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Cortical reorganization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340432/reorganization-of-anterior-and-posterior-hippocampal-networks-associated-with-memory-performance-in-mesial-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#1
Hong Li, Caihong Ji, Lujia Zhu, Peiyu Huang, Biao Jiang, Xiaojun Xu, Jianzhong Sun, Zhong Chen, Meiping Ding, Minming Zhang, Shuang Wang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the pattern of functional demarcation of hippocampal network and its relationship with memory performance in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) with unilateral hippocampal sclerosis. METHODS: Resting state fMRI data were acquired from fifteen left mTLE patients, fourteen right mTLE patients and twenty healthy subjects. We explore the hippocampal-cortical alterations and corresponding inter-hemispheric functional connectivity (FC) across anterior and posterior hippocampal networks...
March 4, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340134/primary-motor-cortex-organization-is-altered-in-persistent-patellofemoral-pain
#2
Maxine Te, Abrahão F Baptista, Lucy S Chipchase, Siobhan M Schabrun
Objective.:  Reorganization of the primary motor cortex (M1) may be a feature of persistent patellofemoral pain (PFP), but no studies have investigated M1 organization in this condition. Here we aimed to examine the organization of the M1 representation of the quadriceps muscles in people with PFP and healthy controls. Design.:  Using a cross-sectional design, the M1 representation of the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis was mapped using transcranial magnetic stimulation in 11 individuals with PFP and 11 controls...
March 14, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328939/multimodal-mr-imaging-reveals-large-scale-structural-and-functional-connectivity-changes-in-profound-early-blindness
#3
Corinna M Bauer, Gabriella V Hirsch, Lauren Zajac, Bang-Bon Koo, Olivier Collignon, Lotfi B Merabet
In the setting of profound ocular blindness, numerous lines of evidence demonstrate the existence of dramatic anatomical and functional changes within the brain. However, previous studies based on a variety of distinct measures have often provided inconsistent findings. To help reconcile this issue, we used a multimodal magnetic resonance (MR)-based imaging approach to provide complementary structural and functional information regarding this neuroplastic reorganization. This included gray matter structural morphometry, high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) of white matter connectivity and integrity, and resting state functional connectivity MRI (rsfcMRI) analysis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328700/lumbar-tactile-acuity-in-patients-with-low-back-pain-and-healthy-controls-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Wacław Adamczyk, Kerstin Luedtke, Edward Saulicz
OBJECTIVE: Diminished tactile acuity in chronic non-neuropathic pain syndromes has been attributed to central pain processing and cortical reorganization. The latter was recently targeted in clinical trials that demonstrated no clear advantages over traditional approaches for the reduction of nonspecific low back pain (LBP). The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize the current evidence on tactile acuity in LBP and pain-free controls. METHODS: Six databases were independently searched by 2 researchers...
March 21, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325854/the-effect-of-diabetes-on-cortical-function-in-stroke-implications-for-post-stroke-plasticity
#5
William Huynh, Natalie Kwai, Ria Arnold, Arun V Krishnan, Cindy S-Y Lin, Steve Vucic, Matthew C Kiernan
Diabetes may impair the capacity for neuroplasticity such that patients experience a slower and poorer recovery after stroke. The current study aimed to investigate changes in cortical function in stroke patients with diabetes to determine how this comorbidity may impact post-stroke cortical plasticity and thereby functional recovery. From a cohort of 57 participants, threshold-tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation was utilised to assess cortical function over the ipsi- and contralesional hemispheres in 7 diabetic patients following an acute stroke, and compared to 12 stroke patients without diabetes...
