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Movement variability

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091557/the-same-oculomotor-vermal-purkinje-cells-encode-the-different-kinematics-of-saccades-and-of-smooth-pursuit-eye-movements
#1
Zongpeng Sun, Aleksandra Smilgin, Marc Junker, Peter W Dicke, Peter Thier
Saccades and smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEM) are two types of goal-directed eye movements whose kinematics differ profoundly, a fact that may have contributed to the notion that the underlying cerebellar substrates are separated. However, it is suggested that some Purkinje cells (PCs) in the oculomotor vermis (OMV) of monkey cerebellum may be involved in both saccades and SPEM, a puzzling finding in view of the different kinematic demands of the two types of eye movements. Such 'dual' OMV PCs might be oddities with little if any functional relevance...
January 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090684/predict-pd-an-online-approach-to-prospectively-identify-risk-indicators-of-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Alastair J Noyce, Lea R'Bibo, Luisa Peress, Jonathan P Bestwick, Kerala L Adams-Carr, Niccolo E Mencacci, Christopher H Hawkes, Joseph M Masters, Nicholas Wood, John Hardy, Gavin Giovannoni, Andrew J Lees, Anette Schrag
BACKGROUND: A number of early features can precede the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: To test an online, evidence-based algorithm to identify risk indicators of PD in the UK population. METHODS: Participants aged 60 to 80 years without PD completed an online survey and keyboard-tapping task annually over 3 years, and underwent smell tests and genotyping for glucocerebrosidase (GBA) and leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) mutations...
January 16, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088930/adherence-of-older-people-with-instability-in-vestibular-rehabilitation-programmes-prediction-criteria
#3
A Soto-Varela, A Faraldo-García, M Del-Río-Valeiras, M Rossi-Izquierdo, I Vaamonde-Sánchez-Andrade, P Gayoso-Diz, A Lirola-Delgado, S Santos-Pérez
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether demographic characteristics or balance examination findings can predict the adherence of older people with instability to a vestibular rehabilitation programme. METHODS: A prospective case-control study was conducted of 120 patients aged 65 years or more (mean age, 77.3 ± 6.33 years). Two groups were classified according to patients' adherence with the follow-up post-rehabilitation protocol. Analysed variables included: age, sex, body mass index, Timed Up and Go test findings, computerised dynamic posturography, Dizziness Handicap Inventory scores and Short Falls Efficacy Scale - International questionnaire results, number of falls, and type of vestibular rehabilitation...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087402/accuracy-is-in-the-eyes-of-the-pathologist-the-visual-interpretive-process-and-diagnostic-accuracy-with-digital-whole-slide-images
#4
Tad T Brunyé, Ezgi Mercan, Donald L Weaver, Joann G Elmore
Digital whole slide imaging is an increasingly common medium in pathology, with application to education, telemedicine, and rendering second opinions. It has also made it possible to use eye tracking devices to explore the dynamic visual inspection and interpretation of histopathological features of tissue while pathologists review cases. Using whole slide images, the present study examined how a pathologist's diagnosis is influenced by fixed case-level factors, their prior clinical experience, and their patterns of visual inspection...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080048/wearable-sensors-for-personal-monitoring-and-estimation-of-inhaled-traffic-related-air-pollution-evaluation-of-methods
#5
Evi Dons, Michelle Laeremans, Juan Pablo Orjuela, Ione Avila-Palencia, Glòria Carrasco-Turigas, Tom Cole-Hunter, Esther Anaya-Boig, Arnout Standaert, Patrick De Boever, Tim S Nawrot, Thomas Götschi, Audrey de Nazelle, Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen, Luc Int Panis
Physical activity and ventilation rates have an effect on an individual's dose and may be important to consider in exposure-response relationships; however, these factors are often ignored in environmental epidemiology studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate methods to estimate the inhaled dose of air pollution and understand variability, in the absence of a true gold standard metric. Five types of methods were identified: (1) methods using (physical) activity types; (2) methods based on energy expenditure, METs (metabolic equivalents of task) and oxygen consumption; (3) methods based on heart rate or (4) breathing rate; and (5) methods that combine heart and breathing rate...
January 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079509/excellent-balance-skills-despite-active-and-inactive-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis-unexpected-results-of-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Josephine Merker, Matthias Hartmann, Florian Kreuzpointner, Ansgar Schwirtz, Johannes-Peter Haas
OBJECTIVES: Postural control (PC) is fundamental for human movements. Different factors, such as injuries or diseases, can adversely affect PC. The purpose of this study was to evaluate PC in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) patients with different disease activity levels in comparison to healthy peers. METHODS: JIA patients with active and inactive lower limb joints (n=36 each group) were examined. Both groups have been on medication and have had physiotherapy for at least 5 years...
