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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438402/haiku-new-paradigm-for-the-reverse-genetics-of-emerging-rna-viruses
#1
Thérèse Atieh, Miriam Diala El Ayoubi, Fabien Aubry, Stéphane Priet, Xavier de Lamballerie, Antoine Nougairède
Reverse genetics is key technology for producing wild-type and genetically modified viruses. The ISA (Infectious Subgenomic Amplicons) method is a recent versatile and user-friendly reverse genetics method to rescue RNA viruses. The main constraint of its canonic protocol was the requirement to produce (e.g., by DNA synthesis or fusion PCR) 5' and 3' modified genomic fragments encompassing the human cytomegalovirus promoter (pCMV) and the hepatitis delta virus ribozyme/simian virus 40 polyadenylation signal (HDR/SV40pA), respectively...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437978/wdr5-facilitates-human-cytomegalovirus-replication-by-promoting-capsid-nuclear-egress
#2
Bo Yang, Xi-Juan Liu, Yongxuan Yao, Xuan Jiang, Xian-Zhang Wang, Hong Yang, Jin-Yan Sun, Yun Miao, Wei Wang, Zhen-Li Huang, Yanyi Wang, Qiyi Tang, Simon Rayner, William J Britt, Michael A McVoy, Min-Hua Luo, Fei Zhao
WD repeat-containing protein 5 (WDR5) is essential for assembling the VISA-associated complex to induce a type I interferon antiviral response to Sendai virus infection. However, the roles of WDR5 in DNA virus infections are not well described. Here, we report that human cytomegalovirus exploits WDR5 to facilitate capsid nuclear egress. Overexpression of WDR5 in fibroblasts slightly enhanced infectious virus yield. However, WDR5 knockdown dramatically reduced infectious viral titers with only a small decrease in viral genome replication or gene expression...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427611/imaging-pathological-activities-of-human-brain-tissue-in-organotypic-culture
#3
Caroline Le Duigou, Etienne Savary, Mélanie Morin-Brureau, Daniel Gomez-Dominguez, André Sobczyk, Farah Chali, Giampaolo Milior, Larissa Kraus, Jochen C Meier, Dimitri M Kullmann, Bertrand Mathon, Liset Menendez de la Prida, Georg Dorfmuller, Johan Pallud, Emmanuel Eugène, Stéphane Clemenceau, Richard Miles
BACKGROUND: Insights into human brain diseases may emerge from tissue obtained after operations on patients. However techniques requiring transduction of transgenes carried by viral vectors cannot be applied to acute human tissue. NEW METHOD: We show that organotypic culture techniques can be used to maintain tissue from patients with three different neurological syndromes for several weeks in vitro. Optimized viral vector techniques and promoters for transgene expression are described...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423671/the-glycosyltransferase-st6gal-i-is-enriched-in-cancer-stem-like-cells-in-colorectal-carcinoma-and-contributes-to-their-chemo-resistance
#4
H Cui, S Yang, Y Jiang, C Li, Y Zhao, Y Shi, Y Hao, F Qian, B Tang, P Yu
PURPOSE: Presence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) contributes to tumor outgrowth, chemo-resistance and relapse in some cancers including colorectal carcinoma (CRC). The current characterization methods of CSCs in CRC only allows enrichment of CSCs but not their purification. Recent reports showed that ST6 beta-galactoside alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 1 (ST6Gal-I) plays an essential role in protecting tumor cells against harsh environment like oxidative stress and nutrient deprivation. Therefore, whether ST6Gal-I may be highly expressed in CSCs or whether it may enhance resistance of tumor cells to chemotherapy deserves exploration...
