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Connexin 43

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211875/a-hyaluronan-hydrogel-scaffold-based-xeno-free-culture-system-for-ex-vivo-expansion-of-human-corneal-epithelial-stem-cells
#1
D Chen, Y Qu, X Hua, L Zhang, Z Liu, S C Pflugfelder, D-Q Li
PurposeTo develop a hyaluronan hydrogel scaffold-based xeno-free culture system for ex vivo cultivation of human corneal epithelial stem cells (CESCs).Patients and MethodsCESCs were cultivated from donor limbal explants on the HyStem-C Hydrogel bio-scaffold in 12-well plates for 3 weeks. Group A used the traditional supplemented hormonal epidermal medium (SHEM) and group B used the defined SHEM (without fetal bovine serum and toxin A, adding 20% serum replacement). The growth and morphology of the cultured cells were assessed by phase contrast microscope...
February 17, 2017: Eye
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203706/the-ubiquitous-isoform-of-na-k-atpase-atp1a1-regulates-junctional-proteins-connexin-43-and-claudin-11-via-src-egfr-erk1-2-creb-pathway-in-rat-sertoli-cells%C3%A2
#2
Gayathri D Rajamanickam, John P Kastelic, Jacob C Thundathil
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202692/localization-of-phosphorylated-connexin-43-by-serial-section-immunogold-electron-microscopy
#3
Rachael P Norris, Valentina Baena, Mark Terasaki
Gap junction turnover occurs by the internalization of both plasma membranes of a gap junction plaque to form a double membrane-enclosed vesicle, or connexosome. Phosphorylation has a key role in regulation, but further progress requires clearly distinguishing gap junctions and connexosomes and precisely localizing proteins to them. We examined by electron microscopy serial sections of mouse preovulatory ovarian follicles collected with an automated tape collecting ultramicrotome (ATUM). We found connexosomes may form from adjacent cell bodies, from thin cell processes, or from the same cell...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188160/endogenous-hydrogen-sulfide-contributes-to-uterine-quiescence-during-pregnancy
#4
Xingji You, Zixi Chen, Huina Zhao, Chen Xu, Weina Liu, Qianqian Sun, Ping He, Hang Gu, Xin Ni
Recent evidence suggests that uterine activation for labor is associated with inflammation within uterine tissues. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) plays a critical role in inflammatory responses in various tissues. Our previous study has shown that human myometrium produces H2S via its generating enzymes cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE) and cystathionine-β-synthetase (CBS) during pregnancy. We therefore explored whether H2S plays a role in the maintenance of uterine quiescence during pregnancy. Human myometrial biopsies were obtained from pregnant women at term...
February 10, 2017: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181929/corneal-endothelial-cell-integrity-in-precut-human-donor-corneas-enhanced-by-autocrine-vasoactive-intestinal-peptide
#5
Shay-Whey M Koh, Timothy Coll, Dante Gloria, Nicholas Sprehe
PURPOSE: To demonstrate that vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), a corneal endothelial (CE) cell autocrine factor, maintains the integrity of corneal endothelium in human donor corneoscleral explants precut for endothelial keratoplasty. METHODS: Twelve paired human donor corneoscleral explants used as control versus VIP-treated explants (10 nM, 30 minutes, 37°C) were shipped (4°C) to the Lions Eye Institute for Transplantation and Research for precutting (Moria CBM-ALTK Keratome), shipped back to the laboratory, and cultured in ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF, 0...
February 8, 2017: Cornea
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177659/effects-of-ferulic-acid-on-oxidative-stress-heat-shock-protein-70-connexin-43-and-monoamines-in-hippocampus-of-pentylenetetrazole-kindled-rats
#6
Abdelaziz M Hussein, Khalid M Abbas, Osama A Abulseoud, Elhussainy Mohamed Abouelez Elhussainy
The present study investigated the effects of ferulic acid on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures, oxidative stress markers (malondialdhyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH)), connexin (Cx) 43, heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 and monoamines (serotonin (5HT) and norepinephrine (NE) levels in a rat model of PTZ-induced kindling. Sixty Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 5 equal groups, a) normal group, b) FA group: normal rats received FA at a dose of 40 mg/kg daily, c) PTZ group: rats received PTZ at a dose of 50 mg/kg i...
