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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723600/detailed-analysis-of-high-frequency-auditory-brainstem-response-in-patients-with-tinnitus-a-preliminary-study
#1
Joseph Pinkl, Matthew J Wilson, Danica Billingsly, Raymundo Munguia-Vazquez
Increased spontaneous activity and aberrant neural synchrony is thought to be the underlying cause of tinnitus. The perceived pitch of tinnitus may be dictated by frequency specific neural fibers of the subcortical pathway, or the projection of altered cortical activity by-way-of tonotopic reorganizations. Subcortical neural activity in relation to tinnitus was characterized using ABR measurements. In the present study, 11 patients (21 ears) with constant tonal tinnitus underwent a two-part experiment. Experiment 1 involved click ABR measurements and included two experimental groups: tinnitus with normal hearing from 2000-4000 Hz (GI) and tinnitus with hearing loss within the range of 2000-4000 Hz (GII)...
June 1, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722103/decreased-levels-of-active-upa-and-klk8-assessed-by-111-in-mica-401-binding-correlate-with-the-seizure-burden-in-an-animal-model-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#2
Stephan Missault, Lore Peeters, Halima Amhaoul, David Thomae, Annemie Van Eetveldt, Barbara Favier, Anagha Thakur, Jeroen Van Soom, Asla Pitkänen, Koen Augustyns, Jurgen Joossens, Steven Staelens, Stefanie Dedeurwaerdere
OBJECTIVE: Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) and kallikrein-related peptidase 8 (KLK8) are serine proteases that contribute to extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling after brain injury. They can be labelled with the novel radiotracer [(111) In]MICA-401. As the first step in exploring the applicability of [(111) In]MICA-401 in tracing the mechanisms of postinjury ECM reorganization in vivo, we performed in vitro and ex vivo studies, assessing [(111) In]MICA-401 distribution in the brain in two animal models: kainic acid-induced status epilepticus (KASE) and controlled cortical impact (CCI)-induced traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
July 19, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720981/cerebral-reorganization-in-subacute-stroke-survivors-after-virtual-reality-based-training-a-preliminary-study
#3
Xiang Xiao, Qiang Lin, Wai-Leung Lo, Yu-Rong Mao, Xin-Chong Shi, Ryan S Cates, Shu-Feng Zhou, Dong-Feng Huang, Le Li
BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a promising method for quantifying brain recovery and investigating the intervention-induced changes in corticomotor excitability after stroke. This study aimed to evaluate cortical reorganization subsequent to virtual reality-enhanced treadmill (VRET) training in subacute stroke survivors. METHODS: Eight participants with ischemic stroke underwent VRET for 5 sections per week and for 3 weeks. fMRI was conducted to quantify the activity of selected brain regions when the subject performed ankle dorsiflexion...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719391/pediatric-and-congenital-hand-transplantation
#4
Sandra Amaral, L Scott Levin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the approach and challenges associated with pediatric hand transplantation, including new knowledge gleaned from our recent case of bilateral hand-forearm transplantation in an 8-year old child. RECENT FINDINGS: Bilateral heterologous hand-forearm transplantation was performed in a child with a prior kidney transplant in July 2015. The initial surgery necessitated a large team of experts in microvascular surgery, transplant surgery, orthopedics and plastic surgery as well as pediatric anesthesia...
July 14, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713313/the-burden-of-binge-and-heavy-drinking-on-the-brain-effects-on-adolescent-and-young-adult-neural-structure-and-function
#5
REVIEW
Anita Cservenka, Ty Brumback
Introduction: Adolescence and young adulthood are periods of continued biological and psychosocial maturation. Thus, there may be deleterious effects of consuming large quantities of alcohol on neural development and associated cognition during this time. The purpose of this mini review is to highlight neuroimaging research that has specifically examined the effects of binge and heavy drinking on adolescent and young adult brain structure and function. Methods: We review cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of young binge and heavy drinkers that have examined brain structure (e...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704216/low-back-pain-patients-learn-to-adapt-motor-behavior-with-adverse-secondary-consequences
#6
Jaap H van Dieën, Herta Flor, Paul W Hodges
We hypothesize that changes in motor behavior in individuals with low-back pain are adaptations aimed at minimizing the real or perceived risk of further pain. Through reinforcement learning, pain and subsequent adaptions result in less dynamic motor behavior, leading to increased loading and impoverished sensory feedback, which contributes to cortical reorganization and proprioceptive impairments that reduce the ability to control lumbar movement in a robust manner.
