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Connexin 43

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149731/purinergic-drug-targets-for-gastrointestinal-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Geoffrey Burnstock, Kenneth A Jacobson, Fievos L Christofi
Purinergic receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal disorders and are being explored as potential therapeutic targets. Gut inflammation releases ATP that acts on neuronal, glial, epithelial and immune cells. Purinergic signalling in glia and neurons is implicated in enteric neuropathies. Inflammation activates glia to increase ATP release and alter purinergic signalling. ATP release causes neuron death and gut motor dysfunction in colitis via a P2X7-dependent neural-glial pathway and a glial purinergic-connexin-43 pathway...
November 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145579/progesterone-the-maternal-immune-system-and-the-onset-of-parturition-in-the-mouse
#2
Lydia F Edey, Hector Georgiou, Kieran P O'Dea, Sam Mesiano, Bronwen R Herbert, Kaiyu Lei, Renyi Hua, Danijela Markovic, Simon N Waddington, David MacIntyre, Philip Bennett, Masao Takata, Mark R Johnson
The role of progesterone (P4) in the regulation of the local (uterine) and systemic innate immune system, myometrial expression of connexin 43 (Cx-43) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) and the onset of parturition was examined in: 1) naïve mice delivering at term; 2) E16 mice treated with RU486 (P4-antagonist) to induce preterm parturition; and 3) in mice treated with P4 to prevent term parturition.In naïve mice, myometrial neutrophil and monocyte numbers peaked at E18 and declined with the onset of parturition...
November 14, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143961/upregulation-of-epidermal-gap-junctional-proteins-in-patients-with-venous-disease
#3
M Kanapathy, R Simpson, L Madden, C Thrasivoulou, A Mosahebi, D L Becker, T Richards
BACKGROUND: Leg ulceration is a feared complication of venous insufficiency. It is not known whether varicose veins predispose skin to poor wound healing. The expression pattern of gap junctional protein connexin, a known marker of poor wound healing, was investigated across various stages of venous disease. METHODS: Patients undergoing intervention for varicose veins were assessed according to the Clinical Etiologic Anatomic Pathophysiologic (CEAP) classification of varicose veins...
November 16, 2017: British Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143226/aligned-ovine-diaphragmatic-myoblasts-overexpressing-human-connexin-43-seeded-on-poly-l-lactic-acid-scaffolds-for-potential-use-in-cardiac-regeneration
#4
Carlos Sebastián Giménez, Paola Locatelli, Florencia Montini Ballarin, Alejandro Orlowski, Ricardo A Dewey, Milagros Pena, Gustavo Abel Abraham, Ernesto Alejandro Aiello, María Del Rosario Bauzá, Luis Cuniberti, Fernanda Daniela Olea, Alberto Crottogini
Diaphragmatic myoblasts (DMs) are precursors of type-1 muscle cells displaying high exhaustion threshold on account that they contract and relax 20 times/min over a lifespan, making them potentially useful in cardiac regeneration strategies. Besides, it has been shown that biomaterials for stem cell delivery improve cell retention and viability in the target organ. In the present study, we aimed at developing a novel approach based on the use of poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) scaffolds seeded with DMs overexpressing connexin-43 (cx43), a gap junction protein that promotes inter-cell connectivity...
November 15, 2017: Cytotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126985/spatiotemporal-expression-pattern-of-connexin-43-during-early-chick-embryogenesis
#5
Karyn Jourdeuil, Lisa A Taneyhill
During embryogenesis, a single cell develops into new tissues and organs that are made up of a number of different cell types. The assembly of the trigeminal ganglion (cranial nerve V), an important component of the peripheral nervous system, typifies this process. The trigeminal ganglia perform key sensory functions, including sensing pain and touch in the face, and arise from cells of two different progenitor populations, the neural crest and the cranial placodes. One question that remains poorly understood is how these two populations of cells interact with each other during development to form a functional ganglion...