February 3, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176351/role-of-connexin-43-in-cadmium-induced-proliferation-of-human-prostate-epithelial-cells
#7
Qingping Liu, Xiaoli Ji, Zehe Ge, Haipeng Diao, Xiuli Chang, Lihua Wang, Qing Wu
Connexins (Cxs), the subunits of gap junction channels, are involved in many physiological processes. Aberrant control of Cxs and gap junction intercellular communication may contribute to many diseases, including the promotion of cancer. Cd exposure is associated with increased risk of human prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. The roles of Cxs in the effects of Cd on the prostate have, however, not been reported previously. In this study, the human prostate epithelial cell line RWPE-1 was exposed to Cd...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168732/two-modes-of-enteric-gliotransmission-differentially-affect-gut-physiology
#8
Vladimir Grubišić, Vladimir Parpura
Enteric glia (EG) in the enteric nervous system can modulate neuronally regulated gut functions. Using molecular genetics, we assessed the effects that molecular entities expressed in EG and otherwise mediating two distinct mechanisms of gliotransmitter release, connexin 43 (Cx43) hemichannel vs. Ca(2+) -dependent exocytosis, have on gut function. The expression of mutated Cx43(G138R) (which favors hemichannel, as opposed to gap-junctional activity) in EG increased gut motility in vivo, while a knock-down of Cx43 in EG resulted in the reduction of gut motility...
February 7, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160200/reversal-of-tresk-downregulation-alleviates-neuropathic-pain-by-inhibiting-activation-of-gliocytes-in-the-spinal-cord
#9
Jun Zhou, Hongtao Chen, Chengxiang Yang, Jiying Zhong, Wanyou He, Qingming Xiong
Despite the consensus that activation of TWIK-related spinal cord K(+) (TRESK) might contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic pain, the specific mechanisms underlying the transfer and development of pain signals still remain obscure. In the present study, we validated that TRESK was expressed in neurons instead of glial cells. Furthermore, in the SNI model of neuropathic pain (NP), downregulation of TRESK in spinal cord neurons resulted in upregulation of connexin 36 (Cx36) and connexin 43 (Cx43), both being subtypes of gap junctions in the spinal cord, with gliocytes in the spinal cord activated ultimately...
February 3, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154134/cdon-deficiency-causes-cardiac-remodeling-through-hyperactivation-of-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#10
Myong-Ho Jeong, Hyun-Ji Kim, Jung-Hoon Pyun, Kyu-Sil Choi, Dong I Lee, Soroosh Solhjoo, Brian O'Rourke, Gordon F Tomaselli, Dong Seop Jeong, Hana Cho, Jong-Sun Kang
On pathological stress, Wnt signaling is reactivated and induces genes associated with cardiac remodeling and fibrosis. We have previously shown that a cell surface receptor Cdon (cell-adhesion associated, oncogene regulated) suppresses Wnt signaling to promote neuronal differentiation however its role in heart is unknown. Here, we demonstrate a critical role of Cdon in cardiac function and remodeling. Cdon is expressed and predominantly localized at intercalated disk in both mouse and human hearts. Cdon-deficient mice develop cardiac dysfunction including reduced ejection fraction and ECG abnormalities...
February 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146239/combined-pi3k-akt-and-smad2-activation-promotes-corneal-endothelial-cell-proliferation
#11
Alfonso L Sabater, Enrique J Andreu, María García-Guzmán, Tania López, Gloria Abizanda, Victor L Perez, Javier Moreno-Montañés, Felipe Prósper
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a culture method for expansion of corneal endothelial cells (CEC) based on the combined activation of PI3K/Akt and Smad2. Methods: Morphology, proliferation, and migration of cultured rabbit and nonhuman primate CEC were examined in the presence of the PI3K/Akt activators IGF-1 and heregulin beta in combination with the Smad2 activator activin A. Phenotypic characterization of CEC was performed at the RNA and protein levels...