July 12, 2017: Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702354/white-matter-integrity-in-dyskinetic-cerebral-palsy-relationship-with-intelligence-quotient-and-executive-function
#7
Olga Laporta-Hoyos, Kerstin Pannek, Júlia Ballester-Plané, Lee B Reid, Élida Vázquez, Ignacio Delgado, Leire Zubiaurre-Elorza, Alfons Macaya, Pilar Póo, Mar Meléndez-Plumed, Carme Junqué, Roslyn Boyd, Roser Pueyo
BACKGROUND: Dyskinetic cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most disabling motor types of CP and has been classically associated with injury to the basal ganglia and thalamus. Although cognitive dysfunction is common in CP, there is a paucity of published quantitative analyses investigating the relationship between white matter (WM) microstructure and cognition in this CP type. AIMS: This study aims (1) to compare brain WM microstructure between people with dyskinetic CP and healthy controls, (2) to identify brain regions where WM microstructure is related to intelligence and (3) to identify brain regions where WM microstructure is related to executive function in people with dyskinetic CP and (4) to identify brain regions where the correlations are different between controls and people with CP in IQ and executive functions...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699218/impaired-corticomuscular-coherence-during-isometric-elbow-flexion-contractions-in-human-with-cervical-spinal-cord-injury
#8
Sylvain Cremoux, Jessica Tallet, Fabien Dal Maso, Eric Berton, David Amarantini
After spinal cord injury (SCI), the reorganization of the neuromuscular system leads to increased antagonist muscles' co-activation - i.e., increased antagonist vs. agonist muscles activation ratio - during voluntary contractions. Increased muscle co-activation is supposed to result from reduced cortical influences on spinal mechanisms inhibiting antagonist muscles. The assessment of the residual interactions between cortical and muscles activity with corticomuscular coherence (CMC) in participants with SCI producing different force levels may shed new lights on the regulation of muscle co-activation...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691087/cytoskeletal-actin-dynamics-shape-a-ramifying-actin-network-underpinning-immunological-synapse-formation
#9
Marco Fritzsche, Ricardo A Fernandes, Veronica T Chang, Huw Colin-York, Mathias P Clausen, James H Felce, Silvia Galiani, Christoph Erlenkämper, Ana M Santos, John M Heddleston, Isabela Pedroza-Pacheco, Dominic Waithe, Jorge Bernardino de la Serna, B Christoffer Lagerholm, Tsung-Li Liu, Teng-Leong Chew, Eric Betzig, Simon J Davis, Christian Eggeling
T cell activation and especially trafficking of T cell receptor microclusters during immunological synapse formation are widely thought to rely on cytoskeletal remodeling. However, important details on the involvement of actin in the latter transport processes are missing. Using a suite of advanced optical microscopes to analyze resting and activated T cells, we show that, following contact formation with activating surfaces, these cells sequentially rearrange their cortical actin across the entire cell, creating a previously unreported ramifying actin network above the immunological synapse...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690509/models-of-acetylcholine-and-dopamine-signals-differentially-improve-neural-representations
#10
Raphaël Holca-Lamarre, Jörg Lücke, Klaus Obermayer
Biological and artificial neural networks (ANNs) represent input signals as patterns of neural activity. In biology, neuromodulators can trigger important reorganizations of these neural representations. For instance, pairing a stimulus with the release of either acetylcholine (ACh) or dopamine (DA) evokes long lasting increases in the responses of neurons to the paired stimulus. The functional roles of ACh and DA in rearranging representations remain largely unknown. Here, we address this question using a Hebbian-learning neural network model...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687605/alterations-in-functional-cortical-hierarchy-in-hemiparkinsonian-rats
#11
B N Jávor-Duray, M Vinck, M van der Roest, E Bezard, H W Berendse, T Boraud, P Voorn
