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Jeffrey Livezey, Thomas Oliver, Louis Cantilena
A 32-year-old male developed neuropsychiatric symptoms 2 weeks after starting mefloquine 250 mg/week for malaria prophylaxis. He continued to take the medication for the next 4 months. Initial symptoms included vivid dreams and anxiety, as well as balance problems. These symptoms persisted and progressed over the next 4 years to include vertigo, emotional lability, and poor short-term memory, which have greatly affected his personal and professional life. An extensive evaluation revealed objective evidence supporting a central vestibulopathy...
December 2016: Drug Saf Case Rep
José Maurício Dos Santos Filho, Diogo Manoel Alves de Queiroz E Silva, Taís Soares Macedo, Helena Mariana Pitangueira Teixeira, Diogo Rodrigo Magalhaes Moreira, Soura Challal, Jean-Luc Wolfender, Emerson Ferreira Queiroz, Milena Botelho Pereira Soares
Malaria, caused by several Plasmodium species, is the major life-threatening parasitic infection worldwide. Due to the parasite resistance to quinoline based drugs, the search for antimalarial agents is necessary. Here, we report the structural design, synthesis and antiparasitic evaluation of two novel series of 1,2,4-oxadiazoles in conjugation to N-acylhydrazones, both groups recognized as privileged structures, as well as the studies on the antimalarial activity of 16 previous described analogues. By varying substituents attached to the phenyl ring, it was possible to retain, enhance or increase the antiparasitic activity in comparison to the nonsubstituted derivatives...
September 9, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Eiichi Ohnuki, Shinya Asayama, Tomoko Asayama, Kazuo Nakamichi, Masayuki Saijo, Satoru Kosaka
An 83-year-old man with chronic renal failure was referred to our hospital because of subacute progressive right hemiparesis. A brain MRI showed high-intensity lesions in bilateral middle cerebellar peduncles and white matter of the left frontal lobe on T2-weighted images. The lesions increased gradually, so we suspected a brain tumor because (1)H-MRS images showed elevated Cho and decreased NAA, and also pathologic findings of the brain biopsy suggested glioblastoma. However, JC virus (JCV) in cerebrospinal fluid was revealed highly positive by PCR...
September 16, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Caroline White
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Tamar Lachish, Maskit Bar-Meir, Neta Eisenberg, Eli Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend daily dosing of atovaquone-proguanil (AP), beginning a day before travel to endemic areas and continuing for 7 days after departure. Adherence of long-term travellers to daily malaria chemoprophylaxis tends to be poor, even when residing in highly endemic malaria regions. Evidence from a volunteer challenging study suggests that non-daily, longer intervals dosing of AP provides effective protection against Plasmodium falciparum This study examines the effectiveness of twice weekly AP prophylaxis in long-term travellers to highly endemic P...
June 2016: Journal of Travel Medicine
Michael R Cohen, Judy L Smetzer
These medication errors have occurred in health care facilities at least once. They will happen again-perhaps where you work. Through education and alertness of personnel and procedural safeguards, they can be avoided. You should consider publishing accounts of errors in your newsletters and/or presenting them at your inservice training programs. Your assistance is required to continue this feature. The reports described here were received through the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Medication Errors Reporting Program...
November 2015: Hospital Pharmacy
Charles J Woodrow, Nicholas J White
Artemisinins are the most rapidly acting of currently available antimalarial drugs. Artesunate has become the treatment of choice for severe malaria, and artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) are the foundation of modern falciparum malaria treatment globally. Their safety and tolerability profile is excellent. Unfortunately, Plasmodium falciparum infections with mutations in the 'K13' gene, with reduced ring-stage susceptibility to artemisinins, and slow parasite clearance in patients treated with ACTs, are now widespread in Southeast Asia...
September 8, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
Maysa Ahmad Eraky, Nagwa Shaban Mohamed Aly
Searching for a more sensitive and accurate marker for schistosomiasis diagnosis and treatment follow up is a potential necessity. Hereby, we evaluated usefulness of circulating free DNA as a marker for schistosomiasis diagnosis, assessing drug efficacy and monitoring the control interventions impact using SYBR green real-time PCR. A batch of mice were infected by 90 ± 10 Schistosoma mansoni cercariae. Starting from the 2nd day post infection (p.i.), groups of 2 or 3 mice were sacrificed every 3 days until 30 days p...
