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Cortical reorganization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791849/activation-of-entorhinal-cortical-projections-to-the-dentate-gyrus-underlies-social-memory-retrieval
#1
Celeste Leung, Feng Cao, Robin Nguyen, Krutika Joshi, Afif J Aqrabawi, Shuting Xia, Miguel A Cortez, O Carter Snead, Jun Chul Kim, Zhengping Jia
Social interactions are essential to our mental health, and a deficit in social interactions is a hallmark characteristic of numerous brain disorders. Various subregions within the medial temporal lobe have been implicated in social memory, but the underlying mechanisms that tune these neural circuits remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate that optical activation of excitatory entorhinal cortical perforant projections to the dentate gyrus (EC-DG) is necessary and sufficient for social memory retrieval. We further show that inducible disruption of p21-activated kinase (PAK) signaling, a key pathway important for cytoskeletal reorganization, in the EC-DG circuit leads to impairments in synaptic function and social recognition memory, and, importantly, optogenetic activation of the EC-DG terminals reverses the social memory deficits in the transgenic mice...
May 22, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786081/distinct-learning-induced-changes-in-stimulus-selectivity-and-interactions-of-gabaergic-interneuron-classes-in-visual-cortex
#2
Adil G Khan, Jasper Poort, Angus Chadwick, Antonin Blot, Maneesh Sahani, Thomas D Mrsic-Flogel, Sonja B Hofer
How learning enhances neural representations for behaviorally relevant stimuli via activity changes of cortical cell types remains unclear. We simultaneously imaged responses of pyramidal cells (PYR) along with parvalbumin (PV), somatostatin (SOM), and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) inhibitory interneurons in primary visual cortex while mice learned to discriminate visual patterns. Learning increased selectivity for task-relevant stimuli of PYR, PV and SOM subsets but not VIP cells. Strikingly, PV neurons became as selective as PYR cells, and their functional interactions reorganized, leading to the emergence of stimulus-selective PYR-PV ensembles...
May 21, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785947/-n-wasp-regulates-cortical-neuron-migration-through-its-polypro-and-vca-domains
#3
Xiu Lian Shen, Yi Chao Lu, Zhi Lian Jia, Qiang Wu
Cortical neuron migration in the developing mouse forebrain is a complex process, which contains several steps related to cytoskeleton dynamics and remodeling. Neural Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (N-WASP), a member of the WASP-WAVE family, regulates actin cytoskeleton reorganization through the binding of its VCA domain to the Arp2/3 complex. Here we report expression patterns of N-WASP gene in the mouse developing embryonic cortex (E12.5~ E18.5) and find its expression levels are decreased during embryonic development...
May 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777703/bacterial-metabolite-s-equol-modulates-glucagon-like-peptide-1-secretion-from-enteroendocrine-l-cell-line-glutag-cells-via-actin-polymerization
#4
Kazuki Harada, Shoko Sada, Hidekazu Sakaguchi, Mai Takizawa, Rika Ishida, Takashi Tsuboi
S-equol is one of gut bacterial metabolites produced from soybean isoflavone daizein. While S-equol is known to promote glucose-induced insulin secretion from pancreatic β cells, whether S-equol affects glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) secretion from enteroendoceine L cells remains unclear. Here we assessed the effect of S-equol on GLP-1 secretion from mouse enteroendocrine L cell line GLUTag cells. GLUTag cells expressed GPR30 and estrogen receptors, which are putative S-equol receptors. Application of S-equol induced an increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels via GPR30...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777035/septin-dependent-remodeling-of-cortical-microtubule-drives-cell-reshaping-during-epithelial-wound-healing
#5
Asako Shindo, Anastasia Audrey, Maki Takagishi, Masahide Takahashi, John B Wallingford, Makoto Kinoshita
Wounds in embryos heal rapidly through the contraction of the wound edges. Despite well-recognized significance of the actomyosin purse-string for wound closure, roles for other cytoskeletal components are largely unknown. Here, we report that the septin cytoskeleton cooperates with actomyosin and microtubules to coordinate circumferential contraction of the wound margin and concentric elongation of wound-proximal cells in Xenopus laevis embryos. Microtubules reoriented radially, forming bundles along lateral cell cortices in elongating wound-proximal cells...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773983/somatosensory-cross-modal-reorganization-in-adults-with-age-related-early-stage-hearing-loss
#6
Garrett Cardon, Anu Sharma
Under conditions of profound sensory deprivation, the brain has the propensity to reorganize. For example, intact sensory modalities often recruit deficient modalities' cortices for neural processing. This process is known as cross-modal reorganization and has been shown in congenitally and profoundly deaf patients. However, much less is known about cross-modal cortical reorganization in persons with less severe cases of age-related hearing loss (ARHL), even though such cases are far more common. Thus, we investigated cross-modal reorganization between the auditory and somatosensory modalities in older adults with normal hearing (NH) and mild-moderate ARHL in response to vibrotactile stimulation using high density electroencephalography (EEG)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764760/altered-predictive-capability-of-the-brain-network-eeg-model-in-schizophrenia-during-cognition
#7
Javier Gomez-Pilar, Jesús Poza, Carlos Gómez, Georg Northoff, Alba Lubeiro, Benjamín B Cea-Cañas, Vicente Molina, Roberto Hornero
The study of the mechanisms involved in cognition is of paramount importance for the understanding of the neurobiological substrates in psychiatric disorders. Hence, this research is aimed at exploring the brain network dynamics during a cognitive task. Specifically, we analyze the predictive capability of the pre-stimulus theta activity to ascertain the functional brain dynamics during cognition in both healthy and schizophrenia subjects. Firstly, EEG recordings were acquired during a three-tone oddball task from fifty-one healthy subjects and thirty-five schizophrenia patients...