Parkinson's disease and experimentally induced hemiparkinsonism are characterized by increased beta-synchronization between cortical and subcortical areas. This change in beta-connectivity might reflect either a symmetric increase in interareal influences or asymmetric changes in directed influences among brain areas. We assessed patterns of functional and directed connectivity within and between striatum and six cortical sites in each hemisphere of the hemiparkinsonian rat model. Local field potentials were recorded in resting and walking states, before and after unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679208/spatially-selective-dissection-of-signal-transduction-in-neurons-grown-on-netrin-1-printed-nanoarrays-via-segmented-fluorescence-fluctuation-analysis
#12
Angelica A Gopal, Sebastien G Ricoult, Stephanie N Harris, David Juncker, Timothy E Kennedy, Paul W Wiseman
Axonal growth cones extend during neural development in response to precise distributions of extracellular cues. Deleted in Colorectal Cancer (DCC), a receptor for the chemotropic guidance cue netrin-1, directs F-actin reorganization and is essential for mammalian neural development. To elucidate how the extracellular distribution of netrin-1 influences the distribution of DCC and F-actin within axonal growth cones, we patterned nanoarrays of substrate bound netrin-1 using lift off nanocontact printing. The distribution of DCC and F-actin in embryonic rat cortical neuron growth cones was then imaged using total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy...
July 5, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677413/high-intensity-chronic-stroke-motor-imagery-neurofeedback-training-at-home-three-case-reports
#13
Catharina Zich, Stefan Debener, Clara Schweinitz, Annette Sterr, Joost Meekes, Cornelia Kranczioch
Motor imagery (MI) with neurofeedback has been suggested as promising for motor recovery after stroke. Evidence suggests that regular training facilitates compensatory plasticity, but frequent training is difficult to integrate into everyday life. Using a wireless electroencephalogram (EEG) system, we implemented a frequent and efficient neurofeedback training at the patients' home. Aiming to overcome maladaptive changes in cortical lateralization patterns we presented a visual feedback, representing the degree of contralateral sensorimotor cortical activity and the degree of sensorimotor cortex lateralization...
July 1, 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674167/mesoscale-mapping-of-mouse-cortex-reveals-frequency-dependent-cycling-between-distinct-macroscale-functional-modules
#14
Matthieu P Vanni, Allen W Chan, Matilde Balbi, Gergely Silasi, Timothy H Murphy
Connectivity mapping based on resting state activity in mice has revealed functional motifs of correlated activity. However, the rules by which motifs organize into larger functional modules that lead to hemisphere wide spatial-temporal activity sequences is not clear. We explore cortical activity parcellation in head-fixed, quiet awake GCaMP6 mice from both sexes by using mesoscopic calcium imaging. Spectral decomposition of spontaneous cortical activity revealed the presence of two dominant frequency modes (<1Hz and ∼3Hz), each of them associated with a unique spatial signature of cortical macro-parcellation not predicted by classical cytoarchitectonic definitions of cortical areas...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669876/changes-in-expressions-of-mhci-pirb-and-cd3%C3%AE-in-motor-cortical-representations-of-the-brachial-plexus-after-avulsion-in-rats
#15
Jie Zhang, Liang Chen, Yu-Dong Gu
OBJECTIVE: Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI), paired-immunoglobulin-like receptor B (PirB) and cluster of differentiation 3ζ (CD3ζ) negatively regulate neuronal plasticity in developing and adult brains. The aim of this study was to evaluate expressive changes of these factors in motor cortical representations of the brachial plexus (MCRBP) after total brachial plexus root avulsion (tBPRA). METHODS: 45 rats were randomly and equally divided into three groups for evaluating mRNA and protein expression levels of MHCI, PirB and CD3ζ: 7 d, 3 m and control...
