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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245107/impacts-on-the-seagrass-zostera-nigricaulis-from-the-herbicide-fusilade-forte%C3%A2-used-in-the-management-of-spartina-anglica-infestations
#1
Megan Carve, Timothy L Coggan, Jackie H Myers, Bradley Clarke, Dayanthi Nugegoda, Jeff Shimeta
The herbicide Fusilade Forte® (FF) is widely applied in agricultural weed management and in the management of the invasive saltmarsh grass, Spartina anglica (ricegrass or cordgrass). FF (active ingredient fluazifop-P acid, FPA) is selective for poaceous grasses. Its primary mode of action is inhibition of the acetyl coenzyme-A carboxylase (ACCase) specific to this taxonomic group, and its secondary mode is by promotion of oxidative stress. FF is applied to S. anglica infestations in the intertidal zone, in proximity to seagrass meadows...
December 1, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245085/excretion-of-metabolites-of-the-synthetic-cannabinoid-jwh-018-in-urine-after-controlled-inhalation
#2
Stefan W Toennes, Anna Geraths, Werner Pogoda, Alexander Paulke, Cora Wunder, Eef L Theunissen, Johannes G Ramaekers
Each year, synthetic cannabinoids are occurring in high numbers on the illicit drug market but data obtained after controlled application are rare. The present study on pharmacokinetics in urine is part of a pilot study on adverse effects of JWH-018, which is one of the oldest and best known synthetic cannabinoids. Six subjects inhaled smoke from 2 and 3mg JWH-018. The drug and ten potential metabolites were analyzed in urine samples collected during 12h after inhalation by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) without and with conjugate cleavage...
December 9, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245084/application-of-analytical-quality-by-design-principles-for-the-determination-of-alkyl-p-toluenesulfonates-impurities-in-aprepitant-by-hplc-validation-using-total-error-concept
#3
Constantinos K Zacharis, Elli Vastardi
In the research presented we report the development of a simple and robust liquid chromatographic method for the quantification of two genotoxic alkyl sulphonate impurities (namely methyl p-toluenesulfonate and isopropyl p-toluenesulfonate) in Aprepitant API substances using the Analytical Quality by Design (AQbD) approach. Following the steps of AQbD protocol, the selected critical method attributes (CMAs) were the separation criterions between the critical peak pairs, the analysis time and the peak efficiencies of the analytes...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245060/activation-of-human-eosinophils-with-palladium-nanoparticles-pd-nps-importance-of-the-actin-cytoskeleton-in-pd-nps-induced-cellular-adhesion
#4
P Chhay, M Murphy-Marion, Y Samson, D Girard
Palladium (Pd) is known to be released into the environment in the fine and ultrafine (at the nanoscale) airborne particle fractions mainly from automobile catalytic converters leading to an increase human exposure to this noble metal. It was reported that Pd can induce allergic reactions in individuals exposed to it via different ways. Some studies reported an increased number of eosinophils into airways following NP exposure in vivo in rodent models of allergies and inflammation. Knowing the importance of eosinophils in allergies, asthma and other lung diseases, it is surprising to observe that the direct effect of Pd at the nanoscale in eosinophils has been poorly documented...
December 11, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29245026/ketogenic-diet-induced-extension-of-longevity-in-epileptic-kcna1-null-mice-is-influenced-by-gender-and-age-at-treatment-onset
#5
Kyoung-Chul Chun, Shun-Chieh Ma, Hyoungil Oh, Jong M Rho, Do Young Kim
Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP) is a leading cause of premature mortality in patients with epilepsy, and has been linked to multiple risk factors, including gender and early age at seizure onset. Despite the lack of a targeted therapy for SUDEP, it has recently been shown that a high-fat, low carbohydrate ketogenic diet (KD) enhances longevity in the epileptic Kcna1-null (KO) mouse, a validated model of SUDEP. Here, we asked whether the KD-driven prolongation of lifespan in KO mice is dependent on sex and/or age at treatment onset...
