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Movement variability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353139/effects-of-lighting-illuminance-levels-on-stair-negotiation-performance-in-individuals-with-visual-impairment
#1
Aliah F Shaheen, Alexandros Sourlas, Khim Horton, Christopher McLean, David Ewins, David Gould, Salim Ghoussayni
BACKGROUND: Stair-related falls of older people cause a substantial financial and social burden. Deterioration of the visual system amongst other factors put older people at a high risk of falling. Improved lighting is often recommended. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lighting illuminance on stair negotiation performance in older individuals with visual impairment. METHODS: Eleven participants aged 60 or over with a vision of 6/18 or worse ascended and descended a staircase under: 50 lx, 100 lx, 200 lx, 300 lx and distributed 200 lx lighting...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353092/individual-and-dyadic-rope-turning-as-a-window-into-social-coordination
#2
Raoul Huys, Agnieszka Kolodziej, Julien Lagarde, Chlöé Farrer, Robert Darmana, Pier-Giorgio Zanone
The spontaneous and intentional movement coordination between peoples is well understood. Less is known about such interactions when the coordination is subordinate to the task and when the task involves, next to vision, mechanically induced haptic and kinesthetic coupling between dyadic partners. We therefore investigated dyadic jump rope turning. Fifteen dyadic pairs conjointly turned a jump rope to which five markers were equidistantly attached, and whose movements were recorded in 3D. In addition, each participant turned one side of the rope while the other side was quasi-fixed in an individual baseline condition...
January 16, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351821/reliability-of-the-american-academy-of-sleep-medicine-rules-for-assessing-sleep-depth-in-clinical-practice
#3
Magdy Younes, Samuel T Kuna, Allan I Pack, James K Walsh, Clete A Kushida, Bethany Staley, Grace W Pien
STUDY OBJECTIVES: The American Academy of Sleep Medicine has published manuals for scoring polysomnograms that recommend time spent in non-rapid eye movement sleep stages (stage N1, N2, and N3 sleep) be reported. Given the well-established large interrater variability in scoring stage N1 and N3 sleep, we determined the range of time in stage N1 and N3 sleep scored by a large number of technologists when compared to reasonably estimated true values. METHODS: Polysomnograms of 70 females were scored by 10 highly trained sleep technologists, two each from five different academic sleep laboratories...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351163/comparison-of-the-force-velocity-and-power-time-curves-between-the-concentric-only-and-eccentric-concentric-bench-press-exercises
#4
Alejandro Pérez-Castilla, Paul Comfort, John J McMahon, Francisco Luis Pestaña-Melero, Amador García-Ramos
The aim of this study was to compare the temporal and mechanical variables between the concentric-only and eccentric-concentric bench press (BP) variants. Twenty-one men (age: 22.0±4.2 years, body mass: 73.4±7.7 kg, height: 177.2±8.0 cm; one-repetition maximum [1RM]: 1.12±0.12 kg⋅kg) were evaluated during the concentric-only and eccentric-concentric BP variants using 80% 1RM. Temporal (concentric phase duration, propulsive phase duration, and time to reach the maximum values of force, velocity, and power) and mechanical variables (force, velocity, and power), determined using a linear velocity transducer, were compared between both BP variants...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351023/does-talking-on-a-cell-phone-with-a-passenger-or-dialing-affect-driving-performance-an-updated-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-experimental-studies
#5
Jeff K Caird, Sarah M Simmons, Katelyn Wiley, Kate A Johnston, William J Horrey
Objective An up-to-date meta-analysis of experimental research on talking and driving is needed to provide a comprehensive, empirical, and credible basis for policy, legislation, countermeasures, and future research. Background The effects of cell, mobile, and smart phone use on driving safety continues to be a contentious societal issue. Method All available studies that measured the effects of cell phone use on driving were identified through a variety of search methods and databases. A total of 93 studies containing 106 experiments met the inclusion criteria...
February 2018: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350554/quadriceps-neuromuscular-function-and-jump-landing-sagittal-plane-knee-biomechanics-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction
#6
Sarah H Ward, Troy Blackburn, Darin A Padua, Laura E Stanley, Matthew S Harkey, Brittney A Luc-Harkey, Brian G Pietrosimone
CONTEXT:   Aberrant biomechanics may affect force attenuation at the knee during dynamic activities, potentially increasing the risk of sustaining a knee injury or hastening the development of osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR). Impaired quadriceps neuromuscular function has been hypothesized to influence the development of aberrant biomechanics. OBJECTIVE:   To determine the association between quadriceps neuromuscular function (strength, voluntary activation, and spinal-reflex and corticomotor excitability) and sagittal-plane knee biomechanics during jump landings in individuals with ACLR...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345555/the-preparation-period-in-basketball-training-load-and-neuromuscular-adaptations
#7
Davide Ferioli, Andrea Bosio, Johann C Bilsborough, Antonio La Torre, Michele Tornaghi, Ermanno Rampinini
PURPOSE: To investigate the 1) effect of the preparation period on the neuromuscular characteristics of 12 professional (PRO) and 16 semi-professional (SEMI-PRO) basketball players; 2) relationships between training load indices and changes in neuromuscular physical performance. METHODS: Prior to and following the preparation period, players underwent a counter-movement jump (CMJ) test, followed by a repeated change of direction (COD) test consisting of 4 levels with increasing intensities...
