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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445761/live-cell-super-resolution-reveals-f-actin-and-plasma-membrane-dynamics-at-the-t-cell-synapse
#1
George W Ashdown, Garth L Burn, David J Williamson, Elvis Pandžić, Ruby Peters, Michael Holden, Helge Ewers, Lin Shao, Paul W Wiseman, Dylan M Owen
The cortical actin cytoskeleton has been shown to be critical for the reorganization and heterogeneity of plasma membrane components of many cells, including T cells. Building on previous studies at the T cell immunological synapse, we quantitatively assess the structure and dynamics of this meshwork using live-cell superresolution fluorescence microscopy and spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy. We show for the first time, to our knowledge, that not only does the dense actin cortex flow in a retrograde fashion toward the synapse center, but the plasma membrane itself shows similar behavior...
April 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445695/neural-correlates-of-evoked-phantom-limb-sensations
#2
J Andoh, M Diers, C Milde, C Köppe, D Kleinböhl, H Flor
Previous work showed the existence of changes in the topographic organization within the somatosensory cortex (SI) in amputees with phantom limb pain, however, the link between nonpainful phantom sensations such as cramping or tingling or the percept of the limb and cortical changes is less clear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a highly selective group of limb amputees who experienced inducible and reproducible nonpainful phantom sensations. A standardized procedure was used to locate body sites eliciting phantom sensations in each amputee...
April 23, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443062/somatosensory-misrepresentation-associated-with-chronic-pain-spatiotemporal-correlates-of-sensory-perception-in-a-patient-following-a-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-spread
#3
Lars Büntjen, Jens-Max Hopf, Christian Merkel, Jürgen Voges, Stefan Knape, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Mircea Ariel Schoenfeld
Chronic pain is suggested to be linked to reorganization processes in the sensorimotor cortex. In the current study, the somatosensory representation of the extremities was investigated in a patient with a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) that initially occurred in the right hand and arm and spread later into the left hand and right leg. After the spread, magnetoencephalographic recordings in conjunction with somatosensory stimulation revealed that the clinical symptoms were associated with major changes in the primary somatosensory representation...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434861/representation-of-multiple-body-parts-in-the-missing-hand-territory-of-congenital-one-handers
#4
Avital Hahamy, Scott N Macdonald, Fiona van den Heiligenberg, Paullina Kieliba, Uzay Emir, Rafael Malach, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Peter Brugger, Jody C Culham, Tamar R Makin
Individuals born without one hand (congenital one-handers) provide a unique model for understanding the relationship between focal reorganization in the sensorimotor cortex and everyday behavior. We previously reported that the missing hand's territory of one-handers becomes utilized by its cortical neighbor (residual arm representation), depending on residual arm usage in daily life to substitute for the missing hand's function [1, 2]. However, the repertoire of compensatory behaviors may involve utilization of other body parts that do not cortically neighbor the hand territory...
April 19, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429774/synchronization-and-variability-imbalance-underlie-cognitive-impairment-in-primary-progressive-multiple-sclerosis
#5
Maria Petracca, Catarina Saiote, Heidi A Bender, Franchesca Arias, Colleen Farrell, Paola Magioncalda, Matteo Martino, Aaron Miller, Georg Northoff, Fred Lublin, Matilde Inglese
We aimed to investigate functional connectivity and variability across multiple frequency bands in brain networks underlying cognitive deficits in primary-progressive multiple sclerosis (PP-MS) and to explore how they are affected by the presence of cortical lesions (CLs). We analyzed functional connectivity and variability (measured as the standard deviation of BOLD signal amplitude) in resting state networks (RSNs) associated with cognitive deficits in different frequency bands in 25 PP-MS patients (12 M, mean age 50...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429383/altered-eigenvector-centrality-is-related-to-local-resting-state-network-functional-connectivity-in-patients-with-longstanding-type-1-diabetes-mellitus
#6
Eelco van Duinkerken, Menno M Schoonheim, Richard G IJzerman, Annette C Moll, Jesus Landeira-Fernandez, Martin Klein, Michaela Diamant, Frank J Snoek, Frederik Barkhof, Alle-Meije Wink
INTRODUCTION: Longstanding type 1 diabetes (T1DM) is associated with microangiopathy and poorer cognition. In the brain, T1DM is related to increased functional resting-state network (RSN) connectivity in patients without, which was decreased in patients with clinically evident microangiopathy. Subcortical structure seems affected in both patient groups. How these localized alterations affect the hierarchy of the functional network in T1DM is unknown. Eigenvector centrality mapping (ECM) and degree centrality are graph theoretical methods that allow determining the relative importance (ECM) and connectedness (degree centrality) of regions within the whole-brain network hierarchy...