February 8, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414605/use-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-models-to-probe-the-pathogenesis-of-choroideremia-and-to-develop-a-potential-treatment
#5
Thu T Duong, Vidyullatha Vasireddy, Pavitra Ramachandran, Pamela S Herrera, Lanfranco Leo, Carrie Merkel, Jean Bennett, Jason A Mills
Choroideremia (CHM) is a rare monogenic, X-linked recessive inherited retinal degeneration resulting from mutations in the Rab Escort Protein-1 (REP1) encoding CHM gene. The primary retinal cell type leading to CHM is unknown. In this study, we explored the utility of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived models of retinal pigmented epithelium (iPSC-RPE) to study disease pathogenesis and a potential gene-based intervention in four different genetically distinct forms of CHM. A number of abnormal cell biologic, biochemical, and physiologic functions were identified in the CHM mutant cells...
January 27, 2018: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409508/human-cytomegalovirus-infection-and-coronary-heart-disease-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Yu Du, Guangxue Zhang, Zhijun Liu
BACKGROUND: Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is closely associated with coronary heart disease. In 1987, Adam et al. were the first to report an association between HCMV infection and atherosclerosis (AS), and later, many serum epidemiology and molecular biology studies showed that HCMV-infected endothelial cells play an important role in the development of AS. As patients with HCMV are generally susceptible to coronary heart disease, and with the increasing elderly population, a review of recent studies focusing on the relationships of HCMV infection and coronary heart disease is timely and necessary...
February 6, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408931/inhibition-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-by-tolerance-promoting-dna-vaccination-focused-to-dendritic-cells
#7
Timo Castor, Nir Yogev, Thomas Blank, Christina Barwig, Marco Prinz, Ari Waisman, Matthias Bros, Angelika B Reske-Kunz
In this study we analysed the effects of prophylactic biolistic DNA vaccination with plasmids encoding the encephalitogenic protein myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) on the severity of a subsequently MOGp35-55-induced EAE and on the underlying immune response. We compared the outcome of vaccination with MOG-encoding plasmids alone or in combination with vectors encoding the regulatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-ß1, respectively. MOG expression was restricted to skin dendritic cells (DCs) by the use of the DC-specific promoter of the fascin1 gene (pFscn-MOG)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408532/mitochondrial-transgene-expression-via-an-artificial-mitochondrial-dna-vector-in-cells-from-a-patient-with-a-mitochondrial-disease
#8
Takuya Ishikawa, Kana Somiya, Reina Munechika, Hideyoshi Harashima, Yuma Yamada
To achieve mitochondrial gene therapy, developing a mitochondrial transgene expression system that produces therapeutic proteins in mitochondria of disease cells is essential. We previously reported on the design of pCMV-mtLuc (CGG) containing a CMV promotor and a NanoLuc (Nluc) luciferase gene that records adjustments to the mitochondrial codon system, and showed that the mitochondrial transfection of pCMV-mtLuc (CGG) resulted in the efficient production of the Nluc luciferase protein in human HeLa cells. This mitochondrial transfection was achieved using a MITO-Porter, a liposome-based carrier for delivering a cargo to mitochondria via membrane fusion...
February 3, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407172/nephron-segment-specific-gene-expression-using-aav-vectors
#9
Laureano D Asico, Cuevas Santiago, Xiaobo Ma, Pedro A Jose, Ines Armando, Prasad R Konkalmatt
AAV9 vector provides efficient gene transfer in all segments of the renal nephron, with minimum expression in non-renal cells, when administered retrogradely via the ureter. It is important to restrict the transgene expression to the desired cell type within the kidney, so that the physiological endpoints represent the function of the transgene expressed in that specific cell type within kidney. We hypothesized that segment-specific gene expression within the kidney can be accomplished using the highly efficient AAV9 vectors carrying the promoters of genes that are expressed exclusively in the desired segment of the nephron in combination with administration by retrograde infusion into the kidney via the ureter...
