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Movement variability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805718/myoclonic-disorders
#1
REVIEW
Olaf Eberhardt, Helge Topka
Few movement disorders seem to make a straightforward approach to diagnosis and treatment more difficult and frustrating than myoclonus, due to its plethora of causes and its variable classifications. Nevertheless, in recent years, exciting advances have been made in the elucidation of the pathophysiology and genetic basis of many disorders presenting with myoclonus. Here, we provide a review of all of the important types of myoclonus encountered in pediatric and adult neurology, with an emphasis on the recent developments that have led to a deeper understanding of this intriguing phenomenon...
August 14, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804474/a-longitudinal-electromyography-study-of-complex-movements-in-poststroke-therapy-1-heterogeneous-changes-despite-consistent-improvements-in-clinical-assessments
#2
Negin Hesam-Shariati, Terry Trinh, Angelica G Thompson-Butel, Christine T Shiner, Penelope A McNulty
Poststroke weakness on the more-affected side may arise from reduced corticospinal drive, disuse muscle atrophy, spasticity, and abnormal coordination. This study investigated changes in muscle activation patterns to understand therapy-induced improvements in motor-function in chronic stroke compared to clinical assessments and to identify the effect of motor-function level on muscle activation changes. Electromyography (EMG) was recorded from five upper limb muscles on the more-affected side of 24 patients during early and late therapy sessions of an intensive 14-day program of Wii-based Movement Therapy (WMT) and for a subset of 13 patients at 6-month follow-up...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803507/what-box-a-task-for-assessing-language-lateralization-in-young-children
#3
Nicholas A Badcock, Rachael Spooner, Jessica Hofmann, Atlanta Flitton, Scott Elliott, Lisa Kurylowicz, Louise M Lavrencic, Heather M Payne, Georgina K Holt, Anneka Holden, Owen F Churches, Mark J Kohler, Hannah A D Keage
The assessment of active language lateralization in infants and toddlers is challenging. It requires an imaging tool that is unintimidating, quick to setup, and robust to movement, in addition to an engaging and cognitively simple language processing task. Functional Transcranial Doppler Ultrasound (fTCD) offers a suitable technique and here we report on a suitable method to elicit active language production in young children. The 34-second "What Box" trial presents an animated face "searching" for an object...
August 13, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802364/the-reliability-of-flexible-nasolaryngoscopy-in-the-identification-of-vocal-fold-movement-impairment-in-young-infants
#4
Yi-Chun Carol Liu, Tyler McElwee, Mary Musso, Tara L Rosenberg, Julina Ongkasuwan
OBJECTIVE: Flexible nasolaryngoscopy (FNL) is considered the gold standard for evaluation of vocal fold mobility but there has been no data on the reliability of interpretation in the infant population. Visualization may be limited by excessive movement, secretions, or floppy supraglottic structures that prevent accurate diagnosis of vocal fold movement impairment (VFMI). We sought to evaluate the inter- and intra-rater reliability of FNL for the evaluation of VFMI in young infants. STUDY TYPE: Case-control...
September 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801751/activity-demands-during-multi-directional-team-sports-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Jeffrey B Taylor, Alexis A Wright, Steven L Dischiavi, M Allison Townsend, Adam R Marmon
BACKGROUND: Late-stage rehabilitation programs often incorporate 'sport-specific' demands, but may not optimally simulate the in-game volume or intensity of such activities as sprinting, cutting, jumping, and lateral movement. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to characterize, quantify, and compare straight-line running and multi-directional demands during sport competition. DATA SOURCES: A systematic review of PubMed, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases was conducted...
August 12, 2017: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800726/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-chronic-pain-following-hysterectomy-among-southern-jiangsu-chinese-women
#6
Chao Han, Zhijun Ge, Wenjie Jiang, Hailong Zhao, Tieliang Ma
BACKGROUND: Chronic post-surgical pain (CPSP) after hysterectomy has been recognized as a major clinical problem in the Western World. Reports on post-hysterectomy pain are relatively scarce in China. The aim of the current study was to prospectively investigate the incidence and the potential risk factors of CPSP at 3 months following hysterectomy in Chinese population. METHODS: We assessed and collected data on preoperative socio-demographic characteristics, preexisting pain, anxiety and depression, sexual satisfaction, intra-operative variables, and acute postoperative pain intensity in a cohort of 870 women undergoing hysterectomy...
August 11, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799973/cross-sectional-and-prospective-correlates-of-recovery-expectancies-in-the-rehabilitation-of-whiplash-injury
#7
Rachel A Elphinston, Pascal Thibault, Junie S Carriere, Pierre Rainville, Michael J L Sullivan
OBJECTIVES: Investigations have shown that expectancies are significant prognostic indicators of recovery outcomes following whiplash injury. However, little is currently known about the determinants of recovery expectancies following whiplash injury. The purpose of the present study was to examine the cross-sectional and prospective correlates of recovery expectancies in individuals admitted to a rehabilitation program for whiplash injury. METHODS: Participants (N=96) completed measures of recovery expectancies, psychosocial variables, symptom severity, symptom duration and disability at Time 0 (admission) and Time 1 (discharge)...
