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End tidal CO2

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918847/left-ventricular-compressions-improve-hemodynamics-in-a-swine-model-of-out-of-hospital-cardiac-arrest
#1
Kenton L Anderson, Maria G Castaneda, Susan M Boudreau, Danny J Sharon, Vikhyat S Bebarta
INTRODUCTION: We hypothesized that chest compressions located directly over the left ventricle (LV) would improve hemodynamics, including coronary perfusion pressure (CPP), and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in a swine model of cardiac arrest. METHODS: Transthoracic echocardiography (echo) was used to mark the location of the aortic root and the center of the left ventricle on animals (n = 26) which were randomized to receive chest compressions in one of the two locations...
December 5, 2016: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911329/comparison-of-model-based-indices-of%C3%A2-cerebral-autoregulation-and-vasomotor-reactivity-using-transcranial-doppler-versus-near-infrared-spectroscopy-in%C3%A2-patients-with-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Vasilis Z Marmarelis, Dae C Shin, Takashi Tarumi, Rong Zhang
We recently introduced model-based "physiomarkers" of dynamic cerebral autoregulation and CO2 vasomotor reactivity as an aid for diagnosis of early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD) [1], where significant impairment of dynamic vasomotor reactivity (DVR) was observed in early-stage AD patients relative to age-matched controls. Milder impairment of DVR was shown in patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) using the same approach in a subsequent study [2]. The advocated approach utilizes subject-specific data-based models of cerebral hemodynamics to quantify the dynamic effects of resting-state changes in arterial blood pressure and end-tidal CO2 (the putative inputs) upon cerebral blood flow velocity (the putative output) measured at the middle cerebral artery via transcranial Doppler (TCD)...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907960/multimodality-monitoring-illuminating-the-comatose-human-brain
#3
Charles L Francoeur, Margaret Pain, Stephan A Mayer
The field of neurocritical care has evolved tremendously in recent years, a development explained vastly by the advent of neurophysiological monitoring. From basic intracranial pressure measurements to brain tissue oxygenation, microdialysis, cerebral blood flow (CBF), and surface and intracortical electroencephalography (EEG), our ability to detect and control physiologic endpoints of brain function in comatose patients has grown substantially. The integration of these data gave birth to the concept of multimodality monitoring (MMM)...
December 2016: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899896/respiratory-function-in-voluntary-participating-patagonia-sea-lions-otaria-flavescens-in-sternal-recumbency
#4
Andreas Fahlman, Johnny Madigan
We measured esophageal pressures (n = 4), respiratory flow rates (n = 5), and expired O2 and CO2 (n = 4) in five adult Patagonia sea lions (Otaria flavescens, body mass range 94.3-286.0 kg) during voluntary breaths while laying down out of water. The data were used to estimate the dynamic specific lung compliance (sCL), the O2 consumption rate ([Formula: see text]O2) and CO2 production rates ([Formula: see text]CO2) during rest. Our results indicate that the resting tidal volume in Patagonia sea lions is approximately 47-73% of the estimated total lung capacity...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899530/deep-breathing-improves-end-tidal-carbon-dioxide-monitoring-of-an-oxygen-nasal-cannula-based-capnometry-device-in-subjects-extubated-after-abdominal-surgery
#5
Shunsuke Takaki, Kenji Mizutani, Moeka Fukuchi, Tasuku Yoshida, Masahumi Idei, Yuko Matsuda, Yoshikazu Yamaguchi, Tetsuya Miyashita, Takeshi Nomura, Osamu Yamaguchi, Takahisa Goto
BACKGROUND: Capnometry detects hypoventilation earlier than pulse oximetry while supplemental oxygen is being administered. We compared the end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2 ) measured using a newly developed oxygen nasal cannula with a CO2-sampling port and the PaCO2 in extubated subjects after abdominal surgery. We also investigated whether the difference between PaCO2 and PETCO2 is affected by resting, by spontaneous breathing with the mouth consciously closed, and by deep breathing with the mouth closed...