March 21, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323619/fast-spiking-gaba-circuit-dynamics-in-the-auditory-cortex-predict-recovery-of-sensory-processing-following-peripheral-nerve-damage
#6
Jennifer Resnik, Daniel B Polley
Cortical neurons remap their receptive fields and rescale sensitivity to spared peripheral inputs following sensory nerve damage. To address how these plasticity processes are coordinated over the course of functional recovery, we tracked receptive field reorganization, spontaneous activity, and response gain from individual principal neurons in the adult mouse auditory cortex over a 50-day period surrounding either moderate or massive auditory nerve damage. We related the day-by-day recovery of sound processing to dynamic changes in the strength of intracortical inhibition from parvalbumin-expressing (PV) inhibitory neurons...
March 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315725/vibration-training-after-chronic-spinal-cord-injury-evidence-for-persistent-segmental-plasticity
#7
Chu-Ling Yen, Colleen L McHenry, Michael A Petrie, Shauna Dudley-Javoroski, Richard K Shields
H-reflex paired-pulse depression is gradually lost within the first year post-SCI, a process believed to reflect reorganization of segmental interneurons after the loss of normal descending (cortical) inhibition. This reorganization co-varies in time with the development of involuntary spasms and spasticity. The purpose of this study is to determine whether long-term vibration training may initiate the return of H-reflex paired-pulse depression in individuals with chronic, complete SCI. Five men with SCI received twice-weekly vibration training (30Hz, 0...
March 15, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303959/altered-microstructure-rather-than-morphology-in-the-corpus-callosum-after-lower-limb-amputation
#8
Zhichao Li, Chuanming Li, Lingzhong Fan, Guangyao Jiang, Jixiang Wu, Tianzi Jiang, Xuntao Yin, Jian Wang
The corpus callosum (CC) has been implicated in the reorganization of the brain following amputation. However, it is unclear which regions of the CC are involved in this process. In this study, we explored the morphometric and microstructural changes in CC subregions in patients with unilateral lower limb amputation. Thirty-eight patients and 38 age- and gender-matched normal controls were included. The CC was divided into five regions, and the area, thickness and diffusion parameters of each region were investigated...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299208/sensorimotor-cortical-neuroplasticity-in-the-early-stage-of-bell-s-palsy
#9
Wenwen Song, Minhui Dai, Lihua Xuan, Zhijian Cao, Sisi Zhou, Courtney Lang, Kun Lv, Maosheng Xu, Jian Kong
Neuroplasticity is a common phenomenon in the human brain following nerve injury. It is defined as the brain's ability to reorganize by creating new neural pathways in order to adapt to change. Here, we use task-related and resting-state fMRI to investigate neuroplasticity in the primary sensory (S1) and motor cortex (M1) in patients with acute Bell's palsy (BP). We found that the period directly following the onset of BP (less than 14 days) is associated with significant decreases in regional homogeneity (ReHo), fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF), and intrinsic connectivity contrast (ICC) values in the contralateral S1/M1 and in ReHo and ICC values in the ipsilateral S1/M1, compared to healthy controls...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295228/cognitive-network-reorganization-following-surgical-control-of-seizures-in-lennox-gastaut-syndrome
#10
Aaron E L Warren, A Simon Harvey, David F Abbott, Simon J Vogrin, Catherine Bailey, Andrew Davidson, Graeme D Jackson, John S Archer
We previously observed that adults with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) show abnormal functional connectivity among cognitive networks, suggesting that this may contribute to impaired cognition. Herein we report network reorganization following seizure remission in a child with LGS who underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after resection of a cortical dysplasia. Concurrent electroencephalography (EEG) was acquired during presurgical fMRI. Presurgical and postsurgical functional connectivity were compared using (1) graph theoretical analyses of small-world network organization and node-wise strength; and (2) seed-based analyses of connectivity within and between five functional networks...
