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Sabrina F Mansilla, Agustina P Bertolin, Valérie Bergoglio, Marie-Jeanne Pillaire, Marina A González Besteiro, Carlos Luzzani, Santiago G Miriuka, Christophe Cazaux, Jean-Sébastien Hoffmann, Vanesa Gottifredi
The levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p21 are low in S phase and insufficient to inhibit CDKs. We show here that endogenous p21, instead of being residual, it is functional and necessary to preserve the genomic stability of unstressed cells. p21depletion slows down nascent DNA elongation, triggers permanent replication defects and promotes the instability of hard-to-replicate genomic regions, namely common fragile sites (CFS). The p21's PCNA interacting region (PIR), and not its CDK binding domain, is needed to prevent the replication defects and the genomic instability caused by p21 depletion...
October 14, 2016: ELife
N Rajasekar, Chandishwar Nath, Kashif Hanif, Rakesh Shukla
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is associated with reduced insulin level and impairment of insulin receptor (IR) signaling in the brain, which correlates to amyloid pathology, neuroinflammation, and synaptic neurotoxicity. Clinical studies show that intranasal insulin improves memory in AD patients without peripheral hypoglycemia. However, neuroprotective molecular mechanism of the beneficial effect of intranasal insulin in AD pathology is unexplored. Therefore, we investigated the role of intranasal insulin on intracerebroventricular (ICV) streptozotocin (STZ)-induced memory impairment in rats as evaluated in the Morris water maze test...
October 11, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
A N R Soares, M F Vitória, A L S Nascimento, A S Ledo, A R C Rabbani, A V C Silva
Mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes) is found in areas of coastal tablelands in the Brazilian Northeast and Cerrado regions. This species has been subjected to habitat fragmentation that is mainly due to human activity, and requires conservation strategies. The aim of this study was to analyze the structure and inter- and intrapopulation genetic diversity of natural populations of H. speciosa Gomes using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. A total of 155 individuals were sampled in 10 natural populations (ITA, PAC, IND, EST, BC, PIR, JAP, BG, NEO, and SANT) in the State of Sergipe, Brazil...
August 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Anaïs Castagnola, Geraldine Mulley, Nathaniel Davis, Nicholas Waterfield, S Patricia Stock
In this study, we assessed pirAB toxin transcription in Photorhabdus luminescens laumondii (strain TT01) (Enterobacteriaceae) by comparing mRNA abundance under in vivo and in vitro conditions. In vivo assays considered both natural and forced infections with two lepidopteran hosts: Galleria mellonella and Manduca sexta. Three portals of entry were utilized for the forced infection assays: (a) integument; (b) the digestive route (via mouth and anus); and (c) the tracheal route (via spiracles). We also assessed plu4093-2 transcription during the course of a natural infection; this is when the bacteria are delivered by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora nematodes...
2016: Toxins
Abdul Fattah Memon, Pir Salim Mahar, Muhammad Saleh Memon, Seema N Mumtaz, Sikander Ali Shaikh, Muhammad Faisal Fahim
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and types of age-related cataract in type 2 diabetic patients compared to non-diabetics. METHODS: This comparative, cross-sectional study was carried out at Al-Ibrahim Eye Hospital, Karachi, from July 2014 to June 2015, and comprised both diabetics and non-diabetics. All patients were selected from the out-patient department and had their full ocular examination done, including retinal screening of diabetic patients with non-mydriatic fundus camera...
October 2016: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Max F Oginsky, Ningren Cui, Weiwei Zhong, Christopher M Johnson, Chun Jiang
People with Rett syndrome (RTT) have defects in motor function also seen in Mecp2-null mice. Motor function depends on not only central motor commands but also sensory feedback that is vulnerable to changes in excitability of propriosensory neurons. Here we report evidence for hyperexcitability of mesencephalic trigeminal (Me5) neurons in Mecp2-null mice and a novel cellular mechanism for lowering its impact. In in-vitro brain slices, the Me5 neurons in both Mecp2(-/Y) male and symptomatic Mecp2(+/-) female mice were overly excitable showing increased firing activity in comparison to their wild-type (WT) male and asymptomatic counterparts...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Omer Demirtas, Asım Dane, Eren Yildirim
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of pre-eruptive intracoronal resorption (PIR) using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and panoramic radiography and to compare the findings of these imaging techniques. METHODS: This retrospective study consisted of 733 patients who had at least one unerupted tooth and had undergoneimaging with both three-dimensional (3D) CBCT and two-dimensional (2D) panoramic radiography. In all the images, the number of teeth with intracoronal resorption, affected tooth type and number, and size and location of the PIR defects were recorded...