April 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422976/reactivation-or-transformation-motor-memory-consolidation-associated-with-cerebral-activation-time-locked-to-sleep-spindles
#7
Stuart Fogel, Genevieve Albouy, Bradley R King, Ovidiu Lungu, Catherine Vien, Arnaud Bore, Basile Pinsard, Habib Benali, Julie Carrier, Julien Doyon
Motor memory consolidation is thought to depend on sleep-dependent reactivation of brain areas recruited during learning. However, up to this point, there has been no direct evidence to support this assertion in humans, and the physiological processes supporting such reactivation are unknown. Here, simultaneous electroencephalographic and functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) recordings were conducted during post-learning sleep to directly investigate the spindle-related reactivation of a memory trace formed during motor sequence learning (MSL), and its relationship to overnight enhancement in performance (reflecting consolidation)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421032/spasticity-motor-recovery-and-neural-plasticity-after-stroke
#8
REVIEW
Sheng Li
Spasticity and weakness (spastic paresis) are the primary motor impairments after stroke and impose significant challenges for treatment and patient care. Spasticity emerges and disappears in the course of complete motor recovery. Spasticity and motor recovery are both related to neural plasticity after stroke. However, the relation between the two remains poorly understood among clinicians and researchers. Recovery of strength and motor function is mainly attributed to cortical plastic reorganization in the early recovery phase, while reticulospinal (RS) hyperexcitability as a result of maladaptive plasticity, is the most plausible mechanism for poststroke spasticity...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414332/comprehensive-transcriptome-analysis-of-neocortical-layers-in-humans-chimpanzees-and-macaques
#9
Zhisong He, Dingding Han, Olga Efimova, Patricia Guijarro, Qianhui Yu, Anna Oleksiak, Shasha Jiang, Konstantin Anokhin, Boris Velichkovsky, Stefan Grünewald, Philipp Khaitovich
While human cognitive abilities are clearly unique, underlying changes in brain organization and function remain unresolved. Here we characterized the transcriptome of the cortical layers and adjacent white matter in the prefrontal cortexes of humans, chimpanzees and rhesus macaques using unsupervised sectioning followed by RNA sequencing. More than 20% of detected genes were expressed predominantly in one layer, yielding 2,320 human layer markers. While the bulk of the layer markers were conserved among species, 376 switched their expression to another layer in humans...
April 17, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413698/simultaneous-bilateral-cochlear-implants-developmental-advances-do-not-yet-achieve-normal-cortical-processing
#10
Vijayalakshmi Easwar, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Michael Deighton, Blake Papsin, Karen Gordon
BACKGROUND: Simultaneous bilateral cochlear implantation promotes symmetric development of bilateral auditory pathways but binaural hearing remains abnormal. To evaluate whether bilateral cortical processing remains impaired in such children, cortical activity to unilateral and bilateral stimuli was assessed in a unique cohort of 16 children who received bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) simultaneously at 1.97 ± 0.86 years of age and had ~4 years of CI experience, providing the first opportunity to assess electrically driven cortical development in the absence of reorganized asymmetries from sequential implantation...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405184/optical-imaging-of-the-motor-cortex-following-antidromic-activation-of-the-corticospinal-tract-after-spinal-cord-injury
#11
Kyung H Lee, Un J Kim, Se W Park, Yong G Park, Bae H Lee
Spinal cord injury (SCI) disrupts neuronal networks of ascending and descending tracts at the site of injury, leading to a loss of motor function. Restoration and new circuit formation are important components of the recovery process, which involves collateral sprouting of injured and uninjured fibers. The present study was conducted to determine cortical responses to antidromic stimulation of the corticospinal tracts, to compare changes in the reorganization of neural pathways within normal and spinal cord-injured rats, and to elucidate differences in spatiotemporal activity patterns of the natural progression and reorganization of neural pathways in normal and SCI animals using optical imaging...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397840/neuronal-plasticity-and-neurotrophic-factors-in-drug-responses
#12
E Castrén, H Antila
Neurotrophic factors, particularly brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and other members of the neurotrophin family, are central mediators of the activity-dependent plasticity through which environmental experiences, such as sensory information are translated into the structure and function of neuronal networks. Synthesis, release and action of BDNF is regulated by neuronal activity and BDNF in turn leads to trophic effects such as formation, stabilization and potentiation of synapses through its high-affinity TrkB receptors...
April 11, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386926/extratemporal-resections-in-pediatric-epilepsy-surgery-an-overview
#13
Jeffrey P Blount
Despite optimized medical treatment, approximately one third of all patients with epilepsy continue to have seizures and by definition have medically resistant epilepsy (MRE). For these patients, surgical disruption of the epileptogenic network may enable freedom or great improvement in control of their seizures. The success of surgery is dependent on accurate localization of the epileptogenic zone and network. Epilepsy arising from regions of cortical dysplasia within the neocortex of the frontal, parietal, and occipital lobes show a propensity for reorganization and progressive decline in seizure freedom and consequent poorer surgical outcome...