March 11, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289715/cerebrovascular-adaptations-to-cocaine-induced-transient-ischemic-attacks-in-the-rodent-brain
#11
Jiang You, Nora D Volkow, Kicheon Park, Qiujia Zhang, Kevin Clare, Congwu Du, Yingtian Pan
Occurrence of transient ischemic attacks (TIA) and cerebral strokes is a recognized risk associated with cocaine abuse. Here, we use a rodent model along with optical imaging to study cocaine-induced TIA and the associated dynamic changes in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) and cerebrovasculature. We show that chronic cocaine exposure in mice resulted in marked cortical hypoperfusion, in significant arterial and venous vasoconstriction, and in a sensitized vascular response to an acute cocaine injection...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282668/plasticity-during-early-brain-development-is-determined-by-ontogenetic-potential
#12
Ingeborg Krägeloh-Mann, Karen Lidzba, Marina A Pavlova, Marko Wilke, Martin Staudt
Two competing hypotheses address neuroplasticity during early brain development: the "Kennard principle" describes the compensatory capacities of the immature developing CNS as superior to those of the adult brain, whereas the "Hebb principle" argues that the young brain is especially sensitive to insults. We provide evidence that these principles are not mutually exclusive. Following early brain lesions that are unilateral, the brain can refer to homotopic areas of the healthy hemisphere. This potential for reorganization is unique to the young brain but available only when, during ontogenesis of brain development, these areas have been used for the functions addressed...
April 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270751/understanding-the-role-of-gpcr-heteroreceptor-complexes-in-modulating-the-brain-networks-in-health-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Jens Carlsson, Patricia Ambrogini, Manuel Narváez, Karolina Wydra, Alexander O Tarakanov, Xiang Li, Carmelo Millón, Luca Ferraro, Riccardo Cuppini, Sergio Tanganelli, Fang Liu, Malgorzata Filip, Zaida Diaz-Cabiale, Kjell Fuxe
The introduction of allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heteroreceptor complexes of the central nervous system (CNS) gave a new dimension to brain integration and neuropsychopharmacology. The molecular basis of learning and memory was proposed to be based on the reorganization of the homo- and heteroreceptor complexes in the postjunctional membrane of synapses. Long-term memory may be created by the transformation of parts of the heteroreceptor complexes into unique transcription factors which can lead to the formation of specific adapter proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257839/visual-cortex-and-auditory-cortex-activation-in-early-binocularly-blind-macaques-a-bold-fmri-study-using-auditory-stimuli
#14
Rong Wang, Lingjie Wu, Zuohua Tang, Xinghuai Sun, Xiaoyuan Feng, Weijun Tang, Wen Qian, Jie Wang, Lixin Jin, Yufeng Zhong, Zebin Xiao
Cross-modal plasticity within the visual and auditory cortices of early binocularly blind macaques is not well studied. In this study, four healthy neonatal macaques were assigned to group A (control group) or group B (binocularly blind group). Sixteen months later, blood oxygenation level-dependent functional imaging (BOLD-fMRI) was conducted to examine the activation in the visual and auditory cortices of each macaque while being tested using pure tones as auditory stimuli. The changes in the BOLD response in the visual and auditory cortices of all macaques were compared with immunofluorescence staining findings...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250756/evidence-of-cortical-reorganization-of-language-networks-after-stroke-with-subacute-broca-s-aphasia-a-blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#15
Wei-Hong Qiu, Hui-Xiang Wu, Qing-Lu Yang, Zhuang Kang, Zhao-Cong Chen, Kui Li, Guo-Rong Qiu, Chun-Qing Xie, Gui-Fang Wan, Shao-Qiong Chen
Aphasia is an acquired language disorder that is a common consequence of stroke. The pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood, and as a result, current treatment options are not satisfactory. Here, we used blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the activation of bilateral cortices in patients with Broca's aphasia 1 to 3 months after stroke. Our results showed that language expression was associated with multiple brain regions in which the right hemisphere participated in the generation of language...
