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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930898/changed-crossmodal-functional-connectivity-in-older-adults-with-hearing-loss
#1
Sebastian Puschmann, Christiane M Thiel
Previous work compellingly demonstrates a crossmodal plastic reorganization of auditory cortex in deaf individuals, leading to increased neural responses to non-auditory sensory input. Recent data indicate that crossmodal adaptive plasticity is not restricted to severe hearing impairments, but may also occur as a result of high-frequency hearing loss in older adults and affect audiovisual processing in these subjects. We here used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study the effect of hearing loss in older adults on auditory cortex response patterns as well as on functional connectivity between auditory and visual cortex during audiovisual processing...
October 31, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928029/local-changes-in-network-structure-contribute-to-late-communication-recovery-after-severe-brain-injury
#2
Daniel J Thengone, Henning U Voss, Esteban A Fridman, Nicholas D Schiff
Spontaneous recovery of brain function after severe brain injury may evolve over a long time period and is likely to involve both structural and functional reorganization of brain networks. We longitudinally tracked the recovery of communication in a patient with severe brain injury using multimodal brain imaging techniques and quantitative behavioral assessments measured at the bedside over a period of 2 years and 9 months (21 months after initial injury). Structural diffusion tensor imaging revealed changes in brain structure across interhemispheric connections and in local brain regions that support language and visuomotor function...
December 7, 2016: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925475/reorganization-of-the-primary-motor-cortex-following-lower-limb-amputation-for-vascular-disease-a-pre-post-amputation-comparison
#3
Brenton Hordacre, Lynley V Bradnam, Maria Crotty
PURPOSE: This study compared bilateral corticomotor and intracortical excitability of the primary motor cortex (M1), pre- and post-unilateral transtibial amputation. METHOD: Three males aged 45, 55, and 48 years respectively who were scheduled for elective amputation and thirteen (10 male, 3 female) healthy control participants aged 58.9 (SD 9.8) were recruited. Transcranial magnetic stimulation assessed corticomotor and intracortical excitability of M1 bilaterally...
December 7, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923040/a-low-correlation-resting-state-of-the-striatum-during-cortical-avalanches-and-its-role-in-movement-suppression
#4
Andreas Klaus, Dietmar Plenz
During quiet resting behavior, involuntary movements are suppressed. Such movement control is attributed to cortico-basal ganglia loops, yet population dynamics within these loops during resting and their relation to involuntary movements are not well characterized. Here, we show by recording cortical and striatal ongoing population activity in awake rats during quiet resting that intrastriatal inhibition maintains a low-correlation striatal resting state in the presence of cortical neuronal avalanches. Involuntary movements arise from disturbed striatal resting activity through two different population dynamics...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919320/calcium-mediated-actin-reset-caar-mediates-acute-cell-adaptations
#5
Pauline Wales, Christian E Schuberth, Roland Aufschnaiter, Johannes Fels, Ireth García-Aguilar, Annette Janning, Christopher P Dlugos, Marco Schäfer-Herte, Christoph Klingner, Mike Wälte, Julian Kuhlmann, Ekaterina Menis, Laura Hockaday Kang, Kerstin C Maier, Wenya Hou, Antonella Russo, Henry N Higgs, Hermann Pavenstädt, Thomas Vogl, Johannes Roth, Britta Qualmann, Michael M Kessels, Dietmar E Martin, Bela Mulder, Roland Wedlich-Söldner
Actin has well established functions in cellular morphogenesis. However, it is not well understood how the various actin assemblies in a cell are kept in a dynamic equilibrium, in particular when cells have to respond to acute signals. Here, we characterize a rapid and transient actin reset in response to increased intracellular calcium levels. Within seconds of calcium influx, the formin INF2 stimulates filament polymerization at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), while cortical actin is disassembled. The reaction is then reversed within a few minutes...