September 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Maryam Ghavami, Christie H Dapper, Seema Dalal, Kristina Holzschneider, Michael Klemba, Paul R Carlier
Despite the troubling psychiatric side-effects it causes in some patients, mefloquine (MQ) has been used for malaria prophylaxis and therapy, due to its activity against all Plasmodium species, its ease of dosing, and its relative safety in children and pregnant women. Yet at present there is no consensus on the mechanism of antimalarial action of MQ. Two leading hypotheses for the mechanism of MQ are inhibition of heme crystallization and inhibition of host cell hemoglobin endocytosis. In this report we show that MQ is a potent and rapid inhibitor of amino acid efflux from intact parasitized erythrocytes, which is a measure of the in vivo rate of host hemoglobin endocytosis and catabolism...
October 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
José Luiz Fernandes Vieira, Larissa Maria Guimarães Borges, Michelle Valéria Dias Ferreira, Juan Gonzalo Bardarez Rivera, Margarete do Socorro Mendonça Gomes
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether patient age has a significant impact on mefloquine concentrations in the plasma and erythrocytes over the course of treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. METHODS: A total of 20 children aged between 8 and 11 years and 20 adult males aged between 22 and 41 years with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled in the study. Mefloquine was administered to patients in both age groups at a dose of 20mgkg(-1). The steady-state drug concentrations were measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography...
September 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Andrea Hubeny, Markus Keiser, Stefan Oswald, Gabriele Jedlitschky, Heyo K Kroemer, Werner Siegmund, Markus Grube
Important antimalarial drugs, including quinolines, act against blood schizonts by interfering with hemoglobin metabolism. To reach their site of action, these compounds have to cross the plasma membrane of red blood cells (RBCs). Organic cation transporters (OCTs) and organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) are important uptake transporters and interesting candidates for local drug transport. We therefore studied their interaction with antimalarial compounds (quinine, chloroquine, mefloquine, pyrimethamine, artemisinin, and artesunate) and characterized the expression of OATP1A2 and OATP2B1 in RBCs...
October 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Jeremy Tuck, Jonathan Williams
BACKGROUND: The UK deployed a task force to Sierra Leone to assist in ending the 2014/15 Ebola outbreak. Malaria protection was based on existing Defence Policy which saw a wide range of bite prevention measures deployed. Atovaquone/Proguanil ("A/P"), Doxycycline ("D") and Mefloquine ("M") were the chemoprophylactic medications that were prescribed. A survey was undertaken to audit the Adverse Effect (AE) burden experienced by the population. METHOD: A questionnaire based survey was administered that sought information on individuals' experiences with malaria chemoprophylaxis...
July 27, 2016: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Sarah Auburn, David Serre, Richard D Pearson, Roberto Amato, Kanlaya Sriprawat, Sheren To, Irene Handayuni, Rossarin Suwanarusk, Bruce Russell, Eleanor Drury, Jim Stalker, Olivo Miotto, Dominic P Kwiatkowski, Francois Nosten, Ric N Price
In regions of coendemicity for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax where mefloquine is used to treat P. falciparum infection, drug pressure mediated by increased copy numbers of the multidrug resistance 1 gene (pvmdr1) may select for mefloquine-resistant P. vivax Surveillance is not undertaken routinely owing in part to methodological challenges in detection of gene amplification. Using genomic data on 88 P. vivax samples from western Thailand, we identified pvmdr1 amplification in 17 isolates, all exhibiting tandem copies of a 37...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
N Jaén-Sánchez, L Suárez-Hormiga, C Carranza-Rodríguez, M Hernández-Cabrera, E Pisos-Álamo, L García-Reina, J L Pérez-Arellano
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this paper was to determine the demographic characteristics and the evolution of international travelers treated at the Unit of Infectious and Tropical Medicine in order to improve precautions prior to travel and, thus reduce the occurrence of these diseases. METHODS: A retrospective study of all international travelers served in UEIMT (Las Palmas de Gran Canaria) during the period 1998-2013 was performed. The following variables were collected using a standardized protocol were analyzed: age, gender, date of consultation, type of traveler, countries of destination and preventive measures undertaken (malaria chemoprophylaxis and vaccines)...