November 21, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244975/review-of-the-molecular-mechanisms-in-wound-healing-new-therapeutic-targets
#6
B Palmieri, M Vadalà, C Laurino
The restoration of the skin barrier in acute and chronic wounds is controlled by several molecular mechanisms that synergistically regulate cell kinetics, enzymatic functions, and neurovascular activation. These pathways include genetic and epigenetic activation, which modulate physiological wound healing. Our review describes the genetic background of skin repair, namely transcription-independent diffusible damage signals, individual variability, epigenetic mechanism, controlled qualitative traits, post-translational mechanisms, antioxidants, nutrients, DNA modifications, bacteria activation, mitochondrial activity, and oxidative stress...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Wound Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244944/evaluating-the-performance-of-household-liquefied-petroleum-gas-cookstoves
#7
Guofeng Shen, Michael D Hays, Kirk R Smith, Craig Williams, Jerroll W Faircloth, James J Jetter
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) cookstoves are considered to be an important solution for mitigating household air pollution; however, their performance has rarely been evaluated. To fill the data and knowledge gaps in this important area, eighty-nine laboratory tests were conducted to quantify efficiencies and pollutant emissions from five commercially available household LPG stoves under different burning conditions. The mean thermal efficiency (± standard deviation) for the tested LPG cookstoves was 51±6%, meeting guidelines for the highest tier level (Tier 4) under the International Organization for Standardization, International Workshop Agreement 11...
December 15, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244862/application-of-system-dynamics-and-participatory-spatial-group-model-building-in-animal-health-a-case-study-of-east-coast-fever-interventions-in-lundazi-and-monze-districts-of-zambia
#8
Chisoni Mumba, Eystein Skjerve, Magda Rich, Karl M Rich
East Coast Fever (ECF) is the most economically important production disease among traditional beef cattle farmers in Zambia. Despite the disease control efforts by the government, donors, and farmers, ECF cases are increasing. Why does ECF oscillate over time? Can alternative approaches such as systems thinking contribute solutions to the complex ECF problem, avoid unintended consequences, and achieve sustainable results? To answer these research questions and inform the design and implementation of ECF interventions, we qualitatively investigated the influence of dynamic socio-economic, cultural, and ecological factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244831/antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-molecular-epidemiology-of-clinical-enterobacter-cloacae-bloodstream-isolates-in-shanghai-china
#9
Su Wang, Shu-Zhen Xiao, Fei-Fei Gu, Jin Tang, Xiao-Kui Guo, Yu-Xing Ni, Jie-Ming Qu, Li-Zhong Han
BACKGROUND: Enterobacter cloacae is a major nosocomial pathogen causing bloodstream infections. We retrospectively conducted a study to assess antimicrobial susceptibility and phylogenetic relationships of E. cloacae bloodstream isolates in two tertiary university-affiliated hospitals in Shanghai, in order to facilitate managements of E. cloacae bloodstream infections and highlight some unknowns for future prevention. METHODS: Fifty-three non-duplicate E. cloacae bloodstream isolates were consecutively collected from 2013 to 2016...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244830/transcriptome-profiling-identifies-regulators-of-pathogenesis-in-collagen-vi-related-muscular-dystrophy
#10
Russell J Butterfield, Diane M Dunn, Ying Hu, Kory Johnson, Carsten G Bönnemann, Robert B Weiss
OBJECTIVES: The collagen VI related muscular dystrophies (COL6-RD), Ullrich congenital muscular dystrophy (UCMD) and Bethlem myopathy (BM) are among the most common congenital muscular dystrophies and are characterized by distal joint laxity and a combination of distal and proximal joint contractures. Inheritance can be dominant negative (DN) or recessive depending on the type and location of the mutation. DN mutations allow incorporation of abnormal chains into secreted tetramers and are the most commonly identified mutation type in COL6-RD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244829/cost-effectiveness-analysis-of-introducing-malaria-diagnostic-testing-in-drug-shops-a-cluster-randomised-trial-in-uganda
#11
Kristian Schultz Hansen, Siân E Clarke, Sham Lal, Pascal Magnussen, Anthony K Mbonye