May 12, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761951/-research-on-cortical-cross-modal-reorganization-of-children-with-congenital-severe-deafness-after-cochlear-implant
#8
Xianjun Wang, Maojin Liang, Junpeng Zhang, Hua Huang, Yiqing Zheng
Cochlear implant (CI) is the only method for efficacious treatment of congenital severe deafness at present. However, for children with congenital severe deafness after CI, the mechanism of the structural and functional changes of their cerebral cortex is not clear. This study was based on the cross-modal reorganization of deaf patients. Event related potential (ERP) and source localization technique were used to visualize the change of cortical activity in children with congenital severe deafness during 1-year period (0, 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after CI)...
October 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729891/functional-connectivity-behavioral-and-dopaminergic-alterations-24-hours-following-acute-exposure-to-synthetic-bath-salt-drug-methylenedioxypyrovalerone
#9
Luis M Colon-Perez, Jose A Pino, Kaustuv Saha, Marjory Pompilus, Sherman Kaplitz, Nafisa Choudhury, Darin A Jagnarine, Jean R Geste, Brandon A Levin, Isaac Wilks, Barry Setlow, Adriaan W Bruijnzeel, Habibeh Khoshbouei, Gonzalo E Torres, Marcelo Febo
Among cathinone drugs known as bath salts, methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) exerts its potent actions via the dopamine (DA) system, and at intoxicating doses may produce adverse behavioral effects. Previous work by our group suggests that prolonged alterations in correlated neural activity between cortical and striatal areas could underlie, at least in part, the adverse reactions to this bath salt drug. In the present study, we assessed the effect of acute MDPV administration on brain functional connectivity at 1 and 24 h in rats...
May 3, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720403/urokinase-type-plasminogen-activator-upa-promotes-ezrin-mediated-reorganization-of-the-synaptic-cytoskeleton-in-the-ischemic-brain
#10
Paola Merino, Ariel Diaz, Luis Guillermo Manrique, Lihong Cheng, Manuel Yepes
Synaptic repair in the ischemic brain is a complex process that requires reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton.  Ezrin, radixin and moesin (ERM) are a group of evolutionary conserved proteins that link the plasma membrane to the actin cytoskeleton and act as scaffolds for signaling transduction.  Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) is a serine proteinase that upon binding to the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen into plasmin on the cell surface and activates intracellular signaling pathways...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718200/dynamic-patterns-of-spontaneous-ongoing-activity-in-the-visual-cortex-of-anesthetized-and-awake-monkeys-are-different
#11
David B Omer, Tomer Fekete, Yigal Ulchin, Rina Hildesheim, Amiram Grinvald
Ongoing internal cortical activity plays a major role in perception and behavior both in animals and humans. Previously we have shown that spontaneous patterns resembling orientation-maps appear over large cortical areas in the primary visual-cortex of anesthetized cats. However, it remains unknown 1) whether spontaneous-activity in the primate also displays similar patterns and 2) whether a significant difference exists between cortical ongoing-activity in the anesthetized and awake primate. We explored these questions by combining voltage-sensitive-dye imaging with multiunit and local-field-potential recordings...
April 27, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717625/remote-changes-in-cortical-excitability-after-experimental-tbi-and-functional-reorganization
#12
Derek R Verley, Daneil Torolira, Brandon Pulido, Boris Gutman, Anatol Bragin, Andrew Mayer, Neil G Harris
Although cognitive and behavioral deficits are well known to occur following traumatic brain injury (TBI), motor deficits that occur, even after mild trauma are far less known, yet are equally persistent. This study was aimed at making progress toward determining how the brain reorganizes in response to TBI. We used the adult rat, controlled cortical impact injury model to study the ipsilesional forelimb map evoked by electrical stimulation of the affected limb, as well as the contralesional forelimb map evoked by stimulation of the unaffected limb, both before injury and at 1,2,3 and 4wks after using fMRI...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702136/brain-changes-after-spinal-cord-injury-a-quantitative-meta-analysis-and-review
#13
REVIEW
Linda Solstrand Dahlberg, Lino Becerra, David Borsook, Clas Linnman
Spinal Cord Injuries (SCI) lead to alterations in brain structure and brain function by direct effects of nerve damage, by secondary mechanisms, and also by longer term injury consequences such as paralysis and neuropathic pain. Here, we review neuroimaging studies of patients with traumatic spinal cord injuries, perform a quantitative meta-analysis of motor and motor imagery studies, summarize structural studies, evidence of cortical reorganization, and provide an overview of diffusion and spectroscopy studies...
