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mesenchymal stem cells cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333954/distance-in-cancer-gene-expression-from-stem-cells-predicts-patient-survival
#1
Markus Riester, Hua-Jun Wu, Ahmet Zehir, Mithat Gönen, Andre L Moreira, Robert J Downey, Franziska Michor
The degree of histologic cellular differentiation of a cancer has been associated with prognosis but is subjectively assessed. We hypothesized that information about tumor differentiation of individual cancers could be derived objectively from cancer gene expression data, and would allow creation of a cancer phylogenetic framework that would correlate with clinical, histologic and molecular characteristics of the cancers, as well as predict prognosis. Here we utilized mRNA expression data from 4,413 patient samples with 7 diverse cancer histologies to explore the utility of ordering samples by their distance in gene expression from that of stem cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325870/crispr-cas9-guided-oncogenic-chromosomal-translocations-with-conditional-fusion-protein-expression-in-human-mesenchymal-cells
#2
Fabio Vanoli, Mark Tomishima, Weiran Feng, Khadija Lamribet, Loelia Babin, Erika Brunet, Maria Jasin
Gene editing techniques have been extensively used to attempt to model recurrent genomic rearrangements found in tumor cells. These methods involve the induction of double-strand breaks at endogenous loci followed by the identification of breakpoint junctions within a population, which typically arise by nonhomologous end joining. The low frequency of these events, however, has hindered the cloning of cells with the desired rearrangement before oncogenic transformation. Here we present a strategy combining CRISPR-Cas9 technology and homology-directed repair to allow for the selection of human mesenchymal stem cells harboring the oncogenic translocation EWSR1-WT1 found in the aggressive desmoplastic small round cell tumor...
March 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323021/the-challenge-of-targeting-cancer-stem-cells-to-halt-metastasis
#3
REVIEW
Alice Agliano, Alfonso Calvo, Carol Box
Despite a continuing debate about the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs), recent discoveries have provided further support for their existence and their roles in drug resistance, cancer recurrence and metastasis. CSC characteristics, such as self-renewal and tumour initiation, and supporting cellular processes, particularly the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, are attracting a great deal of attention from cancer researchers as they offer opportunities for discovering novel therapeutic targets for future drug development...
March 16, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322787/aurka-promotes-cancer-metastasis-by-regulating-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-and-cancer-stem-cell-properties-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#4
Chenlin Chen, Guangyuan Song, Jue Xiang, Hongcheng Zhang, Shaoyun Zhao, Yinchu Zhan
AURKA (aurora kinase A) has been confirmed as an oncogene in cancer development; however, its role and underlying mechanisms in the metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remain unknown. In this study, We found that AURKA was up-regulated in HCC tissues and correlated with pathological stage and distant metastasis. Further found that AURKA was involved in the cancer metastases after radiation in HCC. While overexpression of AURKA induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cancer stem cell (CSC) behaviors though PI3K/AKT pathway, silencing AURKA suppressed radiation-enhanced cell invasiveness of HCC...
March 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322181/epithelial-mesenchymal-and-hybrid-epithelial-mesenchymal-phenotypes-and-their-clinical-relevance-in-cancer-metastasis
#5
Minal Garg
Cancer metastasis occurs through local invasion of circulating tumour cells (CTCs), intravasation, transportation to distant sites, and their extravasation followed by colonisation at secondary sites. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a normal developmental phenomenon, but its aberrant activation confers tumour cells with enhanced cell motility, metastatic properties, resistant to therapies and cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype in epithelium-derived carcinoma. Experimental studies from various research papers have been reviewed to determine the factors, which interlink cancer stemness and cellular plasticity with EMT...