January 18, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344939/socially-informed-dispersal-in-a-territorial-cooperative-breeder
#8
Gabriele Cozzi, Nino Maag, Luca Börger, Tim Clutton-Brock, Arpat Ozgul
1.Dispersal is a key process governing the dynamics of socially and spatially structured populations, and involves three distinct stages: emigration, transience, and settlement. At each stage, individuals have to make movement decisions, which are influenced by social, environmental, and individual factors. Yet, a comprehensive understanding of the drivers that influence such decisions is still lacking, particularly for the transient stage during which free-living individuals are inherently difficult to follow...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344723/structural-associations-between-organelle-membranes-in-nectary-parenchyma-cells
#9
Silvia Rodrigues Machado, Elisa A Gregório, Tatiane M Rodrigues
The close association between membranes and organelles, and the intense chloroplast remodeling in parenchyma cells of extrafloral nectaries occurred only at the secretion time and suggest a relationship with the nectar secretion. Associations between membranes and organelles have been well documented in different tissues and cells of plants, but poorly explored in secretory cells. Here, we described the close physical juxtaposition between membranes and organelles, mainly with chloroplasts, in parenchyma cells of Citharexylum myrianthum (Verbenaeceae) extrafloral nectaries under transmission electron microscopy, using conventional and microwave fixation...
January 17, 2018: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340614/association-of-polygenic-risk-score-with-cognitive-decline-and-motor-progression-in-parkinson-disease
#10
Kimberly C Paul, Jessica Schulz, Jeff M Bronstein, Christina M Lill, Beate R Ritz
Importance: Genetic factors have a well-known influence on Parkinson disease (PD) susceptibility. The largest genome-wide association study (GWAS) identified 26 independent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with PD risk. Among patients, the course and severity of symptom progression is variable, and little is known about the potential association of genetic factors with phenotypic variance. Objective: To assess whether GWAS-identified PD risk SNPs also have a cumulative association with the progression of cognitive and motor symptoms in patients with PD...
January 16, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339985/butterfly-sprint-swimming-technique-analysis-of-somatic-and-spatial-temporal-coordination-variables
#11
Marek Strzała, Arkadiusz Stanula, Piotr Krężałek, Andrzej Ostrowski, Marcin Kaca, Grzegorz Głąb
The aim of this study was to investigate somatic properties and force production of leg extensor muscles measured in the countermovement jump test (CMJ), as well as to analyse kinematic variables of sprint surface butterfly swimming. Thirty-four male competitive swimmers were recruited with an average age of 19.3 ± 1.83 years. Their average body height (BH) was 183.7 ± 5.93 cm, body fat content 10.8 ± 2.64% and body mass (BM) 78.3 ± 5.0 kg. Length measurements of particular body segments were taken and a counter movement jump (CMJ) as well as an all-out 50 m butterfly speed test were completed...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339982/relationships-between-mechanical-variables-in-the-traditional-and-close-grip-bench-press
#12
Robert G Lockie, Samuel J Callaghan, Matthew R Moreno, Fabrice G Risso, Tricia M Liu, Alyssa A Stage, Samantha A Birmingham-Babauta, John J Stokes, Dominic V Giuliano, Adrina Lazar, DeShaun L Davis, Ashley J Orjalo
The study aim was to determine relationships between mechanical variables in the one-repetition maximum (1RM) traditional bench press (TBP) and close-grip bench press (CGBP). Twenty resistance-trained men completed a TBP and CGBP 1RM. The TBP was performed with the preferred grip; the CGBP with a grip width of 95% biacromial distance. A linear position transducer measured: lift distance and duration; work; and peak and mean power, velocity, and force. Paired samples t-tests (p < 0.05) compared the 1RM and mechanical variables for the TBP and CGBP; effect sizes (d) were also calculated...
December 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338695/novel-sensing-technology-in-fall-risk-assessment-in-older-adults-a-systematic-review
#13
Ruopeng Sun, Jacob J Sosnoff
BACKGROUND: Falls are a major health problem for older adults with significant physical and psychological consequences. A first step of successful fall prevention is to identify those at risk of falling. Recent advancement in sensing technology offers the possibility of objective, low-cost and easy-to-implement fall risk assessment. The objective of this systematic review is to assess the current state of sensing technology on providing objective fall risk assessment in older adults. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted in accordance to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis statement (PRISMA)...