April 24, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696994/the-impact-of-musical-training-on-hand-biomechanics-in-string-musicians
#14
Stacey L Gorniak, Evan D Collins, Kimberly Goldie Staines, Forrest A Brooks, Ricardo V Young
BACKGROUND: The effects of musical training on the body in professional musicians remain an understudied area, particularly in reference to understanding and managing orthopedic/neuromuscular deviations and injuries in this population. The purpose of this study was to evaluate hand/finger fine motor function in musicians via physical examination as well as laboratory-based evaluations. METHODS: Thirteen healthy noninjured young elite string musicians participated in this study...
April 1, 2018: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694884/topographic-reorganization-of-cerebrovascular-mural-cells-under-seizure-conditions
#15
Margarita Arango-Lievano, Badreddine Boussadia, Lucile Du Trieu De Terdonck, Camille Gault, Pierre Fontanaud, Chrystel Lafont, Patrice Mollard, Nicola Marchi, Freddy Jeanneteau
Reorganization of the neurovascular unit has been suggested in the epileptic brain, although the dynamics and functional significance remain unclear. Here, we tracked the in vivo dynamics of perivascular mural cells as a function of electroencephalogram (EEG) activity following status epilepticus. We segmented the cortical vascular bed to provide a size- and type-specific analysis of mural cell plasticity topologically. We find that mural cells are added and removed from veins, arterioles, and capillaries after seizure induction...
April 24, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686607/atp-dependent-chromatin-remodeling-during-cortical-neurogenesis
#16
REVIEW
Godwin Sokpor, Ricardo Castro-Hernandez, Joachim Rosenbusch, Jochen F Staiger, Tran Tuoc
The generation of individual neurons (neurogenesis) during cortical development occurs in discrete steps that are subtly regulated and orchestrated to ensure normal histogenesis and function of the cortex. Notably, various gene expression programs are known to critically drive many facets of neurogenesis with a high level of specificity during brain development. Typically, precise regulation of gene expression patterns ensures that key events like proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitors, specification of neuronal subtypes, as well as migration and maturation of neurons in the developing cortex occur properly...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683438/visualizing-the-actin-and-microtubule-cytoskeletons-at-the-b-cell-immune-synapse-using-stimulated-emission-depletion-sted-microscopy
#17
Jia C Wang, Madison Bolger-Munro, Michael R Gold
B cells that bind to membrane-bound antigens (e.g., on the surface of an antigen-presenting cell) form an immune synapse, a specialized cellular structure that optimizes B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling and BCR-mediated antigen acquisition. Both the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton and the reorientation of the microtubule network towards the antigen contact site are essential for immune synapse formation. Remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton into a dense peripheral ring of F-actin is accompanied by polarization of the microtubule-organizing center towards the immune synapse...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672449/cortical-astrocytes-prime-the-induction-of-spine-plasticity-and-mirror-image-pain
#18
Tatsuya Ishikawa, Kei Eto, Sun Kwang Kim, Hiroaki Wake, Ikuko Takeda, Hiroshi Horiuchi, Andrew J Moorhouse, Hitoshi Ishibashi, Junichi Nabekura
Peripheral nerve injury causes maladaptive plasticity in the central nervous system and induces chronic pain. In addition to the injured limb, abnormal pain sensation can appear in the limb contralateral to the injury, called mirror image pain. Since synaptic remodeling in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) has critical roles in the induction of chronic pain, cortical reorganization in the S1 ipsilateral to the injured limb may also accompany mirror image pain. To elucidate this, we conducted in vivo two-photon calcium imaging of neuron and astrocyte activity in the ipsilateral S1 following a peripheral nerve injury...
April 16, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670514/effects-of-tdcs-on-bimanual-motor-skills-a-brief-review
#19
REVIEW
Nils H Pixa, Bettina Pollok
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that allows the modulation of cortical excitability as well as neuroplastic reorganization using a weak constant current applied through the skull on the cerebral cortex. TDCS has been found to improve motor performance in general and motor learning in particular. However, these effects have been reported almost exclusively for unimanual motor tasks such as serial reaction time tasks, adaptation tasks, or visuo-motor tracking...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668848/adult-onset-hearing-impairment-induces-layer-specific-cortical-reorganization-evidence-of-crossmodal-plasticity-and-central-gain-enhancement
#20
Ashley L Schormans, Marei Typlt, Brian L Allman
Adult-onset hearing impairment can lead to hyperactivity in the auditory pathway (i.e., central gain enhancement) as well as increased cortical responsiveness to nonauditory stimuli (i.e., crossmodal plasticity). However, it remained unclear to what extent hearing loss-induced hyperactivity is relayed beyond the auditory cortex, and thus, whether central gain enhancement competes or coexists with crossmodal plasticity throughout the distinct layers of the audiovisual cortex. To that end, we investigated the effects of partial hearing loss on laminar processing in the auditory, visual and audiovisual cortices of adult rats using extracellular electrophysiological recordings performed 2 weeks after loud noise exposure...
April 13, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
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