January 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241776/the-effectiveness-of-robot-assisted-gait-training-versus-conventional-therapy-on-mobility-in-severely-disabled-progressive-multiple-sclerosis-patients-ragtime-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Sofia Straudi, Fabio Manfredini, Nicola Lamberti, Paolo Zamboni, Francesco Bernardi, Giovanna Marchetti, Paolo Pinton, Massimo Bonora, Paola Secchiero, Veronica Tisato, Stefano Volpato, Nino Basaglia
BACKGROUND: Gait and mobility impairments affect the quality of life (QoL) of patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (MS). Robot-assisted gait training (RAGT) is an effective rehabilitative treatment but evidence of its superiority compared to other options is lacking. Furthermore, the response to rehabilitation is multidimensional, person-specific and possibly involves functional reorganization processes. The aims of this study are: (1) to test the effectiveness on gait speed, mobility, balance, fatigue and QoL of RAGT compared to conventional therapy (CT) in progressive MS and (2) to explore changes of clinical and circulating biomarkers of neural plasticity...
February 27, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241053/release-of-hiv-1-sequestered-in-the-vesicles-of-oral-and-genital-mucosal-epithelial-cells-by-epithelial-lymphocyte-interaction
#17
Aizezi Yasen, Rossana Herrera, Kristina Rosbe, Kathy Lien, Sharof M Tugizov
Oropharyngeal mucosal epithelia of fetuses/neonates/infants and the genital epithelia of adults play a critical role in HIV-1 mother-to-child transmission and sexual transmission of virus, respectively. To study the mechanisms of HIV-1 transmission through mucosal epithelium, we established polarized tonsil, cervical and foreskin epithelial cells. Analysis of HIV-1 transmission through epithelial cells showed that approximately 0.05% of initially inoculated virions transmigrated via epithelium. More than 90% of internalized virions were sequestered in the endosomes of epithelial cells, including multivesicular bodies (MVBs) and vacuoles...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238548/context-and-output-layer-dependent-long-term-ensemble-plasticity-in-a-sensory-circuit
#18
Yoshiyuki Yamada, Khaleel Bhaukaurally, Tamás J Madarász, Alexandre Pouget, Ivan Rodriguez, Alan Carleton
Sensory information is translated into ensemble representations by various populations of projection neurons in brain circuits. The dynamics of ensemble representations formed by distinct channels of output neurons in diverse behavioral contexts remains largely unknown. We studied the two output neuron layers in the olfactory bulb (OB), mitral and tufted cells, using chronic two-photon calcium imaging in awake mice. Both output populations displayed similar odor response profiles. During passive sensory experience, both populations showed reorganization of ensemble odor representations yet stable pattern separation across days...
February 23, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236051/functional-connectivity-of-motor-cortical-network-in-patients-with-brachial-plexus-avulsion-injury-after-contralateral-cervical-nerve-transfer-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#19
Aihong Yu, Shufeng Wang, Xiaoguang Cheng, Wei Liang, Rongjie Bai, Yunhao Xue, Wenjun Li
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to assess the functional connectivity of the motor cortical network in patients with brachial plexus avulsion injury (BPAI) after contralateral C7 nerve transfer, using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI). METHODS: Twelve patients with total brachial plexus root avulsion underwent RS-fMRI after contralateral C7 nerve transfer. Seventeen healthy volunteers were also included in this fMRI study as controls...
February 24, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221328/retinotopic-fmri-reveals-visual-dysfunction-and-functional-reorganization-in-the-visual-cortex-of-mild-to-moderate-glaucoma-patients
#20
Wei Zhou, Eric R Muir, Kundandeep S Nagi, Steven Chalfin, Pavel Rodriguez, Timothy Q Duong
PURPOSE: To investigate retinotopic functional representation in the visual cortex of mild to moderate primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) participants and age-matched normal volunteers using high-resolution retinotopic blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). METHODS: fMRI was performed on 9 POAG participants (61±11 y old) and 9 age-matched controls (58±5 y old) were studied. A wide-view visual presentation (±55 degrees) was used to evaluate central and peripheral vision...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
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