January 30, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367719/the-cytomegalovirus-protein-us31-induces-inflammation-through-mono-macrophages-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-by-promoting-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb2-activation
#10
Gangqiang Guo, Sisi Ye, Shangdan Xie, Lele Ye, Cong Lin, Min Yang, Xinyu Shi, Fangyan Wang, Baoqing Li, Ming Li, Chaosheng Chen, Lifang Zhang, Huidi Zhang, Xiangyang Xue
It has been hypothesized that human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection, especially in monocyte and CD34 (+) myeloid cells, acts as a important regulator of immune system to promote inflammation in multiple autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to elucidate the HCMV gene expression profiles in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of SLE patients and demonstrate the effect and mechanism of viral gene associated with SLE in mono-macrophages functions. Using two RNA-Seq techniques in combination with RT-PCR, 11 viral genes mainly associated with latent HCMV infection were identified in the PBMCs of SLE patients...
January 24, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358179/strategies-to-activate-nk-cells-to-prevent-relapse-and-induce-remission-following-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation
#11
Sarah Cooley, Peter Parham, Jeffrey S Miller
Natural Killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of innate immunity that respond to virus infected and tumor cells. After allogeneic transplantation, NK cells are the first reconstituting lymphocytes, but are dysfunctional. Manipulating this first wave of lymphocytes could be instrumental in reducing the 40% relapse rate following transplantation with reduced intensity conditioning. NK cells express numerous activating and inhibitory receptors. Some recognize classical or non-classical HLA class I ligands, others recognize class I-like ligands or unrelated ligands...
January 22, 2018: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353442/flexible-pseudotyping-of-retrovirus-using-recombinase-mediated-cassette-exchange
#12
Hugo R Soares, Ana I Almeida, Hélio A Tomás, Paula M Alves, Ana S Coroadinha
OBJECTIVE: Develop an engineered cell line containing two flexible gene expression systems enabling the continuous production of tailor-made recombinant gammaretrovirus with predictable productivities through targeted integration. RESULTS: Dual-FLEX cells (dFLEX) contain two independent recombinase-mediated cassette exchange (RMCE) systems which confer flexibility to the expression of different transgene and envelope combinations. The flexible envelope expression in dFLEX cells was validated by pseudotyping retrovirus particles with three different viral envelope proteins-GaLV, 4070A and VSV-G...
January 20, 2018: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352166/epstein-barr-virus-encoded-latent-membrane-protein-1-suppresses-necroptosis-through-targeting-ripk1-3-ubiquitination
#13
Xiaolan Liu, Yueshuo Li, Songling Peng, Xinfang Yu, Wei Li, Feng Shi, Xiangjian Luo, Min Tang, Zheqiong Tan, A M Bode, Ya Cao
Necroptosis is an alternative programmed cell death pathway that is unleashed in the absence of apoptosis and mediated by signaling complexes containing receptor-interating protein kinase 1 (RIPK1) and RIPK3. This form of cell death has recently been implicated in host defense system to eliminate pathogen-infected cells. However, only a few viral species such as herpes simplex virus (HSV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) have evolved mechanisms inhibiting necroptosis to overcome host antiviral defense, which is important for successful pathogenesis...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347945/microrna-transcriptome-analysis-of-porcine-vital-organ-responses-to-immunosuppressive-porcine-cytomegalovirus-infection
#14
Xiao Liu, Haoche Wei, Shan Liao, Jianheng Ye, Ling Zhu, Zhiwen Xu
BACKGROUND: Porcine cytomegalovirus (PCMV) is an immunosuppressive virus that mainly inhibits T-lymphocyte and macrophage immune functions; it has significantly damaged the farming industry. Although recent studies have shown that miRNAs play important roles in immune responses, the regulatory mechanisms of miRNAs during immunosuppressive virus infection remain unclear. METHODS: In this study, porcine small-RNA transcriptomes of PCMV-infected and uninfected vital organs were first characterised by high-throughput sequencing...