January 16, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337831/the-acute-effects-of-a-caffeine-containing-supplement-on-anaerobic-power-and-subjective-measurements-of-fatigue-in-recreationally-active-males
#14
Chelsea J Hahn, Andrew R Jagim, Clayton L Camic, Matthew J Andre
Studies show mixed results for the effects of caffeine on performance, warranting further investigation. The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of a caffeine-containing supplement on anaerobic power and subjective measurements of fatigue during resisted sprinting on males. Fourteen recreationally-active males [N=14; (mean±SD), age: 21.0±0.7 yrs., height: 178.5±5.1 cm, weight: 77.3±9.6 kg, percent body fat: 12.6±4.8%] participated in a double-blind, placebo controlled, within-subjects crossover design study...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337830/exploring-the-effects-of-playing-formations-on-tactical-behaviour-and-external-workload-during-football-small-sided-games
#15
Jorge Baptista, Bruno Travassos, Bruno Gonçalves, Paulo Mourão, João L Viana, Jaime Sampaio
This study aimed to identify the effects of playing formations on tactical behaviour and external workload during football small-sided games. Twenty-three semi-professional footballers integrated three different playing formations in a 7-a-side small-sided game, according to their specific player positions: team 4:3:0 (4 defenders, 3 midfielders); team 4:1:2 (4 defenders, 1 midfielder, 2 forwards); and team 0:4:3 (4 midfielders, 3 forwards). Based on players' movement trajectories, the following individual and collective tactical variables were calculated: total distance covered and distance covered while walking, jogging, running and sprinting, distance from each player to both own and opponent's team centroid (Dist CG and Dist OPP CG, respectively), individual area, team length, team width and surface area...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336789/actuator-stiction-compensation-via-variable-amplitude-pulses
#16
B M S Arifin, C J Munaro, O F B Angarita, M V G Cypriano, S L Shah
A novel model free stiction compensation scheme is developed which eliminates the oscillations and also reduces valve movement, allowing good setpoint tracking and disturbance rejection. Pulses with varying amplitude are added to the controller output to overcome stiction and when the error becomes smaller than a specified limit, the compensation ceases and remains in a standby mode. The compensation re-starts as soon as the error exceeds the user specified threshold. The ability to cope with uncertainty in friction is a feature achieved by the use of pulses of varying amplitude...
January 11, 2018: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335917/basal-sympathetic-predominance-in-periodic-limb-movements-in-sleep-after-continuous-positive-airway-pressure
#17
Meng-Ni Wu, Chiou-Lian Lai, Ching-Kuan Liu, Chen-Wen Yen, Li-Min Liou, Cheng-Fang Hsieh, Ming-Ju Tsai, Sharon Chia-Ju Chen, Chung-Yao Hsu
PURPOSE: This study investigated the basal autonomic regulation in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) showing periodic limb movements in sleep (PLMS) emerging after therapy with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). METHODS: Data of patients with OSA undergoing a first polysomnography for diagnosis and a second polysomnography for therapy with CPAP were reviewed. Patients with OSA showing PLMS on the first polysomnography were excluded. By using heart rate variability analysis, epochs without any sleep events and continuous effects from the second polysomnography were retrospectively analyzed...
January 15, 2018: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334868/biomechanical-analyses-of-synchronised-swimming-standard-and-contra-standard-sculling
#18
Lara Elena Gomes, Vera Diogo, Flávio Antônio de Souza Castro, João Paulo Vilas-Boas, Ricardo J Fernandes, Pedro Figueiredo
Synchronised swimming involves a variety of sculling movements essential for body support and propulsion but its study is scarce. We aimed to biomechanically compare standard and contra-standard sculling techniques, and to observe the relationship between measures. Six synchronised swimmers performed two, 30 s maximal intensity, fully tethered standard and contra-standard sculling motions. Kinetic and kinematic data were obtained using a load-cell and underwater cameras, respectively. Force decreased along both techniques' bouts, but no differences in-between techniques were noted for any kinetic variables...
January 16, 2018: Sports Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334816/anti-colchicine-fab-fragments-prevent-lethal-colchicine-toxicity-in-a-porcine-model-a-pharmacokinetic-and-clinical-study
#19
Michael Eddleston, Nicolas Fabresse, Adrian Thompson, Ibrahim Al Abdulla, Rachael Gregson, Tim King, Alain Astier, Frederic J Baud, R Eddie Clutton, Jean-Claude Alvarez
BACKGROUND: Colchicine poisoning is commonly lethal. Colchicine-specific Fab fragments increase rat urinary colchicine clearance and have been associated with a good outcome in one patient. We aimed to develop a porcine model of colchicine toxicity to study the pharmacokinetics and efficacy of ovine Fab. METHODS: A Göttingen minipig critical care model was established and serial blood samples taken for colchicine and Fab pharmacokinetics, clinical chemistry, and haematology...
January 15, 2018: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333722/cardiovascular-adjustments-during-anticipated-postural-changes
#20
Neesirg M Patel, Ethan A G Baker, Samuel R Wittman, Isaiah C Engstrom, George H Bourdages, Andrew A McCall, Derek M Miller, Bill J Yates
It is well-documented that feedforward cardiovascular responses occur at the onset of exercise, but it is unclear if such responses are associated with other types of movements. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that feedforward cardiovascular responses occur when a passive (imposed) 60° head-up tilt is anticipated, such that changes in heart rate and carotid artery blood flow (CBF) commence prior to the onset of the rotation. A light cue preceded head-up tilts by 10 sec, and heart rate and CBF were determined for 5-sec time periods prior to and during tilts...
January 2018: Physiological Reports
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