November 7, 2017: Gene Expression Patterns: GEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126976/involvement-of-glucose-related-energy-crisis-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-insinuation-of-streptozotocin-induced-alzheimer-s-like-pathology
#6
Joyshree Biswas, Sonam Gupta, Dinesh Kumar Verma, Parul Gupta, Abhishek Singh, Shubhangini Tiwari, Poonam Goswami, Sharad Sharma, Sarika Singh
The present study was conducted to correlate the cellular and molecular alterations in Alzheimer's pathology employing streptozotocin (STZ) induced experimental rat model. The STZ was administered in rat brain bilaterally by intracerebroventricular route using stereotaxic surgery followed by donepezil dosing. The Alzheimer's related pathological marker like acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity, tau phosphorylation and amyloid aggregation were observed after STZ administration. STZ treatment showed decreased glucose and glucose transporters (GLUT) level along with augmented level of calcium in both cortical and hippocampal regions of rat brain...
November 7, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122954/pregnancy-adapted-uterine-artery-endothelial-cell-ca2-signaling-and-its-relationship-with-membrane-potential
#7
Roxanne E Alvarez, Derek S Boeldt, Bikash R Pattnaik, Hannah L Friedman, Ian M Bird
Pregnancy-derived uterine artery endothelial cells (P-UAEC) express P2Y2 receptors and at high cell density show sustained and synchronous [Ca2+]i burst responses in response to ATP Bursts in turn require coupling of transient receptor potential canonical type3 channel (TRPC3) and inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor type 2 (IP3R2), which is upregulated in P-UAEC in a manner dependent on connexin 43 (Cx43) gap junctions. While there is no known direct interaction of TRPC3 with Cx43, early descriptions of TRPC3 function showed it may also be influenced by altered membrane potential (Vm)...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121655/experimental-blunt-chest-trauma-induced-myocardial-inflammation-and-alteration-of-gap-junction-protein-connexin-43
#8
Miriam Kalbitz, Elisa Maria Amann, Belinda Bosch, Annette Palmer, Anke Schultze, Jochen Pressmar, Birte Weber, Martin Wepler, Florian Gebhard, Hubert Schrezenmeier, Rolf Brenner, Markus Huber-Lang
OBJECTIVE: Severe blunt chest trauma in humans is associated with high mortality rates. Whereas lung tissue damage and lung inflammation after blunt chest trauma have extensively been investigated, the traumatic and posttraumatic effects on the heart remain poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to define cardiac injury patterns in an experimental blunt chest trauma model in rats. METHODS: Experimental blunt chest trauma was induced by a blast wave in rats, with subsequent analysis of its effects on the heart...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119736/yimu-san-improves-obstetric-ability-of-pregnant-mice-by-increasing-serum-oxytocin-levels-and-connexin-43-expression-in-uterine-smooth-muscle
#9
Qi-Huan Wang, Shuang Zhang, Li-Meng Qin, Wen-Jun Zhang, Feng-Hua Liu, Jian-Qin Xu, Yun-Fei Ma, Ke-Dao Teng
Prolonged farrowing remains one of the critical challenges in intensive pig farming. This study aims to explore the effects and mechanism of Yimu San (YMS), a Chinese veterinary medicine micro mist, on delivery ability with mouse models. Thirty-two pregnant mice were randomly divided into a control group and low-YMS, med-YMS, and high-YMS groups. The labor process time and stillbirth rate were recorded, the levels of serum oxytocin and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
2017: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116012/connexin-32-and-connexin-43-are-involved-in-lineage-restriction-of-hepatic-progenitor-cells-to-hepatocytes
#10
Haiyun Pei, Chao Zhai, Huilin Li, Fang Yan, Jinhua Qin, Hongfeng Yuan, Rui Zhang, Shuyong Wang, Wencheng Zhang, Mingyang Chang, Yunfang Wang, Xuetao Pei
BACKGROUND: Bi-potential hepatic progenitor cells can give rise to both hepatocytes and cholangiocytes, which is the last phase and critical juncture in terms of sequentially hepatic lineage restriction from any kind of stem cells. If their differentiation can be controlled, it might access to functional hepatocytes to develop pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries as well as cell therapies for end-stage liver diseases. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the influence of Cx32 and Cx43 on hepatocyte differentiation of WB-F344 cells by in vitro gain and loss of function analyses...
