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Cortical reorganization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548591/test-retest-reliability-of-cortical-language-mapping-in-a-patient-with-refractory-focal-epilepsy-11-years-later
#1
Kirsty E Bortnik, Guy M McKhann, Marla J Hamberger
Electrical stimulation mapping (ESM) is considered the gold standard for identification of essential language cortex and is especially important in patients for whom classic language landmarks are less useful because of reorganization in response to epileptogenic or neoplastic cortex. However, little is known regarding the reliability of the procedure, particularly over extended time intervals. The authors present the case of a young man with refractory left temporal lobe epilepsy in the setting of a low-grade left temporal tumor who had undergone intraoperative language mapping at age 14 years and repeat mapping at age 25...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543358/transient-arrest-of-germinal-vesicle-breakdown-improved-in-vitro-development-potential-of-buffalo-bubalus-bubalis-oocytes
#2
Sandeep Kumar, Manish Kumar, Sunny Dholpuria, Parul Sarwalia, Vipul Batra, Sachinandan De, Rakesh Kumar, T K Datta
Germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) is the first milestone that an oocyte needs to achieve towards completing the maturation and gaining potential to fertilise. Significantly lower in vitro embryo production rate in buffaloes can be attributed to heterogeneity of GVBD occurrence among oocytes obtained from abattoir derived ovaries. Evidence from our earlier work had suggested that different qualities of buffalo oocytes differ significantly in their timing of GVBD. Besides, these oocytes also differ in terms of volume of Akt phosphorylation, which initiates the process of GVBD...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539399/using-theoretical-models-from-adult-stroke-recovery-to-improve-use-of-non-invasive-brain-stimulation-for-children-with-congenital-hemiparesis
#3
Yin-Liang Lin, Kelsey A Potter-Baker
Non-invasive brain stimulation has been widely used for adults with stroke to improve upper limb motor function. A recent study by Kirton and colleagues (Kirton A, Ciechanski P, Zewdie E et al. Neurology 2017, doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000003518) applied non-invasive brain stimulation to children with congenital hemiparesis but found no significant effect of non-invasive brain stimulation on motor function. Here, we explore theories about cortical reorganization in both adult and children with hemiparesis and discuss how to improve the approaches of non-invasive brain stimulation to generate optimal motor improvement and development for children with congenital hemiparesis...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534728/hearing-loss-and-age-induced-changes-in-the-central-auditory-system-measured-by-the-p3-response-to-small-changes-in-frequency
#4
Kathy R Vander Werff, Kerrie L Nesbitt
BACKGROUND: Recent behavioral studies have suggested that individuals with sloping audiograms exhibit localized improvements in frequency discrimination in the frequency region near the drop in hearing. Auditory-evoked potentials may provide evidence of such cortical plasticity and reorganization of frequency maps. PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to evaluate electrophysiological evidence of cortical plasticity related to cortical frequency representation and discrimination abilities in older individuals with high-frequency sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL)...
May 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532348/perceptual-learning-use-dependent-cortical-plasticity
#5
Wu Li
Our perceptual abilities significantly improve with practice. This phenomenon, known as perceptual learning, offers an ideal window for understanding use-dependent changes in the adult brain. Different experimental approaches have revealed a diversity of behavioral and cortical changes associated with perceptual learning, and different interpretations have been given with respect to the cortical loci and neural processes responsible for the learning. Accumulated evidence has begun to put together a coherent picture of the neural substrates underlying perceptual learning...
October 14, 2016: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523976/the-application-of-tdcs-for-the-treatment-of-psychiatric-diseases
#6
Min-Fang Kuo, Po-See Chen, Michael A Nitsche
Neuroplasticity represents the dynamic structural and functional reorganization of the central nervous system, including its connectivity, due to environmental and internal demands. It is recognized as a major physiological basis for adaption of cognition and behaviour, and, thus, of utmost importance for normal brain function. Cognitive dysfunctions are major symptoms in psychiatric disorders, which are often associated with pathological alteration of neuroplasticity. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), a recently developed non-invasive brain stimulation technique, is able to induce and modulate cortical plasticity in humans via the application of relatively weak current through the scalp of the head...