March 21, 2017: Expert Reviews in Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302679/disrupting-androgen-receptor-signaling-induces-snail-mediated-epithelial-mesenchymal-plasticity-in-prostate-cancer
#6
Lu Miao, Lin Yang, Rui Li, Daniel Nava Rodrigues, Mateus Crespo, Jer-Tsong Hsieh, Wayne D Tilley, Johann S de Bono, Luke A Selth, Ganesh V Raj
Epithelial to mesenchymal plasticity (EMP) has been linked to metastasis, stemness, and drug resistance. In prostate cancer (PCa), EMP has been associated with both suppression and activation of androgen receptor (AR) signaling. Here we investigated the effect of the potent AR antagonist enzalutamide on EMP in multiple preclinical models of PCa and patient tissues. Enzalutamide treatment significantly enhanced the expression of EMP drivers (ZEB1, ZEB2, Snail, Twist, and FOXC2) and mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, fibronectin, and vimentin) in PCa cells, enhanced PCa cell migration, and induced PCa transformation to a spindle, fibroblast-like morphology...
March 16, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302417/muc1-c-oncoprotein-integrates-a-program-of-emt-epigenetic-reprogramming-and-immune-evasion-in-human-carcinomas
#7
REVIEW
Hasan Rajabi, Donald Kufe
The MUC1 gene evolved in mammalian species to provide protection of epithelia. The transmembrane MUC1 C-terminal subunit (MUC1-C) signals stress to the interior of the epithelial cell and, when overexpressed as in most carcinomas, functions as an oncoprotein. MUC1-C induces the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by activating the inflammatory NF-κB p65 pathway and, in turn, the EMT-transcriptional repressor ZEB1. Emerging evidence has indicated that MUC1-C drives a program integrating the induction of EMT with activation of stem cell traits, epigenetic reprogramming and immune evasion...
March 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299655/runx-family-genes-in-tissue-stem-cell-dynamics
#8
Chelsia Qiuxia Wang, Michelle Meng Huang Mok, Tomomasa Yokomizo, Vinay Tergaonkar, Motomi Osato
The Runx family genes play important roles in development and cancer, largely via their regulation of tissue stem cell behavior. Their involvement in two organs, blood and skin, is well documented. This review summarizes currently known Runx functions in the stem cells of these tissues. The fundamental core mechanism(s) mediated by Runx proteins has been sought; however, it appears that there does not exist one single common machinery that governs both tissue stem cells. Instead, Runx family genes employ multiple spatiotemporal mechanisms in regulating individual tissue stem cell populations...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299476/a-comparison-of-the-molecular-subtypes-of-triple-negative-breast-cancer-among-non-asian-and-taiwanese-women
#9
Ling-Ming Tseng, Jen-Hwey Chiu, Chun-Yu Liu, Yi-Fang Tsai, Yun-Lin Wang, Chu-Wen Yang, Yi-Ming Shyr
BACKGROUND: "Precision medicine" is a concept that by utilizing modern molecular diagnostics, an effective therapy is accurately applied for each cancer patient to improve their survival rates. The treatment of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains a challenging issue. The aim of this study was to compare the molecular subtypes of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) between Taiwanese and Non-Asian women. METHODS: GEO Datasets for non-Asian (12 groups, n = 1450) and Taiwanese (3 groups, n = 465) breast cancer, including 617 TNBC, were acquired, normalized and cluster analyzed...