November 7, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115377/connexin-43-in-splenic-lymphocytes-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-cd4-cd25-t-lymphocyte-proliferation-and-cytokine-production-in-hypertensive-inflammation
#11
Hai-Chao Zhang, Zhong-Shuang Zhang, Liang Zhang, Ai Wang, He Zhu, Li Li, Jun-Qiang Si, Xin-Zhi Li, Ke-Tao Ma
Chronic inflammation promotes the development of hypertension and is associated with increased T cell infiltration and cytokine production in impaired organs. Gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43), is ubiquitously expressed in immune cells and plays an important role in T cell proliferation and activation, and cytokine production. However, the correlation between Cx43 in T cells and the hypertensive inflammatory response remains unknown. Thus, in this study, we wished to examine this correlation. First, our results revealed that hypertension caused significant thickening of the vascular wall, inflammatory cell infiltration into part of the renal interstitium and glomerular atrophy, and it increased the tubular damage scores in the kidneys of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs)...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110347/treatment-with-the-mapk-kinase-inhibitor-u0126-during-the-first-two-hours-of-in-vitro-maturation-improves-bovine-oocyte-developmental-competence
#12
T Shinohara, Y Ohta, N Kawate, M Takahashi, N Sakagami, T Inaba, H Tamada
This study examined the effects of treatment with U0126, which inhibits MAPK by inhibiting MAPK kinase, during the first 2 hr of in vitro maturation on bovine developmental competence and on gap junction (GAPJ) communication between the oocyte and cumulus cells. The percentage of oocytes developing to the blastocyst stage in the group treated with 5 μM U0126 (28%) was significantly higher than that in controls (15%, p < .05), while that in the group treated with 10 μM U0126 (18%) was not. Breakdown of the GAPJs was delayed in the group treated with 5 μM U0126 when compared to controls, as estimated by immunohistochemical examination of connexin 43, which is a primary constituent of the GAPJs...
November 6, 2017: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107716/pacsin-2-is-required-for-the-maintenance-of-a-normal-cardiac-function-in-the-developing-mouse-heart
#13
Judith Semmler, Jan Kormann, Sureshkumar Perumal Srinivasan, Annette Köster, Daniel Sälzer, Michael Reppel, Jürgen Hescheler, Markus Plomann, Filomain Nguemo
The Pacsin proteins (Pacsin 1, 2 and 3) play an important role in intracellular trafficking and thereby signal transduction in many cells types. This study was designed to examine the role of Pacsin 2 in cardiac development and function. We investigated the development and electrophysiological properties of Pacsin 2 knockout (P2KO) hearts and single cardiomyocytes isolated from 11.5 and 15.5days old fetal mice. Immunofluorescence experiments confirmed the lack of Pacsin 2 protein expression in P2KO cardiac myocytes in comparison to wildtype (WT)...
October 28, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106645/targeting-different-domains-of-gap-junction-protein-to-control-malignant-glioma
#14
Jun Wang, Ze-Yu Yang, Yu-Feng Guo, Jing-Ya Kuang, Xiu-Wu Bian, Shi-Cang Yu
A rational treatment strategy for glioma, the most common primary central nervous system tumor, should focus on early invasive growth and resistance to current therapeutics. Connexin 43 (Cx43), a gap junction protein, plays important roles not only in the development of the central nervous system and but also in the progression of glioma. The different structural domains of Cx43, including extracellular loops, transmembrane domains, and an intracellular carboxyl terminal, have distinct functions in the invasion and proliferation of gliomas...