November 29, 2016: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898437/how-best-to-set-the-ventilator-on-extracorporeal-membrane-lung-oxygenation
#6
Luciano Gattinoni, Tommaso Tonetti, Michael Quintel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Extracorporeal respiratory support in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome is applied either as rescue maneuver for life-threatening hypoxemia or as a tool to reduce the harm of mechanical ventilation. Depending on the blood and gas flow, extracorporeal support may completely substitute the natural lung as a gas exchanger (high-flow venovenous bypass) or reduce the need for mechanical ventilation, enabling the removal of a fraction of the metabolically produced CO2...
November 24, 2016: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877068/comparative-study-of-minimal-fresh-gas-flow-used-in-lack-plus-and-lack-s-circuit-in-spontaneously-breathing-anesthetized-adults
#7
Sunchai Theerapongpakdee, Thepakorn Sathitkarnmanee, Sirirat Tribuddharat, Siwalai Sucher, Maneerat Thananun, Duangthida Nonlhaopol
BACKGROUND: The Lack's circuit is a co-axial Mapleson A breathing system commonly used in spontaneously breathing anesthetized adults but still requires high fresh gas flow (FGF). The Lack-Plus circuit was invented with the advantage of lower FGF requirement. The authors compared the Lack-Plus and Lack's circuit for the minimal FGF requirement with no rebreathing in spontaneously breathing anesthetized adults. METHODS: This was a randomized crossover study. We enrolled 24 adult patients undergoing supine elective surgery, with a body mass index ≤30 kg/m(2) and an American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-II...
2016: Medical Devices: Evidence and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873331/low-tidal-volume-reduces-lung-inflammation-induced-by-liquid-ventilation-in-piglets-with-severe-lung-injury
#8
Lijun Jiang, Huizhen Feng, Xiaofan Chen, Kaifeng Liang, Chengyao Ni
Total liquid ventilation (TLV) is an alternative treatment for severe lung injury. High tidal volume is usually required for TLV to maintain adequate CO2 clearance. However, high tidal volume may cause alveolar barotrauma. We aim to investigate the effect of low tidal volume on pulmonary inflammation in piglets with lung injury and under TLV. After the establishment of acute lung injury model by infusing lipopolysaccharide, 12 piglets were randomly divided into two groups, TLV with high tidal volume (25 mL/kg) or with low tidal volume (6 mL/kg) for 240 min, respectively...
November 21, 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871584/a-comparison-of-3-ventilation-strategies-in-children-younger-than-1-year-using-a-proseal-laryngeal-mask-airway-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
T Wesley Templeton, Lauren K Hoke, Leah B Templeton, Douglas G Ririe, Danielle M Rose, Yvon F Bryan
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine quantitative differences in several routinely measured ventilation parameters using a standardized anesthetic technique and 3 different ventilation modalities in patients younger than 1 year with a ProSeal laryngeal mask airway (PLMA). DESIGN: Randomized prospective study. SETTING: Tertiary care pediatric hospital. PATIENTS: Thirty-nine American Society Anesthesiologists classifications 1 to 2, pediatric patients younger than 1 year...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870644/analysis-of-physiological-respiratory-variable-alarm-alerts-among-laboring-women-receiving-remifentanil
#10
Carolyn F Weiniger, Brendan Carvalho, Daniel Stocki, Sharon Einav
BACKGROUND: Remifentanil may be used by laboring women for analgesia, despite controversy because of potential apneas. We evaluated candidate variables as early warning alerts for apnea, based on prevalence, positive predictive rate, sensitivity for apnea event detection, and early warning alert time intervals (lead time) for apnea. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of respiratory physiological data that had been collected during a prospective IRB-approved study of laboring women receiving IV patient-controlled boluses of remifentanil 20 to 60 μg every 1 to 2 minutes...