March 15, 2017: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294393/the-new-msc-mscs-as-pericytes-are-sentinels-and-gatekeepers
#10
REVIEW
Arnold I Caplan
Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells, hMSCs, were first named over 25 years ago with the "stem cell" nomenclature derived from the fact that we and others could cause these cells to differentiate into a number of different mesodermal phenotypes in cell culture. The capacity to form skeletal tissue in vitro encouraged the use of hMSCs for the fabrication of tissue engineered skeletal repair tissue with subsequent transplantation to in vivo sites. With the current realization that MSCs are derived from perivascular cells, pericytes, and the immunomodulatory and trophic capabilities of MSCs in both in vitro and in vivo test systems, a complete re-evaluation of the role and functions of MSCs in the body was required...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292937/disruption-of-tcf-%C3%AE-catenin-binding-impairs-wnt-signalling-and-induces-apoptosis-in-soft-tissue-sarcoma-cells
#11
Esther Martinez-Font, Irene Felipe-Abrio, Silvia Calabuig-Fariñas, Rafael F Ramos, Josefa Terrasa, Oliver Vögler, Regina Alemany, Javier Martín-Broto, Antònia Obrador-Hevia
Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are malignant tumours of mesenchymal origin and represent around 1% of adult cancers, being a very heterogeneous group of tumours with more than 50 different subtypes. The Wnt signalling pathway is involved in the development and in the regulation, self-renewal and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and plays a role in sarcomagenesis. In this study we have tested pharmacological inhibition of Wnt signalling mediated by disruption of TCF/β-catenin binding and AXIN stabilization, being the first strategy more efficient in reducing cell viability and downstream effects...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289331/screening-of-breast-cancer-stem-cell-inhibitors-using-a-protein-kinase-inhibitor-library
#12
Hack Sun Choi, Dal-Ah Kim, Heesung Chung, In Ho Park, Bo Hye Kim, Eok-Soo Oh, Duk-Hee Kang
BACKGROUND: Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subpopulation in tumors, are known to cause drug resistance, tumor recurrence and metastasis. Based on the characteristic formation of mammospheres in in vitro conditions, the mammosphere formation assay has become an essential tool for quantifying CSC activity in breast cancer research. However, manual counting of mammospheres is a time-consuming process that is not amenable to high-throughput screening, and there are occasional inaccuracies in the process of determining the mammosphere diameter...
2017: Cancer Cell International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288645/mesothelin-promotes-epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-and-tumorigenicity-of-human-lung-cancer-and-mesothelioma-cells
#13
Xiaoqing He, Liying Wang, Heimo Riedel, Kai Wang, Yong Yang, Cerasela Zoica Dinu, Yon Rojanasakul
BACKGROUND: Lung cancer and pleural mesothelioma are two of the most deadly forms of cancer. The prognosis of lung cancer and mesothelioma is extremely poor due to limited treatment modalities and lack of understanding of the disease mechanisms. We have identified mesothelin as a potentially unique therapeutic target that as a specific advantage appears nonessential in most cell types. Mesothelin (MSLN), a plasma membrane differentiation antigen, is expressed at a high level in many human solid tumors, including 70% of lung cancer and nearly all mesotheliomas...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288136/oncostatin-m-promotes-cancer-cell-plasticity-through-cooperative-stat3-smad3-signaling
#14
D J Junk, B L Bryson, J M Smigiel, N Parameswaran, C A Bartel, M W Jackson
Increasing evidence supports the idea that cancer cell plasticity promotes metastasis and tumor recurrence, resulting in patient mortality. While it is clear that the tumor microenvironment (TME) contributes to cancer cell plasticity, the specific TME factors most actively controlling plasticity remain largely unknown. Here, we performed a screen to identify TME cytokines and growth factors that promote epithelial-mesenchymal plasticity, and acquisition of cancer stem cell (CSC) properties. Of 28 TME cytokines and growth factors tested, we identified Oncostatin M (OSM) as the most potent inducer of mesenchymal/CSC properties...
March 13, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287607/mitoception-transferring-isolated-human-msc-mitochondria-to-glioblastoma-stem-cells
#15
Brice Nzigou Mombo, Sabine Gerbal-Chaloin, Aleksandra Bokus, Martine Daujat-Chavanieu, Christian Jorgensen, Jean-Philippe Hugnot, Marie-Luce Vignais
Mitochondria play a central role for cell metabolism, energy production and control of apoptosis. Inadequate mitochondrial function has been found responsible for very diverse diseases, ranging from neurological pathologies to cancer. Interestingly, mitochondria have recently been shown to display the capacity to be transferred between cell types, notably from human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) to cancer cells in coculture conditions, with metabolic and functional consequences for the mitochondria recipient cells, further enhancing the current interest for the biological properties of these organelles...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286618/molecular-and-cellular-interactions-of-allogenic-and-autologus-mesenchymal-stem-cells-with-innate-and-acquired-immunity-and-their-role-in-regenerative-medicine
#16
REVIEW
Roghayeh Hosseinikia, Mohammad Reza Nikbakht, Ali Asghar Moghaddam, Ahmad Tajehmiri, Mahboobe Hosseinikia, Farhad Oubari, Mahin Nikougoftar Zarif, Yahya Pasdar, Kamran Mansouri
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), as major stem cells for cell therapy, have been studied from different aspects in preclinical and clinical settings for more than a decade. These cells modulate the immune system (humoral and cellular immune responses) in vitro by producing soluble factors (anti-inflammatory molecules) and/or making cell-cell contacts. Hence, they could be used in regenerative medicine, tissue engineering and immune therapy. MSCs-based therapy have been recently used for treatment of cancer regarding the migratory potential of these cells towards tumor cells which makes them considerable candidates, also for cell therapy in both allogeneic and autologous settings...