November 2, 2017: Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104473/the-inhibition-of-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-1-by-connexin-43
#15
Han-Chen Lin, Chih-Jen Yang, Yu-Diao Kuan, Wei-Kuang Wang, Wen-Wei Chang, Che-Hsin Lee
Upregulation of connexin 43 (Cx43) showed potential in enhancing immune surveillance that was suppressed in the tumor microenvironment. The expression of indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) is one of the crucial factors contributing to tumor immune tolerance by depletion of tryptophan and IDO-mediated tryptophan metabolites. Here, we aim to investigate the role of Cx43 in IDO production in murine tumor by using Cx43 inducers. Resveratrol (trans-3, 5, 4 '-trihydroxystilbene) is a natural plant-derived polyphenol possessing positive effect against cancer...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29084268/early-structural-changes-of-the-heart-after-experimental-polytrauma-and-hemorrhagic-shock
#16
Christian K Braun, Miriam Kalbitz, Rebecca Halbgebauer, Philipp Eisele, David A C Messerer, Sebastian Weckbach, Anke Schultze, Sonja Braumüller, Florian Gebhard, Markus S Huber-Lang
Evidence is emerging that systemic inflammation after trauma drives structural and functional impairment of cardiomyocytes and leads to cardiac dysfunction, thus worsening the outcome of polytrauma patients. This study investigates the structural and molecular changes in heart tissue 4 h after multiple injuries with additional hemorrhagic shock using a clinically relevant rodent model of polytrauma. We determined mediators of systemic inflammation (keratinocyte chemoattractant, macrophage chemotactic protein 1), activated complement component C3a and cardiac troponin I in plasma and assessed histological specimen of the mouse heart via standard histomorphology and immunohistochemistry for cellular and subcellular damage and ongoing apoptosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082347/expressional-changes-of-connexin-isoform-genes-in-the-rat-caput-epididymis-exposed-to-flutamide-or-estradiol-benzoate-at-the-early-postnatal-age
#17
Ki-Ho Lee
Direct communication between neighboring cells through connexin (Cx)-based gap junction is a crucial biolo-gical manner to regulate functions of a tissue consisting of multi-cell types. The present research evaluated expressional changes of Cx isoforms in the caput epididymis of adult rat exposed to estradiol benzoate (EB) or flutamide (Flu) at the early postnatal age. A single subcutaneous administration of EB at a low-dose [0.015 µg /kg body weight (BW)] or a high-dose (1.5 µg/kg BW) or Flu at a low-dose (500 µg/kg BW) or a high-dose (5 mg/kg BW) was performed to an animal at 1 week of age...
September 2017: Balsaeng'gwa Saengsig
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079789/electronic-cigarette-smoke-impairs-normal-mesenchymal-stem-cell-differentiation
#18
A Shaito, J Saliba, A Husari, M El-Harakeh, H Chhouri, Y Hashem, A Shihadeh, M El-Sabban
Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are promoted as low-risk alternatives to combustible cigarettes. However, the effects of chronic inhalation of potential toxicants emitted by ecigarettes remain largely unexamined. It is conceivable that smoking-induced chronic diseases result in cellular injury, in the absence of effective repair by stem cells. This study evaluates the effect of cigarette and e-cigarette aerosol extracts on the survival and differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075794/src3-expressed-in-bmscs-promotes-growth-and-migration-of-multiple-myeloma-cells-by-regulating-the-expression-of-cx43
#19
Jie Jin, Tao Wang, Yu Wang, Shidi Chen, Zheng Li, Xiang Li, Jiazhen Zhang, Jin Wang
Interactions between bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and multiple myeloma cells significantly contribute to the progression of multiple myeloma (MM). However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate these interactions. Connexin-43 (Cx-43) has been implicated in the interplay between BMSCs and MM cells. In this study, we hypothesized that the steroid receptor co-activator-3 (SRC3) expressed in BMSCs regulates the expression of Cx-43 to promote the proliferation and migration of myeloma cells...
December 2017: International Journal of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074845/connexin-43-hemichannels-regulate-the-expression-of-wound-healing-associated-genes-in-human-gingival-fibroblasts
#20
Rana Tarzemany, Guoqiao Jiang, Jean X Jiang, Hannu Larjava, Lari Häkkinen
Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the most ubiquitous connexin in various cells, and presents as hemichannels (HCs) and gap junctions (GJs) on the cell membrane. We have recently shown that Cx43 abundance was strongly reduced in fibroblasts of human gingival wounds, and blocking Cx43 function in cultured human gingival fibroblasts (GFBLs) strongly regulated the expression of wound healing-related genes. However, it is not known whether these responses involved Cx43 HCs or GJs. Here we show that Cx43 assembled into distinct GJ and HC plaques in GFBLs both in vivo and in vitro...
October 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
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