December 6, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899888/neurophysiological-characterization-of-subacute-stroke-patients-a-longitudinal-study
#6
Giuseppe Lamola, Chiara Fanciullacci, Giada Sgherri, Federica Bertolucci, Alessandro Panarese, Silvestro Micera, Bruno Rossi, Carmelo Chisari
Various degrees of neural reorganization may occur in affected and unaffected hemispheres in the early phase after stroke and several months later. Recent literature suggests to apply a stratification based on lesion location and to consider patients with cortico-subcortical and subcortical strokes separately: different lesion location may also influence therapeutic response. In this study we used a longitudinal approach to perform TMS assessment (Motor Evoked Potentials, MEP, and Silent Period, SP) and clinical evaluations (Barthel Index, Fugl-Meyer Assessment for upper limb motor function and Wolf Motor Function Test) in 10 cortical-subcortical and 10 subcortical ischemic stroke patients...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897203/reducing-gabaa-mediated-inhibition-improves-forelimb-motor-function-after-focal-cortical-stroke-in-mice
#7
Claudia Alia, Cristina Spalletti, Stefano Lai, Alessandro Panarese, Silvestro Micera, Matteo Caleo
A deeper understanding of post-stroke plasticity is critical to devise more effective pharmacological and rehabilitative treatments. The GABAergic system is one of the key modulators of neuronal plasticity, and plays an important role in the control of "critical periods" during brain development. Here, we report a key role for GABAergic inhibition in functional restoration following ischemia in the adult mouse forelimb motor cortex. After stroke, the majority of cortical sites in peri-infarct areas evoked simultaneous movements of forelimb, hindlimb and tail, consistent with a loss of inhibitory signalling...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895941/midbrain-frequency-representation-following-moderately-intense-neonatal-sound-exposure-in-a-precocious-animal-model-chinchilla-laniger
#8
Lisa M D'Alessandro, Robert V Harrison
Auditory brain areas undergo reorganization resulting from abnormal sensory input during early postnatal development. This is evident from studies at the cortical level but it remains unclear whether there is reorganization in the auditory midbrain in a species similar to the human, that is, with early hearing onset. We have explored midbrain plasticity in the chinchilla, a precocious species that matches the human in terms of hearing development. Neonatal chinchillas were chronically exposed to a 2 kHz narrowband sound at 70 dB SPL for 4 weeks...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895559/reorganization-of-visual-callosal-connections-following-alterations-of-retinal-input-and-brain-damage
#9
REVIEW
Laura Restani, Matteo Caleo
Vision is a very important sensory modality in humans. Visual disorders are numerous and arising from diverse and complex causes. Deficits in visual function are highly disabling from a social point of view and in addition cause a considerable economic burden. For all these reasons there is an intense effort by the scientific community to gather knowledge on visual deficit mechanisms and to find possible new strategies for recovery and treatment. In this review, we focus on an important and sometimes neglected player of the visual function, the corpus callosum (CC)...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891099/reduced-phrenic-motoneuron-recruitment-during-sustained-inspiratory-threshold-loading-compared-to-single-breath-loading-a-twitch-interpolation-study
#10
Mathieu Raux, Alexandre Demoule, Stefania Redolfi, Capucine Morelot-Panzini, Thomas Similowski
In humans, inspiratory constraints engage cortical networks involving the supplementary motor area. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) shows that the spread and intensity of the corresponding respiratory-related cortical activation dramatically decrease when a discrete load becomes sustained. This has been interpreted as reflecting motor cortical reorganization and automatisation, but could proceed from sensory and/or affective habituation. To corroborate the existence of motor reorganization between single-breath and sustained inspiratory loading (namely changes in motor neurones recruitment), we conducted a diaphragm twitch interpolation study based on the hypothesis that motor reorganization should result in changes in the twitch interpolation slope...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890831/neural-plasticity-during-motor-learning-with-motor-imagery-practice-review-and-perspectives
#11
REVIEW
Célia Ruffino, Charalambos Papaxanthis, Florent Lebon
In the last decade, many studies confirmed the benefits of mental practice with motor imagery. In this review we first aimed to compile data issued from fundamental and clinical investigations and to provide the key-components for the optimization of motor imagery strategy. We focused on transcranial magnetic stimulation studies, supported by brain imaging research, that sustain the current hypothesis of a functional link between cortical reorganization and behavioral improvement. As perspectives, we suggest a model of neural adaptation following mental practice, in which synapse conductivity and inhibitory mechanisms at the spinal level may also play an important role...
November 25, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890201/-complex-pain-regional-syndrome-after-distal-radius-fractures
#12
L Erhard
Complex regional pain syndrome (CPRS) greatly affects the outcomes of distal radius fractures in terms of functional recovery, time away from work and patient satisfaction. The diagnosis is sometimes difficult to make in the immediate post-injury period. The disproportionate nature of the pain in the absence of differential diagnoses and the presence of a pain-free interval should arouse suspicion. The natural history consists of spontaneous improvement except in some refractory forms. The treatment is multidisciplinary combining a physician specializing in pain, therapist and psychologist coordinated by the surgeon who must not abandon the patient...
December 2016: Hand Surgery and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877116/are-supramodality-and-cross-modal-plasticity-the-yin-and-yang-of-brain-development-from-blindness-to-rehabilitation
#13
Luca Cecchetti, Ron Kupers, Maurice Ptito, Pietro Pietrini, Emiliano Ricciardi
Research in blind individuals has primarily focused for a long time on the brain plastic reorganization that occurs in early visual areas. Only more recently, scientists have developed innovative strategies to understand to what extent vision is truly a mandatory prerequisite for the brain's fine morphological architecture to develop and function. As a whole, the studies conducted to date in sighted and congenitally blind individuals have provided ample evidence that several "visual" cortical areas develop independently from visual experience and do process information content regardless of the sensory modality through which a particular stimulus is conveyed: a property named supramodality...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869181/functional-states-of-rat-cortical-circuits-during-the-unpredictable-availability-of-a-reward-related-cue
#14
Iván Fernández-Lamo, Raudel Sánchez-Campusano, Agnès Gruart, José M Delgado-García M
Proper performance of acquired abilities can be disturbed by the unexpected occurrence of external changes. Rats trained with an operant conditioning task (to press a lever in order to obtain a food pellet) using a fixed-ratio (1:1) schedule were subsequently placed in a Skinner box in which the lever could be removed randomly. Field postsynaptic potentials (fPSPs) were chronically evoked in perforant pathway-hippocampal CA1 (PP-CA1), CA1-subiculum (CA1-SUB), CA1-medial prefrontal cortex (CA1-mPFC), mPFC-nucleus accumbens (mPFC-NAc), and mPFC-basolateral amygdala (mPFC-BLA) synapses during lever IN and lever OUT situations...