August 9, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799616/quantitative-investigation-of-mda-mb-231-breast-cancer-cell-motility-dependence-on-epidermal-growth-factor-concentration-and-its-gradient
#8
Tanzila Islam, Haluk Resat
Enhanced cell motility is one of the primary features of cancer. Accumulated evidence demonstrates that Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) mediated pathways play an important role in breast cancer cell proliferation and migration. We have quantified the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migration in response to the stimulation of EGFR pathways with their ligand EGF to determine how the cell motility of MDA-MB-231 cells depends on the ligand concentration and gradient. Analysis at the single cell level combined with mathematical modeling and the ability to vary the ligand concentration and gradients locally using microfluidic devices allowed us to separate the unique contributions of ligand concentration and ligand gradient to cell motility...
August 11, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798355/active-lead-in-variability-affects-motor-memory-formation-and-slows-motor-learning
#9
Ian S Howard, Christopher Ford, Angelo Cangelosi, David W Franklin
Rapid learning can be critical to ensure elite performance in a changing world or to recover basic movement after neural injuries. Recently it was shown that the variability of follow-through movements affects the rate of motor memory formation. Here we investigate if lead-in movement has a similar effect on learning rate. We hypothesized that both modality and variability of lead-in movement would play critical roles, with simulations suggesting that only changes in active lead-in variability would exhibit slower learning...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795236/a-novel-continuous-inhibitory-control-task-variation-in-individual-performance-by-young-pheasants-phasianus-colchicus
#10
Christina Meier, Sara Raj Pant, Jayden O van Horik, Philippa R Laker, Ellis J G Langley, Mark A Whiteside, Frederick Verbruggen, Joah R Madden
Inhibitory control enables subjects to quickly react to unexpectedly changing external demands. We assessed the ability of young (8 weeks old) pheasants Phasianus colchicus to exert inhibitory control in a novel response-inhibition task that required subjects to adjust their movement in space in pursuit of a reward across changing target locations. The difference in latencies between trials in which the target location did and did not change, the distance travelled towards the initially indicated location after a change occurred, and the change-signal reaction time provided a consistent measure that could be indicative of a pheasant's inhibitory control...
August 9, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794465/the-mechanical-representation-of-temporal-delays
#11
Raz Leib, Amir Karniel, Ferdinando A Mussa-Ivaldi
When we knock on a door, we perceive the impact as a collection of simultaneous events, combining sound, sight, and tactile sensation. In reality, information from different modalities but from a single source is flowing inside the brain along different pathways, reaching processing centers at different times. Therefore, interpreting different sensory modalities which seem to occur simultaneously requires information processing that accounts for these different delays. As in a computer-based robotic system, does the brain use some explicit estimation of the time delay, to realign the sensory flows? Or does it compensate for temporal delays by representing them as changes in the body/environment mechanics? Using delayed-state or an approximation for delayed-state manipulations between visual and proprioceptive feedback during a tracking task, we show that tracking errors, grip forces, and learning curves are consistent with predictions of a representation that is based on approximation for delay, refuting an explicit delayed-state representation...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793351/characterization-of-neurons-in-the-primate-medial-intraparietal-area-reveals-a-joint-representation-of-intended-reach-direction-and-amplitude
#12
Rishi Rajalingham, Sam Musallam
To support accurate memory-guided reaching, the brain must represent both the direction and amplitude of reaches in a movement plan. Several cortical areas have been shown to represent the direction of a planned reaching movement, but the neuronal representation of reach amplitude is still unclear, especially in sensory-motor integration areas. To investigate this, we recorded from neurons in the medial intraparietal area (MIP) of monkeys performing a variable amplitude memory reach task. In one monkey, we additionally recorded from the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) for direct cross-area comparisons...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792857/redistributing-load-using-wearable-resistance-during-power-clean-training-improves-athletic-performance
#13
Caleb R Marriner, John B Cronin, Paul Macadam, Adam Storey
A popular method to improve athletic performance and lower body power is to train with wearable resistance (WR), for example, weighted vests. However, it is currently unknown what training effect this loading method has on full-body explosive movements such as the power clean. The purpose of this study was to determine what effects WR equivalent to 12% body mass (BM) had on the power clean and countermovement jump (CMJ) performance. Sixteen male subjects (age: 23.2 ± 2.7 years; BM: 90.5 ± 10.3 kg) were randomly assigned to five weeks of traditional (TR) power clean training or training with 12% BM redistributed from the bar to the body using WR...