June 29, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668576/functional-outcomes-following-lesions-in-visual-cortex-implications-for-plasticity-of-high-level-vision
#16
Tina T Liu, Marlene Behrmann
Understanding the nature and extent of neural plasticity in humans remains a key challenge for neuroscience. Importantly, however, a precise characterization of plasticity and its underlying mechanism has the potential to enable new approaches for enhancing reorganization of cortical function. Investigations of the impairment and subsequent recovery of cognitive and perceptual functions following early-onset cortical lesions in humans provide a unique opportunity to elucidate how the brain changes, adapts, and reorganizes...
June 28, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661400/cortex-dependent-recovery-of-unassisted-hindlimb-locomotion-after-complete-spinal-cord-injury-in-adult-rats
#17
Anitha Manohar, Guglielmo Foffani, Patrick D Ganzer, John R Bethea, Karen A Moxon
After paralyzing spinal cord injury the adult nervous system has little ability to 'heal' spinal connections, and it is assumed to be unable to develop extra-spinal recovery strategies to bypass the lesion. We challenge this assumption, showing that completely spinalized adult rats can recover unassisted hindlimb weight support and locomotion without explicit spinal transmission of motor commands through the lesion. This is achieved with combinations of pharmacological and physical therapies that maximize cortical reorganization, inducing an expansion of trunk motor cortex and forepaw sensory cortex into the deafferented hindlimb cortex, associated with sprouting of corticospinal axons...
June 29, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659863/neural-plasticity-in-moderate-to-severe-chronic-stroke-following-a-device-assisted-task-specific-arm-hand-intervention
#18
Kevin B Wilkins, Meriel Owen, Carson Ingo, Carolina Carmona, Julius P A Dewald, Jun Yao
Currently, hand rehabilitation following stroke tends to focus on mildly impaired individuals, partially due to the inability for severely impaired subjects to sufficiently use the paretic hand. Device-assisted interventions offer a means to include this more severe population and show promising behavioral results. However, the ability for this population to demonstrate neural plasticity, a crucial factor in functional recovery following effective post-stroke interventions, remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate neural changes related to hand function induced by a device-assisted task-specific intervention in individuals with moderate to severe chronic stroke (upper extremity Fugl-Meyer < 30)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652969/interindividual-differences-in-motor-network-connectivity-and-behavioral-response-to-itbs-in-stroke-patients
#19
Svenja Diekhoff-Krebs, Eva-Maria Pool, Anna-Sophia Sarfeld, Anne K Rehme, Simon B Eickhoff, Gereon R Fink, Christian Grefkes
Cerebral plasticity-inducing approaches like repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) are of high interest in situations where reorganization of neural networks can be observed, e.g., after stroke. However, an increasing number of studies suggest that improvements in motor performance of the stroke-affected hand following modulation of primary motor cortex (M1) excitability by rTMS shows a high interindividual variability. We here tested the hypothesis that in stroke patients the interindividual variability of behavioral response to excitatory rTMS is related to interindividual differences in network connectivity of the stimulated region...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649229/cortical-and-subcortical-structural-plasticity-associated-with-the-glioma-volumes-in-patients-with-cerebral-gliomas-revealed-by-surface-based-morphometry
#20
Jinping Xu, Ahmed Elazab, Jinhua Liang, Fucang Jia, Huimin Zheng, Weimin Wang, Limin Wang, Qingmao Hu
Postlesional plasticity has been identified in patients with cerebral gliomas by inducing a large functional reshaping of brain networks. Although numerous non-invasive functional neuroimaging methods have extensively investigated the mechanisms of this functional redistribution in patients with cerebral gliomas, little effort has been made to investigate the structural plasticity of cortical and subcortical structures associated with the glioma volume. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the contralateral cortical and subcortical structures are able to actively reorganize by themselves in these patients...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
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