April 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383709/neural-reorganization-due-to-neonatal-amygdala-lesions-in-the-rhesus-monkey-changes-in-morphology-and-network-structure
#14
D S Grayson, E Bliss-Moreau, J Bennett, P Lavenex, D G Amaral
It is generally believed that neural damage that occurs early in development is associated with greater adaptive capacity relative to similar damage in an older individual. However, few studies have surveyed whole brain changes following early focal damage. In this report, we employed multimodal magnetic resonance imaging analyses of adult rhesus macaque monkeys who had previously undergone bilateral, neurotoxic lesions of the amygdala at about 2 weeks of age. A deformation-based morphometric approach demonstrated reduction of the volumes of the anterior temporal lobe, anterior commissure, basal ganglia, and pulvinar in animals with early amygdala lesions compared to controls...
April 5, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375768/learning-in-the-rodent-motor-cortex
#15
Andrew J Peters, Haixin Liu, Takaki Komiyama
The motor cortex is far from a stable conduit for motor commands and instead undergoes significant changes during learning. An understanding of motor cortex plasticity has been advanced greatly using rodents as experimental animals. Two major focuses of this research have been on the connectivity and activity of the motor cortex. The motor cortex exhibits structural changes in response to learning, and substantial evidence has implicated the local formation and maintenance of new synapses as crucial substrates of motor learning...
March 31, 2017: Annual Review of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370755/is-territorial-expansion-a-mechanism-for-crossmodal-plasticity
#16
M A Meredith, H R Clemo, S G Lomber
Crossmodal plasticity is the phenomenon whereby, following sensory damage or deprivation, the lost sensory function of a brain region is replaced by one of the remaining senses. One of several proposed mechanisms for this phenomenon involves the expansion of a more active brain region at the expense of another whose sensory inputs have been damaged or lost. This territorial expansion hypothesis was examined in the present study. The cat ectosylvian visual area (AEV) borders the auditory field of the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (FAES), which becomes visually reorganized in the early deaf...
March 28, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28366797/tau-and-amyloid-%C3%AE-proteins-distinctively-associate-to-functional-network-changes-in-the-aging-brain
#17
Jorge Sepulcre, Mert R Sabuncu, Quanzheng Li, Georges El Fakhri, Reisa Sperling, Keith A Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Misfolded tau and amyloid β (Aβ) proteins progressively accumulate in the human brain, causing altered neuronal function and neurodegeneration. This study sought to investigate whether the wide spectrum of functional reorganization in aging brains of cognitively normal individuals relates to specific pathological patterns of tau and Aβ deposits. METHODS: We used functional connectivity neuroimaging and in vivo tau and Aβ positron emission tomography scans to study cortical spatial relationships between imaging modalities...
March 30, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364641/tracking-reorganization-of-large-scale-effective-connectivity-in-aphasia-following-right-hemisphere-stroke
#18
David W Gow, Seppo P Ahlfors
In this paper we demonstrate the application of new effective connectivity analyses to characterize changing patterns of task-related directed interaction in large (25-55 node) cortical networks following the onset of aphasia. The subject was a left-handed woman who became aphasic following a right-hemisphere stroke. She was tested on an auditory word-picture verification task administered one and seven months after the onset of aphasia. MEG/EEG and anatomical MRI data were used to create high spatiotemporal resolution estimates of task-related cortical activity...
March 29, 2017: Brain and Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364433/the-relationship-between-estrogen-and-the-decline-in-delta-power-during-adolescence
#19
Andrew W McHill, Elizabeth B Klerman, Bridgette Slater, Tairmae Kangarloo, Piotr W Mankowski, Natalie D Shaw
Study Objectives: During adolescence, there is a precipitous decrease in slow-wave sleep (SWS) and its spectral correlate, delta power, which may reflect cortical reorganization. The temporal association between the decrease in delta power and puberty suggests that sex steroids may initiate these changes. This association has not been previously investigated. Methods: To determine whether estrogen triggers the adolescent decline in delta power, we compared delta power in 14 girls with central precocious puberty (CPP) and 6 age-matched, prepubertal controls...
March 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28363156/f-actin-reorganization-upon-de-and-rehydration-in-the-aeroterrestrial-green-alga-klebsormidium-crenulatum
#20
Kathrin Blaas, Andreas Holzinger
Filamentous actin (F-actin) is a dynamic network involved in many cellular processes like cell division and cytoplasmic streaming. While many studies have addressed the involvement of F-actin in different cellular processes in cultured cells, little is known on the reactions to environmental stress scenarios, where this system might have essential regulatory functions. We investigated here the de- and rehydration kinetics of breakdown and reassembly of F-actin in the streptophyte green alga Klebsormidium crenulatum...
March 21, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
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