August 9, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791601/analysis-of-timing-variability-in-human-movements-by-aligning-parameter-curves-in-time
#14
Lisa K Maurer, Heiko Maurer, Hermann Müller
The analysis of timing in human movements requires a reference with which timing can be quantified. In reactive movements this reference is given by the stimulus. However, many movements do not respond to such an external event. In throwing, for instance, the hand opening for release has to be timed to an acceleration of the throwing arm. A common approach to analyzing release-timing variability is to choose a landmark in the movement that is supposed to have a fixed temporal relation to the release. Such distinct landmarks, however, are not always well definable...
August 8, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790905/task-complexity-modulates-sleep-related-offline-learning-in-sequential-motor-skills
#15
Klaus Blischke, Andreas Malangré
Recently, a number of authors have advocated the introduction of gross motor tasks into research on sleep-related motor offline learning. Such tasks are often designed to be more complex than traditional key-pressing tasks. However, until now, little effort has been undertaken to scrutinize the role of task complexity in any systematic way. Therefore, the effect of task complexity on the consolidation of gross motor sequence memory was examined by our group in a series of three experiments. Criterion tasks always required participants to produce unrestrained arm movement sequences by successively fitting a small peg into target holes on a pegboard...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790883/therapeutic-use-of-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-in-dystonia
#16
REVIEW
Angelo Quartarone, Vincenzo Rizzo, Carmen Terranova, Alberto Cacciola, Demetrio Milardi, Alessandro Calamuneri, Gaetana Chillemi, Paolo Girlanda
Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) are non-invasive methods for stimulating cortical neurons that have been increasingly used in the neurology realm and in the neurosciences applied to movement disorders. In addition, these tools have the potential to be delivered as clinically therapeutic approach. Despite several studies support this hypothesis, there are several limitations related to the extreme variability of the stimulation protocols, clinical enrolment and variability of rTMS and tDCS after effects that make clinical interpretation very difficult...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782870/rapid-eye-movement-sleep-behaviour-disorder-and-striatal-dopamine-depletion-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#17
S J Chung, Y Lee, J J Lee, P H Lee, Y H Sohn
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rapid eye movement sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) is related to striatal dopamine depletion. This study was performed to confirm whether clinically probable RBD (cpRBD) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) is associated with a specific pattern of striatal dopamine depletion. METHODS: A prospective survey was conducted using the RBD Screening Questionnaire (RBDSQ) in 122 patients with PD who had undergone dopamine transporter (DAT) positron emission tomography scan...
August 7, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782249/self-regulated-learning-from-illustrated-text-eye-movement-modelling-to-support-use-and-regulation-of-cognitive-processes-during-learning-from-multimedia
#18
Katharina Scheiter, Carina Schubert, Anne Schüler
BACKGROUND: When learning with text and pictures, learners often fail to adequately process the materials, which can be explained as a failure to self-regulate one's learning by choosing adequate cognitive learning processes. Eye movement modelling examples (EMME) showing how to process multimedia instruction have improved elementary school children's learning from text and pictures in previous studies. AIMS: We tested whether the positive effects of EMME for improving self-regulated multimedia learning extend to university students and teaching of more comprehensive processing strategies...
August 7, 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780886/reliability-of-unipodal-and-bipodal-counter-movement-jump-landings-in-a-recreational-male-population
#19
Cédric Schwartz, Bénédicte Forthomme, Julien Paulus, Jean-François Kaux, Olivier Brüls, Vincent Denoël, Jean-Louis Croisier
Movement patterns during landing have been suggested to be related to injury risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the inter-session reliability of kinematic variables and ground reaction forces during landing in a population of male recreational athletes after a counter movement jump. Both unipodal and bipodal landings were evaluated. Furthermore, the possibility to improve landing reliability with a verbal instruction was also studied. Twenty-four male volunteers with no history of lower extremity trauma were randomly assigned to two groups (with and without verbal landing instruction)...
August 6, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777248/inter-and-intra-rater-reliability-of-the-athletic-ability-assessment-in-sub-elite-australian-rules-football-players
#20
Daniel K Rogers, Ian McKeown, Gaynor Parfitt, Darren Burgess, Roger G Eston
The aim of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-rater rater reliability of the Athletic Ability Assessment (AAA) in sub-elite Australian Rules football (ARF) players. Eighteen male ARF players completed the AAA movement assessment (overhead squat, double lunge [left and right], single leg Romanian deadlift [left and right], chin-up and push-up), on two occasions separated by one week. During the first movement assessment players were filmed in the frontal and sagittal planes. Ten raters took part in the study (one experienced rater and nine novices) and were assigned in a quasi-random manner, to complete either (a) real-time assessment on two occasions, (b) real-time assessment on one occasion or (c) video-based assessment on two occasions...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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