October 2016: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Sodiomon B Sirima, Bernhards Ogutu, John P A Lusingu, Ali Mtoro, Zakayo Mrango, Alphonse Ouedraogo, Jean Baptiste Yaro, Kevin Omondi Onyango, Samwel Gesase, Ernest Mnkande, James Samwel Ngocho, Isabelle Ackermann, François Aubin, Joelle Vanraes, Nathalie Strub, Gwenaelle Carn
BACKGROUND: WHO recommends combinations of an artemisinin derivative plus an antimalarial drug of longer half-life as treatment options for uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum infection. In Africa, artemether-lumefantrine is the most widely used artemisinin-based combination therapy, whereas artesunate-mefloquine is used infrequently because of a perceived poor tolerance to mefloquine. WHO recommends reconsideration of the use of artesunate-mefloquine in Africa. We compared the efficacy and safety of fixed-dose artesunate-mefloquine with that of artemether-lumefantrine for treatment of children younger than 5 years with uncomplicated P falciparum malaria...
October 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Alice C Eziefula
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Jie Wu, Ming Gao, Stephen G Rice, Candy Tsang, John Beggs, Dharshaun Turner, Guohui Li, Bo Yang, Kunkun Xia, Fenfei Gao, Shenfeng Qiu, Qiang Liu, John F Kerrigan
Human hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) is a rare subcortical lesion associated with treatment-resistant epilepsy. Cellular mechanisms responsible for epileptogenesis are unknown. We hypothesized that neuronal gap junctions contribute to epileptogenesis through synchronous activity within the neuron networks in HH tissue. We studied surgically resected HH tissue with Western-blot analysis, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, biocytin microinjection of recorded HH neurons, and microelectrode patch clamp recordings with and without pharmacological blockade of gap junctions...
June 2016: EBioMedicine
David N Soleimani-Meigooni, Katherine E Schwetye, Maria Reyes Angeles, Caroline F Ryschkewitsch, Eugene O Major, Xin Dang, Igor J Koralnik, Robert E Schmidt, David B Clifford, F Matthew Kuhlmann, Robert C Bucelli
JC virus (JCV) is a human polyomavirus that infects the central nervous system (CNS) of immunocompromised patients. JCV granule cell neuronopathy (JCV-GCN) is caused by infection of cerebellar granule cells, causing ataxia. A 77-year-old man with iatrogenic lymphopenia presented with severe ataxia and was diagnosed with JCV-GCN. His ataxia and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) improved with intravenous immunoglobulin, high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone, mirtazapine, and mefloquine. Interleukin-7 (IL-7) therapy reconstituted his lymphocytes and reduced his CSF JCV load...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
Omaima Mohammed Abou-Shady, Soheir Sayed Mohammed, Samar Sayed Attia, Hebat-Allah Salah Yusuf, Dina Omar Helmy
Schistosomiasis is one of the most prevalent parasitic infections worldwide. Praziquantel is the drug of choice for treatment of schistosomiasis for its high efficacy. The present work was carried out on 160 mice to evaluate the therapeutic effect of mefloquine on experimental schistosomiasis mansoni. Mice were classified into 3 groups; group I (20 infected non-treated mice), group II included 60 infected mice which were further divided into group IIm (20 mice treated with 400 mg/kg mefloquine), group IIp (20 mice treated with 1,000 mg/kg/2 days praziquantel) and group IIpm (20 mice treated with 200 mg/kg mefloquine and 500 mg/kg praziquantel), group III included 80 non-infected mice subdivided into group IIIn (20 non-treated mice), group IIIm (20 mice treated with 400 mg/kg mefloquine), group IIIp (20 mice treated with 1,000 mg/kg/2 days praziquantel), group IIIpm (20 mice treated with 200 mg mefloquine and 500 mg praziquantel)...
June 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Valnês S Rodrigues-Junior, Anne D Villela, Raoni S B Gonçalves, Bruno Lopes Abbadi, Rogério Valim Trindade, Alexandre López-Gavín, Griselda Tudó, Julian González-Martín, Luiz Augusto Basso, Marcus V N de Souza, Maria Martha Campos, Diógenes Santiago Santos
Repurposing of drugs to treat tuberculosis (TB) has been considered an alternative to overcome the global TB epidemic, especially to combat drug-resistant forms of the disease. Mefloquine has been reported as a potent drug to kill drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In addition, mefloquine-derived molecules have been synthesised and their effectiveness against mycobacteria has been assessed. In this work, we demonstrate for the first time the activities of mefloquine and its oxazolidine derivative compound 1E in a murine model of TB infection following administration of both drugs by the oral route...
August 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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