January 1, 2017: International Journal of Hematology-oncology and Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286408/antinociceptive-effect-of-intrathecal-injection-of-genetically-engineered-human-bone-marrow-stem-cells-expressing-the-human-proenkephalin-gene-in-a-rat-model-of-bone-cancer-pain
#17
Yi Sun, Yuke Tian, Haifeng Li, Dengwen Zhang, Qiang Sun
Background. This study aimed to investigate the use of human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) genetically engineered with the human proenkephalin (hPPE) gene to treat bone cancer pain (BCP) in a rat model. Methods. Primary cultured hBMSCs were passaged and modified with hPPE, and the cell suspensions (6 × 10(6)) were then intrathecally injected into a rat model of BCP. Paw mechanical withdrawal threshold (PMWT) was measured before and after BCP. The effects of hPPE gene transfer on hBMSC bioactivity were analyzed in vitro and in vivo...
2017: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279210/computational-analysis-of-the-mesenchymal-signature-landscape-in-gliomas
#18
Orieta Celiku, Anita Tandle, Joon-Yong Chung, Stephen M Hewitt, Kevin Camphausen, Uma Shankavaram
BACKGROUND: Epithelial to mesenchymal transition, and mimicking processes, contribute to cancer invasion and metastasis, and are known to be responsible for resistance to various therapeutic agents in many cancers. While a number of studies have proposed molecular signatures that characterize the spectrum of such transition, more work is needed to understand how the mesenchymal signature (MS) is regulated in non-epithelial cancers like gliomas, to identify markers with the most prognostic significance, and potential for therapeutic targeting...
March 9, 2017: BMC Medical Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279193/human-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-inhibit-tumor-growth-in-orthotopic-glioblastoma-xenografts
#19
Simone Pacioni, Quintino Giorgio D'Alessandris, Stefano Giannetti, Liliana Morgante, Valentina Coccè, Arianna Bonomi, Mariachiara Buccarelli, Luisa Pascucci, Giulio Alessandri, Augusto Pessina, Lucia Ricci-Vitiani, Maria Laura Falchetti, Roberto Pallini
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) represent an attractive tool for cell-based cancer therapy mainly because of their ability to migrate to tumors and to release bioactive molecules. However, the impact of MSCs on tumor growth has not been fully established. We previously demonstrated that murine MSCs show a strong tropism towards glioblastoma (GBM) brain xenografts and that these cells are able to uptake and release the chemotherapeutic drug paclitaxel (PTX), maintaining their tropism towards the tumor...
March 9, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278424/therapeutic-potential-for-bone-morphogenetic-protein-4-in-human-malignant-glioma
#20
REVIEW
Guifa Xi, Benjamin Best, Barbara Mania-Farnell, Charles David James, Tadanori Tomita
Human glioma, in particular, malignant forms such as glioblastoma exhibit dismal survival rates despite advances in treatment strategies. A population of glioma cells with stem-like features, glioma cancer stem-like cells (GCSCs), contribute to renewal and maintenance of the tumor cell population and appear responsible for chemotherapeutic and radiation resistance. Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4), drives differentiation of GCSCs and thus improves therapeutic efficacy. Based on this observation it is imperative that the clinical merits of BMP4 in treating human gliomas should be addressed...
March 6, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
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