January 5, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078839/widespread-membrane-potential-changes-and-cardiorespiratory-synchronization-involved-in-anxiety-and-sleep-wake-transitions
#7
R Jerath, S M Cearley, M Jensen
Located within the ascending reticular activating system are nuclei which release neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, and norepinephrine. These nuclei have widespread projections that extend into the limbic system and throughout cortex. Activation of these neurotransmitters during awake states leads to arousal, while inhibition leads to the loss of consciousness experienced during slow-wave sleep. Previously, we proposed a mechanism in which cardiorespiratory synchronization may underlie the widespread hyperpolarization that occurs throughout the brain during slow-wave sleep...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078822/development-and-testing-of-a-grasper-for-notes-powered-by-variable-stiffness-pneumatic-actuation
#8
Michele Gabrio Antonelli, Pierluigi Beomonte Zobel, Francesco Durante, Fabio Gaj
BACKGROUND: In natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery (NOTES) the peritoneal cavity is reached through natural orifices (mouth, rectus and transvaginal duct), by means of little cuttings in the walls of hollow organs. Due to narrow spaces, NOTES needs robotic systems to assure operation/movement precision and patient safety. Variable stiffness actuation (VSA) assures both requirements. METHODS: The authors developed a grasper for NOTES, provided with VSA, to use as an end-effector for snail robot devices...
January 12, 2017: International Journal of Medical Robotics + Computer Assisted Surgery: MRCAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078452/do-deer-and-raccoons-defecate-in-the-right-place-fitness-consequences-of-vertebrate-seed-dispersal-for-a-deciduous-forest-herb
#9
Eric C Niederhauser, Glenn R Matlack
Precision of seed placement in a heterogeneous environment is often assumed to select for the evolution of animal-mediated dispersal systems, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a multivariate sense. We quantify the microsite fitness benefits of dispersal by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and raccoons (Procyon lotor) for mayapple (Podophyllum peltatum), a shade-tolerant perennial herb, in deciduous forests of southeastern Ohio, USA. Micro-environmental variables were recorded at dung-deposition microsites, at rooting points of mayapple shoots, and at random (control) points in the forest...
January 11, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077603/influence-of-focus-of-attention-reinvestment-and-fall-history-on-elderly-gait-stability
#10
Jonathan L A de Melker Worms, John F Stins, Erwin E H van Wegen, Ian D Loram, Peter J Beek
Falls represent a substantial risk in the elderly. Previous studies have found that a focus on the outcome or effect of the movement (external focus of attention) leads to improved balance performance, whereas a focus on the movement execution itself (internal focus of attention) impairs balance performance in elderly. A shift toward more conscious, explicit forms of motor control occurs when existing declarative knowledge is recruited in motor control, a phenomenon called reinvestment. We investigated the effects of attentional focus and reinvestment on gait stability in elderly fallers and nonfallers...
January 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075017/intrapopulation-variability-in-the-timing-of-ontogenetic-habitat-shifts-in-sea-turtles-revealed-using-%C3%AE-15-n-values-from-bone-growth-rings
#11
Calandra N Turner Tomaszewicz, Jeffrey A Seminoff, S Hoyt Peckham, Larisa Avens, Carolyn M Kurle
Determining location and timing of ontogenetic shifts in the habitat use of highly migratory species, along with possible intrapopulation variation in these shifts, is essential for understanding mechanisms driving alternate life histories and assessing overall population trends. Measuring variations in multi-year habitat-use patterns is especially difficult for remote oceanic species. To investigate the potential for differential habitat use among migratory marine vertebrates, we measured the naturally occurring stable nitrogen isotope (δ(15) N) patterns that differentiate distinct ocean regions to create a 'regional isotope characterization', analysed the δ(15) N values from annual bone growth layer rings from dead-stranded animals, and then combined the bone and regional isotope data to track individual animal movement patterns over multiple years...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073451/implications-of-turbulent-flow-in-connecting-capillaries-used-in-high-performance-liquid-chromatography
#12
John Halvorson, Abraham M Lenhoff, Monika Dittmann, Dwight R Stoll
The ongoing movement in HPLC toward the use of small columns packed with small particles for high speed separations results in eluted peaks with very small volumetric variances. Avoiding degradation of separation performance under these conditions requires careful consideration of all sources of extra-column peak dispersion. Recent trends towards decreased diameters of connecting capillaries and increased flow rates for analytical-scale separations can result in Reynolds numbers that exceed 2000. This raises the possibility of a transition from laminar to turbulent flow, thereby resulting in a higher than expected pressure drop across the capillary at a given flow rate...
December 31, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072450/spatial-heterogeneity-can-resolve-the-nitrogen-paradox-of-tropical-forests
#13
Duncan N L Menge, Simon A Levin
Many tropical forests are characterized by large losses of plant-available forms of nitrogen (N), indicating that they are N-rich, and by an abundance of plants capable of symbiotic N fixation. These N-fixing plants can fix enough N to drive N-richness. However, biological N fixation (BNF) is more expensive than using plant-available N, so sustained BNF in N-rich soils appears to be a paradox. Here, we use spatially explicit ecosystem models to analyze the conditions under which spatial heterogeneity can induce simultaneous BNF and loss of plant-available N (hereafter, we call this combination "N-rich BNF")...