April 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515283/anisomorphic-cortical-reorganization-in-asymmetric-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#7
Steven W Cheung, Craig Anthony Atencio, Eliott R J Levy, Robert C Froemke, Christoph E Schreiner
Acoustic trauma or inner ear disease may predominantly injure one ear, causing asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL). While characteristic frequency (CF) map plasticity of primary auditory cortex (AI) contralateral to the injured ear has been detailed, there is no study that also evaluates ipsilateral AI to compare cortical reorganization across both hemispheres. We assess whether normal isomorphic mirror image relationship between the two hemispheres is maintained or disrupted in mild-to-moderate asymmetric SNHL of adult squirrel monkeys...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508035/flashing-lights-induce-prolonged-distortions-in-visual-cortical-responses-and-visual-perception
#8
Genki Minamisawa, Kenta Funayama, Nobuyoshi Matsumoto, Norio Matsuki, Yuji Ikegaya
The primary sensory neocortex generates an internal representation of the environment, and its circuit reorganization is thought to lead to a modification of sensory perception. This reorganization occurs primarily through activity-dependent plasticity and has been well documented in animals during early developmental stages. Here, we describe a new method for the noninvasive induction of long-term plasticity in the mature brain: simple transient visual stimuli (i.e., flashing lights) can be used to induce prolonged modifications in visual cortical processing and visually driven behaviors...
May 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501553/progressive-cortical-reorganisation-a-framework-for-investigating-structural-changes-in-schizophrenia
#9
REVIEW
Lena Palaniyappan
One of the few well-replicated features of schizophrenia is the demonstration of neuroanatomical abnormalities affecting cortical and subcortical grey matter (GM). Evidence to date suggests that the greatest reduction in GM occurs in the immediate post-onset phase. The predominant view to date is that the accelerated grey matter (GM) loss represents an adverse process (degenerative or developmental deficit) contributing to the unfavourable course of schizophrenia. This prevailing emphasis on decompensation often overlooks the fact that human brain has an inherent capacity to remodel itself in response to insults that affect its function...
May 10, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491026/-neural-efficiency-of-athletes-brain-during-visuo-spatial-task-an-fmri-study-on-table-tennis-players
#10
Zhiping Guo, Anmin Li, Lin Yu
Long-term training leads experts to develop a focused and efficient organization of task-related neural networks. "Neural efficiency" hypothesis posits that neural activity is reduced in experts. Here we tested the following working hypotheses: compared to non-athletes, athletes showed lower cortical activation in task-sensitive brain areas during the processing of sports related and sports unrelated visuo-spatial tasks. To address this issue, cortical activation was examined with fMRI in 14 table tennis athletes and 14 non-athletes while performing the visuo-spatial tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487281/filamin-a-is-required-for-spindle-migration-and-asymmetric-division-in-mouse-oocytes
#11
HaiYang Wang, Jing Guo, ZiLi Lin, Suk Namgoong, Jeong Su Oh, Nam-Hyung Kim
Dynamic changes in the actin network are crucial for the cortical migration of spindles and establishment of polarity, to ensure asymmetric division during meiotic maturation. In this study, filamin A (FLNA) was found to be an essential actin regulator that controlled spindle migration and asymmetric division during oocyte meiosis. FLNA was localized in the cytoplasm and enriched at the cortex and near the chromosomes. Knockdown of FLNA impaired meiotic asymmetric division and spindle migration with a decrease in the amount of cytoplasmic actin mesh and cortical actin levels...
May 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473646/genetic-factors-and-oro-facial-motor-learning-selectively-influence-variability-in-central-sulcus-morphology-in-chimpanzees-pan-troglodytes
#12
William D Hopkins, Oliver Coulon, Adrien Meguerditchian, Michelle Autrey, Kendall Davidek, Lindsay Mahovetz, Sarah Pope, Mary Catherine Mareno, Steven J Schapiro
Captive chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) have been shown to learn the use of novel attention-getting (AG) sounds to capture the attention of humans as a means of requesting or drawing their attention to a desired object or food. There are significant individual differences in the use of AG sounds by chimpanzees and here we examined whether changes in cortical organization of the central sulcus were associated with AG sound production. MRI scans were collected from 240 chimpanzees, including 122 that reliably produced AG sounds and 118 that did not...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472857/c-fos-and-arc-arg3-1-expression-in-auditory-and-visual-cortices-after-hearing-loss-evidence-of-sensory-crossmodal-reorganization-in-adult-rats
#13
M Pernia, S Estevez, C Poveda, I Plaza, J Carro, J M Juiz, M A Merchan
Cross-modal reorganization in the auditory and visual cortices has been reported after hearing and visual deficits mostly during the developmental period, possibly underlying sensory compensation mechanisms. However, there are very few data on the existence or nature and timeline of such reorganization events during sensory deficits in adulthood. In this study, we assessed long-term changes in activity-dependent immediate early genes c-Fos and Arc/Arg3.1 in auditory and neighboring visual cortical areas after bilateral deafness in young adult rats...