November 18, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857962/functional-analysis-of-ryr1-variants-linked-to-malignant-hyperthermia
#11
Jeremy Stephens, Anja H Schiemann, Cornelia Roesl, Dorota Miller, Sean Massey, Neil Pollock, Terasa Bulger, Kathryn Stowell
Malignant hyperthermia manifests as a rapid and sustained rise in temperature in response to pharmacological triggering agents, e.g. inhalational anesthetics and the muscle relaxant suxamethonium. Other clinical signs include an increase in end-tidal CO2, increased O2 consumption, as well as tachycardia, and if untreated a malignant hyperthermia episode can result in death. The metabolic changes are caused by dysregulation of skeletal muscle Ca(2+) homeostasis, resulting from a defective ryanodine receptor Ca(2+) channel, which resides in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and controls the flux of Ca(2+) ions from intracellular stores to the cytoplasm...
April 2016: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837189/middle-cerebral-artery-diameter-changes-during-rhythmic-handgrip-exercise-in-humans
#12
J Verbree, Agt Bronzwaer, M A van Buchem, Mjap Daemen, J J van Lieshout, Mjp van Osch
Transcranial Doppler (TCD) sonography is a frequently employed technique for quantifying cerebral blood flow by assuming a constant arterial diameter. Given that exercise increases arterial pressure by sympathetic activation, we hypothesized that exercise might induce a change in the diameter of large cerebral arteries. Middle cerebral artery (MCA) cross-sectional area was assessed in response to handgrip exercise by direct magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) observations. Twenty healthy subjects (11 female) performed three 5 min bouts of rhythmic handgrip exercise at 60% maximum voluntary contraction, alternated with 5 min of rest...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817818/clinical-usefulness-of-end-tidal-co2-profiles-during-incremental-exercise-in-patients-with-chronic-thromboembolic-pulmonary-hypertension
#13
R P Ramos, E V M Ferreira, F M Valois, A Cepeda, C M S Messina, R K Oliveira, A T V Araújo, C A Teles, J A Neder, L E Nery, J S Ota-Arakaki
INTRODUCTION: Great ventilation to carbon dioxide output (ΔV˙E/ΔV˙CO2) and reduced end-tidal partial pressures for CO2 (PetCO2) during incremental exercise are hallmarks of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) and idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). However, CTEPH is more likely to involve proximal arteries, which may lead to poorer right ventricle-pulmonary vascular coupling and worse gas exchange abnormalities. Therefore, abnormal PetCO2 profiles during exercise may be more prominent in patients with CTEPH and could be helpful to indicate disease severity...
November 2016: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806982/coupling-between-arterial-and-venous-cerebral-blood-flow-during-postural-change
#14
Shigehiko Ogoh, Takuro Washio, Hiroyuki Sasaki, Lonnie Grove Petersen, Niels H Secher, Kohei Sato
In supine humans the main drainage from the brain is through the internal jugular vein (IJV) but the vertebral veins (VV) become important during orthostatic stress because the IJV is partially collapsed. To identify the effect of this shift in venous drainage from the brain on the cerebral circulation, this study addressed both arterial and venous flow responses in the "anterior" and "posterior" parts of the brain when 9 healthy subjects (5 men) were seated and flow was manipulated by hyperventilation and inhalation of 6% carbon dioxide (CO2)...
November 2, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27802295/cerebral-hemodynamics-in-patients-with-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome-assessed-by-susceptibility-weighted-imaging-and-four-dimensional-non-contrast-mr-angiography
#15
Ulrike Löbel, Nils Daniel Forkert, Peter Schmitt, Torsten Dohrmann, Maria Schroeder, Tim Magnus, Stefan Kluge, Christina Weiler-Normann, Xiaoming Bi, Jens Fiehler, Jan Sedlacik
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and neurological symptoms performed during an epidemic outbreak of Escherichia coli O104:H4 in Northern Europe has previously shown pathological changes in only approximately 50% of patients. In contrast, susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) revealed a loss of venous contrast in a large number of patients. We hypothesized that this observation may be due to an increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and aimed to identify a plausible cause...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779551/does-exercise-ventilatory-inefficiency-predict-poor-outcome-in-heart-failure-patients-with-copd
#16
Maria Clara Alencar, Flavio F Arbex, Aline Souza, Adriana Mazzuco, Priscila A Sperandio, Alcides Rocha, Daniel M Hirai, Frederico Mancuso, Danilo C Berton, Audrey Borghi-Silva, Dirceu Almeida, Denis E OʼDonnel, J Alberto Neder
PURPOSE: To investigate whether the opposite effects of heart failure (HF) and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) on exercise ventilatory inefficiency (minute ventilation [(Equation is included in full-text article.)E]-carbon dioxide output [(Equation is included in full-text article.)CO2] relationship) would negatively impact its prognostic relevance. METHODS: After treatment optimization and an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test, 30 male patients with HF-COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] = 57% ± 17% predicted, ejection fraction = 35% ± 6%) were prospectively followed up during 412 ± 261 days for major cardiac events...