BACKGROUND: Private sector drug shops are an important source of malaria treatment in Africa, yet diagnosis without parasitological testing is common among these providers. Accurate rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (mRDTs) require limited training and present an opportunity to increase access to correct diagnosis. The present study was a cost-effectiveness analysis of the introduction of mRDTs in Ugandan drug shops. METHODS: Drug shop vendors were trained to perform and sell subsidised mRDTs and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) in the intervention arm while vendors offered ACTs following presumptive diagnosis of malaria in the control arm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244804/conditional-knockout-mice-for-the-distal-appendage-protein-cep164-reveal-its-essential-roles-in-airway-multiciliated-cell-differentiation
#12
Saul S Siller, Himanshu Sharma, Shuai Li, June Yang, Yong Zhang, Michael J Holtzman, Wipawee Winuthayanon, Holly Colognato, Bernadette C Holdener, Feng-Qian Li, Ken-Ichi Takemaru
Multiciliated cells of the airways, brain ventricles, and female reproductive tract provide the motive force for mucociliary clearance, cerebrospinal fluid circulation, and ovum transport. Despite their clear importance to human biology and health, the molecular mechanisms underlying multiciliated cell differentiation are poorly understood. Prior studies implicate the distal appendage/transition fiber protein CEP164 as a central regulator of primary ciliogenesis; however, its role in multiciliogenesis remains unknown...
December 15, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244772/sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-1-expressed-in-myeloid-cells-slows-diet-induced-atherosclerosis-and-protects-against-macrophage-apoptosis-in-ldlr-ko-mice
#13
Leticia Gonzalez, Alexander S Qian, Usama Tahir, Pei Yu, Bernardo L Trigatti
We generated myeloid specific sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1pr1) deficient mice by crossing mice that had myeloid specific expression of Cre recombinase (lyzMCre) with mice having the S1pr1 gene flanked by loxP recombination sites. We transplanted bone marrow from these mice and control lyzMCre mice with intact macrophage S1pr1 gene expression into low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene (Ldlr) deficient mice. The resulting chimeras were fed a high fat atherogenic diet for nine or twelve weeks and evaluated for atherosclerosis development in the aortic sinus...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244636/event-related-electroencephalographic-lateralizations-mark-individual-differences-in-spatial-and-nonspatial-visual-selection
#14
Iris Wiegand, Natan Napiorkowski, Thomas Töllner, Anders Petersen, Thomas Habekost, Hermann J Müller, Kathrin Finke
Selective attention controls the distribution of our visual system's limited processing resources to stimuli in the visual field. Two independent parameters of visual selection can be quantified by modeling an individual's performance in a partial-report task based on the computational theory of visual attention (TVA): (i) top-down control α, the relative attentional weighting of relevant over irrelevant stimuli, and (ii) spatial bias wλ, the relative attentional weighting of stimuli in the left versus right hemifield...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244490/discovery-of-potent-and-selective-allosteric-inhibitors-of-protein-arginine-methyltransferase-3-prmt3
#15
H Ümit Kaniskan, Mohammad S Eram, Kehao Zhao, Magdalena M Szewczyk, Xiaobao Yang, Keith Schmidt, Xiao Luo, Sean Xiao, Miao Dai, Feng He, Irene Zang, Ying Lin, Fengling Li, Elena Dobrovetsky, David Smil, Sun-Joon Min, Jennifer Lin-Jones, Matthieu Schapira, Peter Atadja, En Li, Dalia Barsyte-Lovejoy, Cheryl H Arrowsmith, Peter J Brown, Feng Liu, Zhengtian Yu, Masoud Vedadi, Jian Jin
PRMT3 catalyzes the asymmetric dimethylation of arginine residues of various proteins. It is crucial for maturation of ribosomes, and has been implicated in several diseases. We recently disclosed a highly potent, selective and cell-active allosteric inhibitor of PRMT3, compound 4. Here, we report comprehensive structure-activity relationship studies that target the allosteric binding site of PRMT3. We conducted design, synthesis and evaluation of novel compounds in biochemical, selectivity and cellular assays that culminated in the discovery of 4 and other highly potent (IC50 values: ~10-36 nM), selective and cell-active allosteric inhibitors of PRMT3 (compounds 29, 30, 36 and 37)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244185/loss-of-imprinting-mutations-define-both-distinct-and-overlapping-roles-for-misexpression-of-igf2-and-of-h19-lncrna
#16
Ki-Sun Park, Apratim Mitra, Beenish Rahat, Keekwang Kim, Karl Pfeifer
Imprinted genes occur in discrete clusters that are coordinately regulated by shared DNA elements called Imprinting Control Regions. H19 and Igf2 are linked imprinted genes that play critical roles in development. Loss of imprinting (LOI) at the IGF2/H19 locus on the maternal chromosome is associated with the developmental disorder Beckwith Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS) and with several cancers. Here we use comprehensive genetic and genomic analyses to follow muscle development in a mouse model of BWS to dissect the separate and shared roles for misexpression of Igf2 and H19 in the disease phenotype...