January 10, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071824/heart-rate-variability-in-leucine-rich-repeat-kinase-2-associated-parkinson-s-disease
#14
Naomi P Visanji, Grace S Bhudhikanok, Tiago A Mestre, Taneera Ghate, Kaviraj Udupa, Amaal AlDakheel, Barbara S Connolly, Carmen Gasca-Salas, Drew S Kern, Jennifer Jain, Elizabeth J Slow, Achinoam Faust-Socher, Sam Kim, Ruksana Azhu Valappil, Farah Kausar, Ekaterina Rogaeva, J William Langston, Caroline M Tanner, Birgitt Schüle, Anthony E Lang, Samuel M Goldman, Connie Marras
BACKGROUND: Heart rate variability is reduced in idiopathic PD, indicating cardiac autonomic dysfunction likely resulting from peripheral autonomic synucleinopathy. Little is known about heart rate variability in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2-associated PD. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated heart rate variability in LRRK2-associated PD. METHODS: Resting electrocardiograms were obtained from 20 individuals with LRRK2-associated PD, 37 nonmanifesting carriers, 48 related noncarriers, 26 idiopathic PD patients, and 32 controls...
January 10, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070275/altered-natal-dispersal-at-the-range-periphery-the-role-of-behavior-resources-and-maternal-condition
#15
Melissa J Merrick, John L Koprowski
Natal dispersal outcomes are an interplay between environmental conditions and individual phenotypes. Peripheral, isolated populations may experience altered environmental conditions and natal dispersal patterns that differ from populations in contiguous landscapes. We document nonphilopatric, sex-biased natal dispersal in an endangered small mammal, the Mt. Graham red squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus grahamensis), restricted to a single mountain. Other North American red squirrel populations are shown to have sex-unbiased, philopatric natal dispersal...
January 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069761/functional-and-quantitative-mri-mapping-of-somatomotor-representations-of-human-supralaryngeal-vocal-tract
#16
Daniel Carey, Saloni Krishnan, Martina F Callaghan, Martin I Sereno, Frederic Dick
Speech articulation requires precise control of and coordination between the effectors of the vocal tract (e.g., lips, tongue, soft palate, and larynx). However, it is unclear how the cortex represents movements of and contact between these effectors during speech, or how these cortical responses relate to inter-regional anatomical borders. Here, we used phase-encoded fMRI to map somatomotor representations of speech articulations. Phonetically trained participants produced speech phones, progressing from front (bilabial) to back (glottal) place of articulation...
January 8, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069205/study-of-a-laboratory-scaled-new-method-for-the-accelerated-continuous-ageing-of-wine-spirits-by-applying-ultrasound-energy
#17
M J Delgado-González, M M Sánchez-Guillén, M V García-Moreno, M C Rodríguez-Dodero, C García-Barroso, D A Guillén-Sánchez
During the ageing of brandies, many physicochemical processes take place involving the distilled spirit and the wood of the casks. Because of these reactions, the polyphenolic content of brandies and their content of organic acids increase with the ageing. These reactions are slow, and the ageing of high-quality brandies takes several years. In this paper, the development of a system that uses the circulation of the wine distillate through encapsulated American oak chips and the application of ultrasound energy with the aim of producing aged wine spirits has been carried out, and the influences of the operation variables over the characteristics of the produced drink have been measured...
May 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068376/an-objective-functional-characterisation-of-head-movement-impairment-in-individuals-with-neck-muscle-weakness-due-to-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#18
Silvia Pancani, Wendy Tindale, Pamela J Shaw, Christopher J McDermott, Claudia Mazzà
BACKGROUND: Neck muscle weakness and head drop are well recognised in patients with Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), but an objective characterisation of the consequent head movement impairment is lacking. The aim of this study was to quantitatively characterise head movements in ALS compared to aged matched controls. METHODS: We evaluated two groups, one of thirteen patients with ALS and one of thirteen age-matched controls, during the execution of a series of controlled head movements, performed while wearing two inertial sensors attached on the forehead and sternum, respectively...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067608/continuous-cognitive-task-promotes-greater-postural-stability-than-an-internal-or-external-focus-of-attention-in-older-adults
#19
Natalie Richer, Nadia Polskaia, Yves Lajoie
: Background/Study Context: Recent evidence suggests that removing attention from postural control using either an external focus or a cognitive task will improve stability in healthy young adults. Due to increases in attentional requirements of upright stance in older adults, it is unclear if similar benefits would be observed in this population. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of attentional focus and of a continuous cognitive task on postural control in older adults...
January 2017: Experimental Aging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067582/the-relationship-of-hip-muscle-performance-to-leg-ankle-and-foot-injuries-a-systematic-review
#20
Nili Steinberg, Gali Dar, Martin Dunlop, James Edmund Gaida
OBJECTIVES: Hip control affects movement and muscle firing patterns in the leg, ankle and foot, and may contribute to overuse injuries. Muscle performance can be measured as strength, endurance or muscle activation patterns. Our objective was to systematically review whether hip muscle performance is associated with leg, ankle and foot injuries. DATA SOURCES: A structured and comprehensive search of six medical literature databases was combined with forward and backward citation tracking (AMED, CINAHL, EMBASE, Medline, Scopus and SportDiscus)...
January 9, 2017: Physician and Sportsmedicine
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