November 2016: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766526/implementation-of-a-novel-postoperative-monitoring-system-using-automated-modified-early-warning-scores-mews-incorporating-end-tidal-capnography
#17
Joseph M Blankush, Robbie Freeman, Joy McIlvaine, Trung Tran, Stephen Nassani, I Michael Leitman
Modified Early Warning Scores (MEWS) provide real-time vital sign (VS) trending and reduce ICU admissions in post-operative patients. These early warning calculations classically incorporate oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiratory rate, systolic blood pressure, and temperature but have not previously included end-tidal CO2 (EtCO2), more recently identified as an independent predictor of critical illness. These systems may be subject to failure when physiologic data is incorrectly measured, leading to false alarms and increased workload...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725351/cardiorespiratory-dose-response-relationship-of-isoflurane-in-cinereous-vulture-aegypius-monachus-during-spontaneous-ventilation
#18
Seong-Hoon Seok, Dong-Hyuk Jeong, Il-Hwa Hong, Hee-Chun Lee, Seong-Chan Yeon
Anesthesia is an inevitably important component of diagnosis and treatments examining the health condition of wild animals. Not only does anesthesia become an essential tool in minimizing stress of the patients and providing an opportunity to deliver accurate and safe procedures, but it also ensures the safety of the medical crew members. This study was conducted to investigate the dose-response cardiorespiratory effects of isoflurane during spontaneous ventilation in ten cinereous vultures. Each bird was administered isoflurane at initial concentration of 1...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27725350/cardiorespiratory-effects-of-isoflurane-in-asiatic-black-bears-ursus-thibetanus-anesthetized-with-intramuscular-medetomidine-and-zolazepam-tiletamine
#19
Dong-Hyuk Jeong, Jeong-Jin Yang, Seong-Hoon Seok, Dong-Joo Song, Seong-Chan Yeon
The objective of this study was to determine the dose-dependent effects of isoflurane on various cardiovascular parameters and the stable range of isoflurane concentrations in Asiatic black bears (Ursus thibetanus). Seven Asiatic black bears were intramuscularly injected with medetomidine, zolazepam, and tiletamine (MZT) to induce anesthesia and anesthesia was maintained by administering isoflurane in 100% oxygen (4 l/min) without mechanical ventilation. Several cardiovascular parameters were measured at five end-tidal isoflurane concentrations (0...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712903/end-tidal-co2-on-admission-is-associated-with-hemorrhagic-shock-and-predicts-the-need-for-massive-transfusion-as-defined-by-the-critical-administration-threshold-a-pilot-study
#20
Melvin E Stone, Stanley Kalata, Anna Liveris, Zachary Adorno, Shira Yellin, Edward Chao, Srinivas H Reddy, Michael Jones, Carlos Vargas, Sheldon Teperman
BACKGROUND: Critical administration threshold (≥3 units of packed red blood cells/h or CAT+) has been proposed as a new definition for massive transfusion (MT) that includes volume and rate of blood transfusion. CAT+ has been shown to eliminate survivor bias and be a better predictor of mortality than the traditional MT (>10 units/24h). End-tidal CO2 (ET CO2) negatively correlates with lactate and is an early predictor of shock in trauma patients. We conducted a pilot study to test the hypothesis that low ET CO2 on admission predicts CAT+...
July 5, 2016: Injury
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