December 15, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244173/magnitude-of-clinical-benefit-of-cancer-drugs-approved-by-the-us-food-and-drug-administration
#17
Ariadna Tibau, Consolación Molto, Alberto Ocana, Arnoud J Templeton, Luis P Del Carpio, Joseph C Del Paggio, Agustí Barnadas, Christopher M Booth, Eitan Amir
Background: It is uncertain whether drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have clinically meaningful benefit as determined by validated scales such as the European Society for Medical Oncology Magnitude of Clinical Benefit Scale (ESMO-MCBS). Methods: We searched the Drugs@FDA website for applications of anticancer drugs from January 2006 to December 2016. Study characteristics, outcomes, and regulatory pathways were collected from drug labels and reports of registration trials...
December 13, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244162/efficacy-and-safety-of-biologics-targeting-interleukin-6-12-23-and-17-pathways-for-peripheral-psoriatic-arthritis-a-network-meta-analysis
#18
Dongze Wu, Jiang Yue, Lai-Shan Tam
Objective: To investigate the comparative efficacy, safety and tolerability of IL-6, IL-12/23 and IL-17 inhibitors for patients with active PsA. Methods: Randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy, safety and tolerability of IL-6, IL-12/23 and IL-17 inhibitors were identified by a comprehensive systematic literature review. Pairwise meta-analyses and Bayesian network meta-analyses using the random effects model were performed to estimate pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% credible intervals of attaining a 20% or 50% improvement in ACR criteria (ACR20 and ACR50, respectively) across trials...
December 13, 2017: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244152/regulation-of-t-cell-proliferation-with-drug-responsive-microrna-switches
#19
Remus S Wong, Yvonne Y Chen, Christina D Smolke
As molecular and cellular therapies advance in the clinic, the role of genetic regulation is becoming increasingly important for controlling therapeutic potency and safety. The emerging field of mammalian synthetic biology provides promising tools for the construction of regulatory platforms that can intervene with endogenous pathways and control cell behavior. Recent work has highlighted the development of synthetic biological systems that integrate sensing of molecular signals to regulated therapeutic function in various disease settings...
December 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244122/la-related-protein-1-larp1-repression-of-top-mrna-translation-is-mediated-through-its-cap-binding-domain-and-controlled-by-an-adjacent-regulatory-region
#20
Lucas Philippe, Jean-Jacques Vasseur, Françoise Debart, Carson C Thoreen
Cell growth is a complex process shaped by extensive and coordinated changes in gene expression. Among these is the tightly regulated translation of a family of growth-related mRNAs defined by a 5' terminal oligopyrimidine (TOP) motif. TOP mRNA translation is partly controlled via the eukaryotic initiation factor 4F (eIF4F), a translation factor that recognizes the mRNA 5' cap structure. Recent studies have also implicated La-related protein 1 (LARP1), which competes with eIF4F for binding to mRNA 5' ends. However, it has remained controversial whether LARP1 represses TOP mRNA translation directly and, if so, what features define its mRNA targets...
December 13, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
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