers in patients with chronic SCZ. 125 outpatients with SCZ and 118 controls were enrolled. The markers included lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and paraoxonase 1 (PON-1) activity...
March 21, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346877/stevia-rebaudiana-bertoni-effect-on-the-hemolytic-potential-of-listeria-monocytogenes
#13
S Sansano, A Rivas, M C Pina-Pérez, A Martinez, D Rodrigo
The effect of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni on the hemolytic potential of Listeria monocytogenes was studied by means of the assessment of the Listeriolysin O (LLO) production. The three factors under study, stevia concentration in the range [0-2.5] % (w/v), incubation temperature (10 and 37°C), and exposure time (0-65h) significantly affected (p≤0.05) the hemolytic activity of L. monocytogenes. Results showed that at the lower incubation temperature the hemolytic potential of the bacterium was significantly reduced, from 100% at 37°C to 8% at 10°C (after 65h of incubation) in unsupplemented substrate (0% stevia)...
March 16, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346847/does-acute-normobaric-hypoxia-induce-anapyrexia-in-adult-humans
#14
Yongsuk Seo, Hayden D Gerhart, Jeremiah Vaughan, Jung-Hyun Kim, Ellen L Glickman
Seo, Yongsuk, Hayden D. Gerhart, Jeremiah Vaughan, Jung-Hyun Kim, and Ellen L. Glickman. Does acute normobaric hypoxia induce anapyrexia in adult humans? High Alt Med Biol 00:000-000, 2017.-Exposure to hypoxia is known to induce a reduction in core body temperature as a protective mechanism, which has been shown in both animals and humans. The purpose of this study was to test if acute exposure to normobaric hypoxia (NH) induces anapyrexia in adult humans in association with decreased peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2)...
March 27, 2017: High Altitude Medicine & Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346791/hydroxy-directed-enantioselective-hydroxyalkylation-in-the-carbocyclic-ring-of-indoles
#15
Marc Montesinos-Magraner, Carlos Vila, Gonzalo Blay, Isabel Fernández, M Carmen Muñoz, José R Pedro
A Cinchona-derived squaramide catalyzes the reaction between hydroxyindoles and isatins leading to enantioenriched indoles substituted in the carbocyclic ring. The reaction proceeds efficiently with differently substituted isatins, yielding the desired products with excellent regioselectivity, good yields, and high enantiocontrol. Moreover, every position of the carbocyclic ring of the indole can be functionalized by using the appropriate starting hydroxyindole. The OH group was removed smoothly upon hydrogenolysis of the corresponding triflate...
March 27, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346790/synthesis-of-chiral-%C3%AE-lactams-via-in-situ-elimination-iridium-catalyzed-asymmetric-hydrogenation-of-racemic-%C3%AE-hydroxy-%C3%AE-lactams
#16
Qianjia Yuan, Delong Liu, Wanbin Zhang
Chiral γ-lactams have been synthesized in excellent yields and enantioselectivities (up to 99% yield and 96% ee) from easily accessible racemic γ-hydroxy γ-lactams via an iridium-phosphoramidite catalyzed asymmetric hydrogenation. The reaction was designed based on insight into the reaction mechanism demonstrated in previous work and can be carried out at a reduced catalyst loading of 0.1 mol % on a gram scale. Several potential bioactive compounds can be synthesized from the reduced products. Mechanistic studies indicated that the reduced products were obtained via the hydrogenation of the N-acyliminium cations, generated from γ-hydroxy γ-lactams...
March 27, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346781/metabolism-of-ibuprofen-by-phragmites-australis-uptake-and-phytodegradation
#17
Yujie He, Alette A M Langenhoff, Nora B Sutton, Huub H M Rijnaarts, Marco H Blokland, Feiran Chen, Christian Huber, Peter Schröder
This study explores ibuprofen (IBP) uptake and transformation in the wetland plant species Phragmites australis and the underlying mechanisms. We grew P. australis in perlite under greenhouse conditions and treated plants with 60 µg/l of IBP. Roots and rhizomes (RR), stems and leaves (SL), and liquid samples were collected during 21 days of exposure. Results show that P. australis can take up, translocate, and degrade IBP. IBP was completely removed from the liquid medium after 21 days with a half-life of 2...
March 27, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346763/direct-noncovalent-activation-of-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-unsaturated-aldehydes-for-the-stereodivergent-synthesis-of-substituted-cyclohexenes
#18
Ji-Kang Xie, Yang Wang, Jun-Bing Lin, Xiao-Rui Ren, Peng-Fei Xu
HOMO-raising noncovalent activation of α-aryl α,β-unsaturated aldehydes using bifunctional Brønsted base catalyst is achieved. The catalytically generated dienolate intermediate undergoes all-carbon [4+2]-cyclizations with nitroolefins, leading to chiral cyclohexenes with four contiguous stereocenters in high yields with excellent enantioseletivities. Furthermore, the diastereodivergent synthesis of the products is realized by introducing a second steric control element to the bifunctional catalyst, and 4 isomers out of 16 possible stereoisomers of the products were selectively produced by simple use of two catalysts and their (pseudo)enantiomers...
March 27, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346724/acclimation-of-bloom-forming-and-perennial-seaweeds-to-elevated-pco2-conserved-across-levels-of-environmental-complexity
#19
Dong Xu, C-Elisa Schaum, Fan Lin, Ke Sun, James R Munroe, Xiao W Zhang, Xiao Fan, Lin H Teng, Yi T Wang, Zhi Z Zhuang, Nai H Ye
Macroalgae contribute approximately 15% of the primary productivity in coastal marine ecosystems, fix up to 27.4 Tg of carbon per year, and provide important structural components for life in coastal waters. Despite this ecological and commercial importance, direct measurements and comparisons of the short-term responses to elevated pCO2 in seaweeds with different life-history strategies are scarce. Here, we cultured several seaweed species (bloom-forming/non-bloom-forming/perennial/annual) in the laboratory, in tanks in an in-door mesocosm facility, and in coastal mesocosms under pCO2 levels ranging from 400 μatm to 2000 μatm...
March 27, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346625/a-point-system-as-catalyst-to-increase-resident-scholarship-an-mpcrn-study
#20
Dean A Seehusen, Christy J W Ledford, Scott Grogan, Eugene Kim, Jeremy J Johnson, Mark E Stackle, Lloyd A Runser, Matthew V Fargo, James W Keck, Anna L Oberhofer, Richard Shoemaker
INTRODUCTION: Encouraging resident scholarly activity has been a longstanding challenge for medical educators. The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) has been increasing its emphasis on scholarly activity, forcing programs to evaluate their existing processes. This study sought to evaluate the impact of a scholarly activity point system on the resident scholarly productivity at multiple programs. METHODS: Five military family medicine residencies evaluated resident outcomes 2 years before and 2 years after the introduction of a scholarly activity point system...
March 2017: Family Medicine
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