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Richard J Cassidy, Yuan Liu, Kirtesh Patel, Jim Zhong, Conor E Steuer, David A Kooby, Maria C Russell, Theresa W Gillespie, Jerome C Landry
BACKGROUND: Stage II and III rectal cancers have been effectively treated with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NCRT) followed by definitive resection. Advancements in surgical technique and systemic therapy have prompted investigation of neoadjuvant multiagent chemotherapy (NMAC) regimens with the elimination of radiation (RT). The objective of the current study was to investigate factors that predict for the use of NCRT versus NMAC and compare outcomes using the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) for select stage II and III rectal cancers...
October 25, 2016: Cancer
Yang Lu, Scott Friedlander, Steven L Lee
Historically, performing a negative appendectomy (NA) was justified to reduce the incidence of perforation. Furthermore, it is also believed that NA is associated with minimal morbidity and cost. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency, clinical characteristics, and economic implications of NA. We reviewed the inpatient admissions on 274,405 patients who underwent nonincidental appendectomy as their primary procedure from the California State Inpatient Databases (2005-2011). Overall, 96.9 per cent had appendicitis (nonperforated = 73...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Xuan-Binh D Pham, Jerry J Kim, Aaron B Parrish, Cynthia Tom, Ezinne J Ihenachor, David Mina, Christian de Virgilio
Prior studies have shown racial and gender differences with respect to maturation of arteriovenous fistulas. Women and minorities have lower maturation rates for unclear reasons. Small arterial diameter and high brachial artery bifurcation (HBB) are also implicated in reduced maturation rates. We sought to correlate differences in upper extremity arterial anatomy to race and gender. All upper extremity vascular mapping ultrasounds from 2013 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 509 arms in 284 patients were evaluated...
October 2016: American Surgeon
Sarah B Maness, Lorraine R Reitzel, Kellie L Watkins, Lorna H McNeill
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this exploratory study was to improve understanding of the sociodemographic correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) awareness, knowledge, and vaccination attitudes in a convenience sample of church-going, African-American women and how knowledge about HPV-related cancers relates to vaccination attitudes for girls and boys. METHODS: Participants (N = 308) answered survey questions about HPV awareness, knowledge, and vaccination attitudes...
November 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
Sierra E Carter, Rheeda L Walker, Carolyn E Cutrona, Ronald L Simons, Steven R H Beach
OBJECTIVE: We examined the mediational role of symptoms of anxiety in accounting for the association of discrimination and chronic health conditions among African-American women. METHODS: Participants were 646 African-American women who completed self-report measures of perceived racial discrimination, symptoms of anxiety, and diagnosed chronic health problems. RESULTS: We examined the mediation hypothesis using a path analytic procedure. Mediational analyses indicated that, above and beyond symptoms of depression, age, and education status, anxiety symptoms were associated with both racial discrimination (β = ...
November 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
Jessica L Thomson, Lisa M Tussing-Humphreys, Melissa H Goodman, Sarah E Olender
OBJECTIVES: Delta Healthy Sprouts was designed to test the comparative impact of 2 home visiting curricula on weight status, dietary intake, physical activity, and other health behaviors of rural, southern African-American women and their infants. Results pertaining to physical activity outcomes in the gestational period are reported. METHODS: Eighty-two women, early in their second trimester of pregnancy, were enrolled and randomly assigned to one of 2 treatment arms...
November 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
Jeffery C Strickler, Kenneth K Lopiano
OBJECTIVE: This study profiles an innovative approach to capture patient satisfaction data from emergency department (ED) patients by implementing an electronic survey method. This study compares responders to nonresponders. BACKGROUND: Our hypothesis is that the cohort of survey respondents will be similar to nonresponders in terms of the key characteristics of age, gender, race, ethnicity, ED disposition, and payor status. METHODS: This study is a cross-sectional design using secondary data from the database and provides an opportunity for univariate analysis of the key characteristics for each group...