May 4, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468691/language-representation-following-left-mca-stroke-in-children-and-adults-an-fmri-study
#14
Robyn Westmacott, Mary Pat McAndrews, Gabrielle deVeber
BACKGROUND: In this case series, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine brain networks that mediate different aspects of language function in 4 young adults (17-22 years) with a history of left middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke in childhood (40 years of age). Although it is widely believed that altered lateralization patterns are more likely to occur following early brain injuries compared with later brain injuries, the presumed plasticity of the young brain has been challenged in recent years, particularly in the domain of language...
May 4, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463108/control-of-lipid-domain-organization-by-a-biomimetic-contractile-actomyosin-cortex
#15
Sven Kenjiro Vogel, Ferdinand Greiss, Alena Khmelinskaia, Petra Schwille
The cell membrane is a heterogeneously organized composite with lipid-protein micro-domains. The contractile actin cortex may govern the lateral organization of these domains in the cell membrane, yet the underlying mechanisms are not known. We recently reconstituted minimal actin cortices (MACs) (Vogel et al., 2013b) and here advanced our assay to investigate effects of rearranging actin filaments on the lateral membrane organization by introducing various phase-separated lipid mono- and bilayers to the MACs...
May 2, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462608/traumatic-brain-injury-occludes-training-dependent-cortical-reorganization-in-the-contralesional-hemisphere
#16
David Pruitt, Tanya Danaphongse, Ariel Schmid, Robert Morrison, Michael Kilgard, Robert L Rennaker Ii, Seth Hays
Rehabilitative training drives plasticity in the ipsilesional (injured) motor cortex that is believed to support recovery of motor function after either stroke or TBI. In addition, adaptive plasticity in the contralesional (uninjured) motor cortex has been well-characterized in the context of stroke. While similar rehabilitation-dependent plasticity in the uninjured hemisphere may occur after TBI, this has yet to be thoroughly explored. In this study, we investigated the effects of TBI and rehabilitative training on reorganization of movement representations in the uninjured motor cortex...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445761/live-cell-super-resolution-reveals-f-actin-and-plasma-membrane-dynamics-at-the-t-cell-synapse
#17
George W Ashdown, Garth L Burn, David J Williamson, Elvis Pandžić, Ruby Peters, Michael Holden, Helge Ewers, Lin Shao, Paul W Wiseman, Dylan M Owen
The cortical actin cytoskeleton has been shown to be critical for the reorganization and heterogeneity of plasma membrane components of many cells, including T cells. Building on previous studies at the T cell immunological synapse, we quantitatively assess the structure and dynamics of this meshwork using live-cell superresolution fluorescence microscopy and spatio-temporal image correlation spectroscopy. We show for the first time, to our knowledge, that not only does the dense actin cortex flow in a retrograde fashion toward the synapse center, but the plasma membrane itself shows similar behavior...
April 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445695/neural-correlates-of-evoked-phantom-limb-sensations
#18
J Andoh, M Diers, C Milde, C Frobel, D Kleinböhl, H Flor
Previous work showed the existence of changes in the topographic organization within the somatosensory cortex (SI) in amputees with phantom limb pain, however, the link between nonpainful phantom sensations such as cramping or tingling or the percept of the limb and cortical changes is less clear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in a highly selective group of limb amputees who experienced inducible and reproducible nonpainful phantom sensations. A standardized procedure was used to locate body sites eliciting phantom sensations in each amputee...
April 23, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443062/somatosensory-misrepresentation-associated-with-chronic-pain-spatiotemporal-correlates-of-sensory-perception-in-a-patient-following-a-complex-regional-pain-syndrome-spread
#19
Lars Büntjen, Jens-Max Hopf, Christian Merkel, Jürgen Voges, Stefan Knape, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Mircea Ariel Schoenfeld
Chronic pain is suggested to be linked to reorganization processes in the sensorimotor cortex. In the current study, the somatosensory representation of the extremities was investigated in a patient with a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) that initially occurred in the right hand and arm and spread later into the left hand and right leg. After the spread, magnetoencephalographic recordings in conjunction with somatosensory stimulation revealed that the clinical symptoms were associated with major changes in the primary somatosensory representation...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434861/representation-of-multiple-body-parts-in-the-missing-hand-territory-of-congenital-one-handers
#20
Avital Hahamy, Scott N Macdonald, Fiona van den Heiligenberg, Paullina Kieliba, Uzay Emir, Rafael Malach, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Peter Brugger, Jody C Culham, Tamar R Makin
Individuals born without one hand (congenital one-handers) provide a unique model for understanding the relationship between focal reorganization in the sensorimotor cortex and everyday behavior. We previously reported that the missing hand's territory of one-handers becomes utilized by its cortical neighbor (residual arm representation), depending on residual arm usage in daily life to substitute for the missing hand's function [1, 2]. However, the repertoire of compensatory behaviors may involve utilization of other body parts that do not cortically neighbor the hand territory...
May 8, 2017: Current Biology: CB
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