September 27, 2016: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
Satu Turunen-Taheri, Åsa Skagerstrand, Sten Hellström, Per-Inge Carlsson
CONCLUSIONS: Patients with severe vision impairment in combination with severe-to-profound hearing loss seem to have a higher risk for effects on QoL, including: mobility, the ability to provide self-care and perform usual activities, and levels of anxiety and depression, compared with patients with only severe-to-profound hearing loss. OBJECTIVES: To study the quality-of-life (QoL) and audiological rehabilitation of the severely vision-impaired patient population among adults with severe-to-profound hearing loss in Sweden...
September 23, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Junko Kono, Kohtarou Konno, Ashraf Hossain Talukder, Toshimitsu Fuse, Manabu Abe, Katsuya Uchida, Shuhei Horio, Kenji Sakimura, Masahiko Watanabe, Keiichi Itoi
We examined the morphological features of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons in a mouse line in which modified yellow fluorescent protein (Venus) was expressed under the CRF promoter. We previously generated the CRF-Venus knock-in mouse, in which Venus is inserted into the CRF gene locus by homologous recombination. In the present study, the neomycin phosphotransferase gene (Neo), driven by the pgk-1 promoter, was deleted from the CRF-Venus mouse genome, and a CRF-Venus∆Neo mouse was generated. Venus expression is much more prominent in the CRF-Venus∆Neo mouse when compared to the CRF-Venus mouse...
September 16, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Pachka Hammami, Renaud Lancelot, Matthieu Lesnoff
BACKGROUND: Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is an acute infectious viral disease affecting domestic small ruminants (sheep and goats) and some wild ruminant species in Africa, the Middle East and Asia. A global PPR control strategy based on mass vaccination-in regions where PPR is endemic-was recently designed and launched by international organizations. Sahelian Africa is one of the most challenging endemic regions for PPR control. Indeed, strong seasonal and annual variations in mating, mortality and offtake rates result in a complex population dynamics which might in turn alter the population post-vaccination immunity rate (PIR), and thus be important to consider for the implementation of vaccination campaigns...
2016: PloS One
William M Aumiller, Fatma Pir Cakmak, Bradley W Davis, Christine D Keating
Liquid-liquid phase separation is responsible for formation of P granules, nucleoli, and other membraneless subcellular organelles composed of RNA and proteins. Efforts to understand the physical basis of liquid organelle formation have thus far focused on intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) as major components that dictate occurrence and properties. Here, we show that complex coacervates composed of low complexity RNA (polyuridylic acid, polyU) and short polyamines (spermine and spermidine) share many features of IDP-based coacervates...
October 4, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Nicola Hancock, Jennifer Smith-Merry, James A Gillespie, Ivy Yen
Objective The Partners in Recovery (PIR) program is an Australian government initiative designed to make the mental health and social care sectors work in more coordinated ways to meet the needs of those with severe and complex mental illness. Herein we reflect on demographic data collected during evaluation of PIR implementation in two Western Sydney sites. The aims of the present study were to: (1) explore whether two Sydney-based PIR programs had recruited their intended population, namely people living with severe and persistent mental illness; and (2) learn more about this relatively unknown population and their self-identified need priorities...
September 2, 2016: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
I Pir Yagci, M Pekcan, I M Polat, H Kalender, H C Macun
Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) is produced in the ovary, and thus, it is an excellent marker of follicle pool in females. Current interest is the clinical use of this parameter as a biomarker to assess presence or absence of an intact ovary and to diagnose ovarian remnant syndrome (ORS) following incomplete ovariohysterectomy (OHE) in bitches. The aim of this study was to evaluate serum AMH concentrations in bitches (n = 34) before and after OHE using two different commercial ELISA kits, one of which is based on detecting human AMH and the other is based on detecting human AMH and the other specified for canine AMH...
August 28, 2016: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Nada S Abdelwahab, Amal B Ahmed, Maha M Abdelrahman, Fathy M Salama
Newly established TLC-densitometric and RP-HPLC methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of Piracetam (PIR) and Vincamine (VINC) in their pharmaceutical formulation and in the presence of PIR and VINC degradation products, PD and VD, respectively. The proposed TLC-densitometric method is based on the separation and quantitation of the studied components using a developing system that consists of chloroform-methanol-glacial acetic acid-triethylamine (8 + 2 + 0.1 + 0.1, v/v/v/v) on TLC silica gel 60 F254 plates, followed by densitometric scanning at 230 nm...