January 18, 2018: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342181/optimization-of-mneongreen-for-homo-sapiens-increases-its-fluorescent-intensity-in-mammalian-cells
#15
Emiko Tanida-Miyake, Masato Koike, Yasuo Uchiyama, Isei Tanida
Green fluorescent protein (GFP) is tremendously useful for investigating many cellular and intracellular events. The monomeric GFP mNeonGreen is about 3- to 5-times brighter than GFP and monomeric enhanced GFP and shows high photostability. The maturation half-time of mNeonGreen is about 3-fold faster than that of monomeric enhanced GFP. However, the cDNA sequence encoding mNeonGreen contains some codons that are rarely used in Homo sapiens. For better expression of mNeonGreen in human cells, we synthesized a human-optimized cDNA encoding mNeonGreen and generated an expression plasmid for humanized mNeonGreen under the control of the cytomegalovirus promoter...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340084/crispr-cas9-hdr-system-enhances-aqp1-gene-expression
#16
Zhimin Wang, Yaohe Wang, Songling Wang, Li-Rong Zhang, Na Zhang, Zhenguo Cheng, Qingshi Liu, Kelly J Shields, Baoli Hu, Michael J Passineau
Ionizing radiation (IR) isthe primarytherapeutic tool to treat patients with cancerous lesions located in the head and neck. In many patients, IR results in irreversible and severe salivary gland dysfunction or xerostomia. Currently there are no effective treatment options to reduce the effects of xerostomia. More recently, salivary gland gene therapy utilizing the water-specific protein aquaporin 1 (AQP1) has been of great interest to potentially correct salivary dysfunction. In this study, we used CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing along with the endogenous promoter of AQP1 within theHEK293 and MDCK cell lines...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324508/comparison-of-human-coagulation-factor-viii-expression-directed-by-cytomegalovirus-and-mammary-gland-specific-promoters-in-hc11-cells-and-transgenic-mice-retraction
#17
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317664/human-cytomegalovirus-encoded-us9-targets-mavs-and-sting-signaling-to-evade-type-i-interferon-immune-responses
#18
Hyun Jin Choi, Areum Park, Sujin Kang, Eunhye Lee, Taeyun A Lee, Eun A Ra, Jiseon Lee, Sungwook Lee, Boyoun Park
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) has evolved sophisticated immune evasion mechanisms that target both the innate and adaptive immune responses. However, how HCMV encoded proteins are involved in this immune escape is not clear. Here, we show that HCMV glycoprotein US9 inhibits the IFN-β response by targeting the mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS) and stimulator of interferon genes (STING)-mediated signaling pathways. US9 accumulation in mitochondria attenuates the mitochondrial membrane potential, leading to promotion of MAVS leakage from the mitochondria...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288198/the-chemokine-receptor-cxcr3-promotes-cd8-t-cell-accumulation-in-uninfected-salivary-glands-but-is-not-necessary-after-murine-cytomegalovirus-infection
#19
Sofia Caldeira-Dantas, Thomas Furmanak, Corinne Smith, Michael Quinn, Leyla Y Teos, Adam Ertel, Drishya Kurup, Mayank Tandon, Ilias Alevizos, Christopher M Snyder
Recent work indicates that salivary glands are able to constitutively recruit CD8+ T cells and retain them as tissue-resident memory T cells, independently of local infection, inflammation, or Ag. To understand the mechanisms supporting T cell recruitment to the salivary gland, we compared T cell migration to the salivary gland in mice that were infected or not with murine CMV (MCMV), a herpesvirus that infects the salivary gland and promotes the accumulation of salivary gland tissue-resident memory T cells...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285311/gene-delivery-and-gene-expression-in-vertebrate-using-baculovirus-bombyx-mori-nucleopolyhedrovirus-vector
#20
Xingjian Liu, Yinü Li, Xiaoyuan Hu, Yongzhu Yi, Zhifang Zhang
The baculovirus Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) has been investigated as a possible tool for gene therapy, but its inhibition by complement proteins in human serum limits its applicability. Here, we used the baculovirus Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) to construct a gene delivery vector in which a reporter gene is driven by a cytomegalovirus IE promoter. Enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and luciferase reporter genes were used to test the efficiency of gene delivery...
December 1, 2017: Oncotarget
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