November 2016: Journal of Nursing Administration
Linda Boise, Ladson Hinton, Howard J Rosen, Mary C Ruhl, Hiroko Dodge, Nora Mattek, Marilyn Albert, Andrea Denny, Joshua D Grill, Travonia Hughes, Jennifer H Lingler, Darby Morhardt, Francine Parfitt, Susan Peterson-Hazan, Viorela Pop, Tara Rose, Raj C Shah
INTRODUCTION: Racial and ethnic groups are under-represented among research subjects who assent to brain donation in Alzheimer disease research studies. There has been little research on this important topic. Although there are some studies that have investigated the barriers to brain donation among African American study volunteers, there is no known research on the factors that influence whether or not Asians or Latinos are willing to donate their brains for research. METHODS: African American, Caucasian, Asian, and Latino research volunteers were surveyed at 15 Alzheimer Disease Centers to identify predictors of willingness to assent to brain donation...
October 24, 2016: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
Douglas F Dluzen, Nicole Noren Hooten, Yongqing Zhang, Yoonseo Kim, Frank E Glover, Salman M Tajuddin, Kimberly D Jacob, Alan B Zonderman, Michele K Evans
Systemic arterial hypertension is an important cause of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. African Americans are disproportionately affected by hypertension, in fact the incidence, prevalence, and severity of hypertension is highest among African American (AA) women. Previous data suggests that differential gene expression influences individual susceptibility to selected diseases and we hypothesized that this phenomena may affect health disparities in hypertension. Transcriptional profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from AA or white, normotensive or hypertensive females identified thousands of mRNAs differentially-expressed by race and/or hypertension...
October 25, 2016: Scientific Reports
Nicole H Weiss, Courtney Peasant, Tami P Sullivan
Women who experience intimate partner violence (IPV) report higher rates of HIV-risk behaviors. However, few studies have examined factors that may influence the strength of the link between IPV and HIV-risk behaviors. The goal of the current study was to extend extant research by evaluating the potential moderating role of avoidant coping in this relation. Participants were 212 women currently experiencing IPV (M age = 36.63, 70.8 % African American) who were recruited from the community. Significant positive associations were found between physical, psychological, and sexual IPV severity and both avoidant coping and HIV-risk behaviors...
October 24, 2016: AIDS and Behavior
Manasa Reddy, Bernard Tawfik, Chakri Gavva, Sean Yates, Nicole De Simone, Sandra L Hofmann, Siayareh Rambally, Ravi Sarode
Thrombosis is known to occur in patients with rare inherited bleeding disorders, usually in the presence of a thrombotic risk factor such as surgery and/or factor replacement therapy, but sometimes spontaneously. We present the case of a 72-year-old African American male diagnosed with congenital factor VII (FVII) deficiency after presenting with ischemic stroke, presumably embolic, in the setting of atherosclerotic carotid artery stenosis. The patient had an international normalized ratio (INR) of 2.0 at presentation, with FVII activity of 6% and normal Extem clotting time in rotational thromboelastometry...
October 17, 2016: Transfusion and Apheresis Science
Philip A Mackowiak
Booker T. Washington rose from slavery to become one of the most admired Americans of his time. He died of long-standing malignant hypertension on November 14, 1915. At that time the medical profession was just beginning to recognize the importance of hypertension as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. In spite of intensive research fueled by ongoing speculation, why Washington might have been predisposed to the ravages of hypertension, and African Americans continue to be so predisposed, is a secret yet to be told...
October 2016: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
Don C Des Jarlais, Kamyar Arasteh, Jonathan Feelemyer, Courtney McKnight, David M Barnes, Susan Tross, David C Perlman, Aimee N C Campbell, Hannah L F Cooper, Holly Hagan
OBJECTIVES: Transitioning from injecting to non-injecting routes of drug administration can provide important individual and community health benefits. We assessed characteristics of persons who had ceased injecting while continuing to use heroin and/or cocaine in New York City. METHODS: We recruited subjects entering Mount Sinai Beth Israel detoxification and methadone maintenance programs between 2011 and 2015. Demographic information, drug use histories, sexual behaviors, and "reverse transitions" from injecting to non-injecting drug use were assessed in structured face-to-face interviews...