August 27, 2016: Journal of AOAC International
Ali Ahiskalioglu, İlker İnce, Elif Oral Ahiskalioglu, Akgun Oral, Mehmet Aksoy, Murat Yiğiter, Mehmet Emin Celikkaya, Ahmet Bedii Salman
Purpose The aim of this study is to evaluate operating conditions during general anesthesia with or without neuromuscular blocker (NMB) in patients undergoing percutaneous internal ring suturing (PIRS). Materials and Methods In this study, 40 patients, with American Society of Anesthesiologists I and II between the ages of 1 and 12 years, were randomly assigned to two groups to receive muscle relaxant with endotracheal tube (ETT) (ETT group) or without muscle relaxant with supreme laryngeal mask airway (sLMA) (LMA group)...
August 22, 2016: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Holly Edwards, Mara Rubenstein, Alan A Dombkowski, J Timothy Caldwell, Roland Chu, Ana C Xavier, Ryan Thummel, Melody Neely, Larry H Matherly, Yubin Ge, Jeffrey W Taub
In this study we sought to identify genetic factors associated with the presenting white blood cell (WBC) count in B-precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BP-ALL). Using ETV6-RUNX1-positive BP-ALL patient samples, a homogeneous subtype, we identified 16 differentially expressed genes based on the presenting WBC count (< 50,000/cumm vs > 50,000). We further confirmed that IL1R1, BCAR3, KCNH2, PIR, and ZDHHC23 were differentially expressed in a larger cohort of ETV6-RUNX1-negative BP-ALL patient samples...
2016: PloS One
Xiaoli Liu, Gang Zhao, Zhiquan Shu, Dan Niu, Zhiguo Zhang, Ping Zhou, Yunxia Cao, Dayong Gao
Quantitative evaluation of the inherent correlation between cell cryoinjuries and intracellular ice formation (IIF) together with recrystallization (IIR) is of primary importance for both optimization of biopreservation and cryotherapy. The objective of this study is to thoroughly explore the roles of IIF on cell viability by using pig iliac endothelium cells (PIECs) as model cells during freezing and thawing. The experimental results indicated that both the probabilities of IIF (PIF) and IIR (PIR) increased along with the increase of cooling rates (p < 0...
August 17, 2016: Biopreservation and Biobanking
Diana Borovikova, Renata Teparić, Vladimir Mrša, Alexander Rapoport
The state of anhydrobiosis is linked with the reversible delay of metabolism as a result of strong dehydration of cells, and is widely distributed in nature. A number of factors responsible for the maintenance of organisms' viability in these conditions have been revealed. This study was directed to understanding how changes in cell wall structure may influence the resistance of yeasts to dehydration-rehydration. Mutants lacking various cell wall mannoproteins were tested to address this issue. It was revealed that mutants lacking proteins belonging to two structurally and functionally unrelated groups (proteins non-covalently attached to the cell wall, and Pir proteins) possessed significantly lower cell resistance to dehydration-rehydration than the mother wild-type strain...
August 2016: Yeast
Li-Hua Peng, Wei Wei, Ying-Hui Shan, Yee-Song Chong, Lian Yu, Jian-Qing Gao
This study aims to investigate the solid lipid nanoparticle (SLN) as a novel vehicle for the sustained release and transdermal delivery of piroxicam, as well as to determine the anti-inflammation effect of piroxicam loaded SLN. SLN formulation was optimized and the particle size, polydispersity index, zeta potential (ZP), encapsulation efficiency, drug release, and morphological properties were characterized. The transdermal efficiency and mechanism of the piroxicam loaded SLNs were investigated in vitro. With the inflammation induced edema model in rat, the anti-inflammatory efficiency of piroxicam-enriched SLNs (Pir-SLNs) was evaluated...
August 8, 2016: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Liang-Liang Zheng, Xiu-Wen Tan, Xiang-Zhong Cui, Hong-Jie Yuan, Hong Li, Guang-Zhong Jiao, Chang-Li Ji, Jing-He Tan
STUDY QUESTION: What are the mechanisms by which the preimplantation restraint stress (PIRS) impairs embryo development and pregnancy outcome? SUMMARY ANSWER: PIRS impairs embryo development by triggering apoptosis in mouse oviducts and embryos, and this involves activation of the Fas system. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Although it is known that the early stages of pregnancy are more vulnerable than later stages to prenatal stress, studies on the effect of preimplantation stress on embryo development are limited...
July 29, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
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