February 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144277/cx43-expressed-on-bone-marrow-stromal-cells-plays-an-essential-role-in-multiple-myeloma-cell-survival-and-drug-resistance
#12
Jinxiang Fu
INTRODUCTION: Connexin-43 (Cx43), a connexin constituent of gap junctions (GJs) is mainly expressed in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and played a important role on hematopoiesis. In this study, we explored the role of gap junctions (GJs) formed by Cx43 between BMSCs and multiple myeloma (MM) cells. MATERIAL AND METHODS: qPCR and western blot assays were employed to assay Cx43 expression in three MM cell lines (RPMI 8266, U266, and XG7), freshly isolated MM cells, and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs)...
February 1, 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134630/polyamines-preserve-connexin-43-mediated-gap-junctional-communication-during-intracellular-hypercalcemia-and-acidosis
#13
Lilia Y Kucheryavykh, Jan Benedikt, Luis A Cubano, Serguei N Skatchkov, Feliksas F Bukauskas, Yuriy V Kucheryavykh
Changes in the regulation, formation, and gating of connexin-based gap junction channels occur in various disorders. It has been shown that H and Ca are involved in the regulation of gap junctional communication. Ischemia-induced intracellular acidification and Ca overload lead to closure of gap junctions and inhibit an exchange by ions and small molecules throughout the network of cells in the heart, brain, and other tissues. In this study, we examined the role of the polyamines in the regulation of connexin 43 (Cx43)-based gap junction channels under elevated intracellular concentrations of hydrogen ([H]i) and calcium ([Ca]i) ions...
March 1, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112313/soluble-epoxide-hydrolase-inhibitors-might-prevent-ischemic-arrhythmias-via-microrna-1-repression-in-primary-neonatal-mouse-ventricular-myocytes
#14
Qiong Liu, Xuan Zhao, Ran Peng, Mi Wang, Wang Zhao, Ya-Jun Gui, Cai-Xiu Liao, Dan-Yan Xu
Ischemic arrhythmias are the main causes of sudden cardiac death. It has been reported that soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors (sEHis) could prevent arrhythmias; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In recent years, the proarrhythmic role of microRNA-1 (miR-1) has been investigated. This study aimed to elucidate whether sEHis prevented ischemic arrhythmias by suppressing miR-1. The primary neonatal mouse ventricular myocyte model of miR-1 overexpression was established by incubating with agonist microONTM mmu-miR-1a-3p agomir (DAEDstain(TM) Dye) (agomiR-1)...
January 23, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107665/a-%C3%AF-%C3%AF-conjugation-containing-soft-and-conductive-injectable-polymer-hydrogel-highly-efficiently-rebuilds-cardiac-function-after-myocardial-infarction
#15
Rui Bao, Baoyu Tan, Shuang Liang, Ning Zhang, Wei Wang, Wenguang Liu
Previous studies suggested that a stiffer hydrogel system exhibited a better performance to promote heart function after myocardial infarction (MI). However, the nature of myocardium, a tissue that alternately contracts and relaxes with electrical impulses, leads us to hypothesize that a soft and conductive hydrogel may be in favor of mechanical and electrical signals transmission to enhance heart function after MI. In this work, π-π conjugation interaction was first employed to produce a soft injectable hydrogel with conductive property...