November 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843055/abnormal-premotor-motor-interaction-in-heterozygous-parkin-and-pink1-mutation-carriers
#15
Anne Weissbach, Tobias Bäumer, Peter P Pramstaller, Norbert Brüggemann, Vera Tadic, Robert Chen, Christine Klein, Alexander Münchau
OBJECTIVES: Mutations in the Parkin and PINK1 gene account for the majority of autosomal recessive early-onset Parkinson cases. There is increasing evidence that clinically asymptomatic subjects with single heterozygous mutations have a latent nigrostriatal dopaminergic deficit and could be taken as in vivo model of pre-symptomatic phase of Parkinsonism. METHODS: We charted premotor-motor excitability changes as compensatory mechanisms for subcortical dopamine depletions using transcranial magnetic stimulation by applying magnetic resonance-navigated premotor-motor cortex conditioning in 15 asymptomatic, heterozygous Parkin and PINK1 mutation carriers (2 female; mean age 53±8years) and 16 age- and sex-matched controls (5 female; mean age 57±9years)...
October 26, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830094/adaptive-plasticity-in-the-healthy-language-network-implications-for-language-recovery-after-stroke
#16
REVIEW
Gesa Hartwigsen
Across the last three decades, the application of noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) has substantially increased the current knowledge of the brain's potential to undergo rapid short-term reorganization on the systems level. A large number of studies applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in the healthy brain to probe the functional relevance and interaction of specific areas for different cognitive processes. NIBS is also increasingly being used to induce adaptive plasticity in motor and cognitive networks and shape cognitive functions...
2016: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825021/abnormal-auditory-synchronization-in-stuttering-a-magnetoencephalographic-study
#17
Yoshikazu Kikuchi, Tsuyoshi Okamoto, Katsuya Ogata, Koichi Hagiwara, Toshiro Umezaki, Masamutsu Kenjo, Takashi Nakagawa, Shozo Tobimatsu
In a previous magnetoencephalographic study, we showed both functional and structural reorganization of the right auditory cortex and impaired left auditory cortex function in people who stutter (PWS). In the present work, we reevaluated the same dataset to further investigate how the right and left auditory cortices interact to compensate for stuttering. We evaluated bilateral N100m latencies as well as indices of local and inter-hemispheric phase synchronization of the auditory cortices. The left N100m latency was significantly prolonged relative to the right N100m latency in PWS, while healthy control participants did not show any inter-hemispheric differences in latency...
November 5, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807349/induced-sensorimotor-brain-plasticity-controls-pain-in-phantom-limb-patients
#18
Takufumi Yanagisawa, Ryohei Fukuma, Ben Seymour, Koichi Hosomi, Haruhiko Kishima, Takeshi Shimizu, Hiroshi Yokoi, Masayuki Hirata, Toshiki Yoshimine, Yukiyasu Kamitani, Youichi Saitoh
The cause of pain in a phantom limb after partial or complete deafferentation is an important problem. A popular but increasingly controversial theory is that it results from maladaptive reorganization of the sensorimotor cortex, suggesting that experimental induction of further reorganization should affect the pain, especially if it results in functional restoration. Here we use a brain-machine interface (BMI) based on real-time magnetoencephalography signals to reconstruct affected hand movements with a robotic hand...
October 27, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807345/reorganization-between-preparatory-and-movement-population-responses-in-motor-cortex
#19
Gamaleldin F Elsayed, Antonio H Lara, Matthew T Kaufman, Mark M Churchland, John P Cunningham
Neural populations can change the computation they perform on very short timescales. Although such flexibility is common, the underlying computational strategies at the population level remain unknown. To address this gap, we examined population responses in motor cortex during reach preparation and movement. We found that there exist exclusive and orthogonal population-level subspaces dedicated to preparatory and movement computations. This orthogonality yielded a reorganization in response correlations: the set of neurons with shared response properties changed completely between preparation and movement...
October 27, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798269/transient-global-cerebral-ischemia-induces-rapid-and-sustained-reorganization-of-synaptic-structures
#20
Lirui Zhu, Lei Wang, Furong Ju, Yanli Ran, Cong Wang, Shengxiang Zhang
Ischemia can cause rapid neuronal damage. Previous studies have suggested that synaptic structures and cortical functions can be rescued if therapeutic interventions are applied in time, but the structural basis for this resilience remains incompletely understood. Here, we investigated the restoration of synaptic structures and postischemic plasticity of dendritic spines in the somatosensory cortices of mice by taking advantage of a reversible global cerebral ischemia model. Intravital two-photon imaging revealed that although dendritic structures were rapidly distorted after global ischemia, only a small percentage of spines were actually lost after transient ischemia...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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