December 2016: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Eleanor E Friedman, Wayne A Duffus
OBJECTIVES: To examine sociodemographic factors and chronic health conditions of people living with HIV (PLWHIV/HIV+) at least 65 years old and compare their chronic disease prevalence with beneficiaries without HIV. DESIGN: National fee-for-service Medicare claims data (parts A and B) from 2006 to 2009 were used to create a retrospective cohort of beneficiaries at least 65 years old. METHODS: Beneficiaries with an inpatient or skilled nursing facility claim, or outpatient claims with HIV diagnosis codes were considered HIV+...
October 23, 2016: AIDS
Jingchuan Guo, Akira Fujiyoshi, Kamal Masaki, Abhisek Vishnu, Aya Kadota, Emma J M Barinas-Mitchell, Takashi Hisamatsu, Vasudha Ahuja, Naoyuki Takashima, Rhobert W Evans, Bradley J Willcox, Katsuyuki Miura, Beatriz Rodriguez, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Lewis H Kuller, Akira Sekikawa
OBJECTIVE: A few studies have examined the longitudinal association of blood pressure (BP) with arterial stiffness progression, and the results were inconsistent. The objective of this study was to investigate the roles of initial BP and its longitudinal change on the progression of arterial stiffness measured using brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV). METHOD: Study participants (n = 656) were from population-based samples of healthy men aged 40-49 years at baseline (213 White Americans, 47 African-Americans, 152 Japanese Americans and 244 Japanese in Japan)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Kerry Ard, Cynthia Colen, Marisol Becerra, Thelma Velez
This study provides an empirical test of two mechanisms (social capital and exposure to air pollution) that are theorized to mediate the effect of neighborhood on health and contribute to racial disparities in health outcomes. To this end, we utilize the Social Capital Benchmark Study, a national survey of individuals nested within communities in the United States, to estimate how multiple dimensions of social capital and exposure to air pollution, explain racial disparities in self-rated health. Our main findings show that when controlling for individual-confounders, and nesting within communities, our indicator of cognitive bridging, generalized trust, decreases the gap in self-rated health between African Americans and Whites by 84%, and the gap between Hispanics and Whites by 54%...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Hannah C Williamson, Benjamin R Karney, Thomas N Bradbury
Objective: Government initiatives undertaken to improve the earning potential of disadvantaged unmarried parents assume that job training and additional schooling will strengthen these families, yet alternative models predict that these same interventions could overwhelm couples' limited resources, undermining family stability. Method: We use 3 waves of dyadic data and propensity score analysis to test these competing perspectives by examining the effects of job-related and school-related interventions on 3-year marriage rates...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
Lisa J White, Daryl B Greenfield
A growing percentage of low-income children in the United States come from Spanish-speaking homes and are dual language learners (DLLs). Recent research shows that bilingual children, compared to monolinguals, have enhanced executive functioning (EF), a set of foundational cognitive skills that predict higher social-emotional competence and academic achievement in preschool and beyond. Although this association has been found among children of different backgrounds, no study to date has assessed whether bilingual Latino preschoolers from low-income backgrounds have higher EF than their monolingual peers and their emerging bilingual peers, respectively...
October 23, 2016: Developmental Science
Joe Verghese, Rubina Malik, Jessica Zwerling
Given the multifaceted nature of dementia care management, an interdisciplinary comprehensive clinical approach is necessary. We describe our one-year experience with outpatient based dementia care at the Montefiore-Einstein Center for the Aging Brain (CAB) involving an multispecialty team of geriatricians, neurologists, and neuropsychologists, supported by geriatric psychiatrists, physiatrists, and social services. The goals of the CAB is to maximize dementia outcomes, including regular monitoring of patient's health and cognition, education and support to patients, their families and caregivers; initiation of pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments as appropriate, and the facilitation of access to clinical trials...
October 24, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
E Han, J Jones-Smith, P J Surkan, A Y Kharmats, G M Vedovato, A C B Trude, E Anderson Steeves, J Gittelsohn
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the extent to which low-income African-American children's weight status, psychosocial characteristics and food-related behaviours are associated with that of their adult caregivers. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from baseline evaluation of B'More Healthy Communities for Kids obesity prevention trial were used. Outcomes of interest were children's overweight and/or obesity status, food-related self-efficacy, knowledge, intentions and healthier/less healthy food acquisition scores...
December 2015: Obesity Science & Practice
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