January 12, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096472/myosin-vi-facilitates-connexin-43-gap-junction-accretion
#16
Bennett Waxse, Prabuddha Sengupta, Geoffrey G Hesketh, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Folma Buss
In this study, we demonstrate myosin VI enrichment at Cx43 gap junctions in heart tissue, primary cardiomyocytes and cell culture models. The loss of myosin VI via siRNA-mediated knock down or isolation of primary cardiac tissue and fibroblasts from the myosin VI-null mouse results in reduced GJ plaque size with a concomitant reduction in intercellular communication as shown by FRAP and a new method of selective calcein administration. Analysis of the molecular role of myosin VI in Cx43 trafficking indicates that myosin VI is dispensable in the delivery of Cx43 to the cell surface and connexon movement in the plasma membrane...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089824/mitochondrial-uncoupling-protein-2-in-human-cumulus-cells-is-associated-with-regulating-autophagy-and-apoptosis-maintaining-gap-junction-integrity-and-progesterone-synthesis
#17
Hongshan Ge, Fan Zhang, Ping Duan, Nan Zhu, Jiayan Zhang, Feijun Ye, Dan Shan, Hua Chen, XiaoSheng Lu, ChunFang Zhu, Renshan Ge, Zhenkun Lin
To explore the roles of mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein 2 (UCP2) in cumulus cells (CCs), human CCs were cultured in vitro, and the UCP2 was inhibited by treatment with Genipin, a special UCP inhibitor, or by RNA interference targeting UCP2. No significant differences in adenosine triphosphate levels and the ratio of ADP/ATP were observed after UCP2 inhibition. UCP2 inhibition caused a significant increase in cellular oxidative damage, which was reflected in alterations to several key parameters, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation levels and the ratio of reduced GSH to GSSG...
January 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081514/role-of-mirna-1-in-regulating-connexin-43-in-ischemia-reperfusion-heart-injury-a-rat-model
#18
Bo Bian, Xue-Fang Yu, Guo-Qin Wang, Tian-Ming Teng
MiRNA-1 may participate in regulating ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) by affecting the expression and distribution of connexin 43 (Cx43). The aim of this study is to investigate miR-1 expression and its potential role in regulating Cx43 during ischemic postconditioning (IPOST) in a rat model. Fifty-five Wistar male rats were randomly divided into five groups: N, IR, IPOST, agomir-1, and antagomir-1 group. The hearts were perfused with the Langendorff system. The reperfusion arrhythmia (RA) and myocardial infarct size were observed and recorded...
January 3, 2017: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077322/a-protein-kinase-a-ezrin-complex-regulates-connexin-43-gap-junction-communication-in-liver-epithelial-cells
#19
Aleksandra R Dukic, Linda Hofstad Haugen, Guillaume Pidoux, Edward Leithe, Oddmund Bakke, Kjetil Taskén
Communication between adjacent cells can occur via gap junctions (GJ) composed of connexin (Cx) hexamers that allow passage of small molecules. One of the most widely and highly expressed Cxs in human tissues is Cx43, shown to be regulated through phosphorylation by several kinases including PKA. Ezrin is a membrane associated protein that can serve as an A-kinase anchoring protein (AKAP) and hold an anchored pool of PKA. Here, we used the liver epithelial cell line IAR20, which expresses Cx43 as the predominant GJ protein, to test the hypothesis that Ezrin may associate with Cx43 in cell types that form stable GJs and serve as an AKAP...
January 8, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076398/identification-of-a-novel-mutation-in-brd4-that-causes-autosomal-dominant-syndromic-congenital-cataracts-associated-with-other-neuro-skeletal-anomalies
#20
Hyun-Seok Jin, Jeonhyun Kim, Woori Kwak, Hyeonsoo Jeong, Gyu-Bin Lim, Cha Gon Lee
Congenital cataracts can occur as a non-syndromic isolated ocular disease or as a part of genetic syndromes accompanied by a multi-systemic disease. Approximately 50% of all congenital cataract cases have a heterogeneous genetic basis. Here, we describe three generations of a family with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern and common complex phenotypes, including bilateral congenital cataracts, short stature, macrocephaly, and minor skeletal anomalies. We did not find any chromosomal aberrations or gene copy number abnormalities using conventional genetic tests; accordingly, we conducted whole-exome sequencing (WES) to identify disease-causing genetic alterations in this family...
2017: PloS One
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