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Cortical reorganization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155975/induced-cortical-responses-require-developmental-sensory-experience
#1
Prasandhya Astagiri Yusuf, Peter Hubka, Jochen Tillein, Andrej Kral
Sensory areas of the cerebral cortex integrate the sensory inputs with the ongoing activity. We studied how complete absence of auditory experience affects this process in a higher mammal model of complete sensory deprivation, the congenitally deaf cat. Cortical responses were elicited by intracochlear electric stimulation using cochlear implants in adult hearing controls and deaf cats. Additionally, in hearing controls, acoustic stimuli were used to assess the effect of stimulus mode (electric versus acoustic) on the cortical responses...
November 16, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155276/cortical-plasticity-as-a-basis-of-phantom-limb-pain-fact-or-fiction
#2
J Andoh, C Milde, J W Tsao, H Flor
Cortical reorganization has been proposed as a major factor involved in phantom pain with prior nociceptive input to the deafferented region and input from the non-deafferented cortex creating neuronal activity that is perceived as phantom pain. There is substantial evidence that these processes play a role in neuropathic pain, although causal evidence is lacking. Recently it has been suggested that a maintenance of the cortical representation of the former hand area is related to phantom pain. Although interesting, evidence for this process is so far scarce...
November 16, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148040/the-endocranial-shape-of-australopithecus-africanus-surface-analysis-of-the-endocasts-of-sts-5-and-sts-60
#3
Amélie Beaudet, Jean Dumoncel, Frikkie de Beer, Stanley Durrleman, Emmanuel Gilissen, Anna Oettlé, Gérard Subsol, John Francis Thackeray, José Braga
Assessment of global endocranial morphology and regional neuroanatomical changes in early hominins is critical for the reconstruction of evolutionary trajectories of cerebral regions in the human lineage. Early evidence of cortical reorganization in specific local areas (e.g. visual cortex, inferior frontal gyrus) is perceptible in the non-human South African hominin fossil record. However, to date, little information is available regarding potential global changes in the early hominin brain. The introduction of non-invasive imaging techniques opens up new perspectives for the study of hominin brain evolution...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141986/arfgap1-restricts-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-entry-by-controlling-the-actin-cytoskeleton
#4
Ok-Ryul Song, Christophe J Queval, Raffaella Iantomasi, Vincent Delorme, Sabrina Marion, Romain Veyron-Churlet, Elisabeth Werkmeister, Michka Popoff, Isabelle Ricard, Samuel Jouny, Nathalie Deboosere, Frank Lafont, Alain Baulard, Edouard Yeramian, Laurent Marsollier, Eik Hoffmann, Priscille Brodin
The interaction of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) with pulmonary epithelial cells is critical for early stages of bacillus colonization and during the progression of tuberculosis. Entry of Mtb into epithelial cells has been shown to depend on F-actin polymerization, though the molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Here, we demonstrate that mycobacterial uptake into epithelial cells requires rearrangements of the actin cytoskeleton, which are regulated by ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) and phospholipase D1 (PLD1), and is dependent on the M3 muscarinic receptor (M3R)...
November 15, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138087/beyond-modularity-fine-scale-mechanisms-and-rules-for-brain-network-reconfiguration
#5
Ankit N Khambhati, Marcelo G Mattar, Nicholas F Wymbs, Scott T Grafton, Danielle S Bassett
The human brain is in constant flux, as distinct areas engage in transient communication to support basic behaviors as well as complex cognition. The collection of interactions between cortical and subcortical areas forms a functional brain network whose topology evolves with time. Despite the nontrivial dynamics that are germane to this networked system, experimental evidence demonstrates that functional interactions organize into putative brain systems that facilitate different facets of cognitive computation...
November 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133435/coordinated-plasticity-of-synapses-and-astrocytes-underlies-practice-driven-functional-vicariation-in-peri-infarct-motor-cortex
#6
Soo Young Kim, J Edward Hsu, Lincoln C Husbands, Jeffrey A Kleim, Theresa A Jones
Motor rehabilitative training after stroke can improve motor function and promote topographical reorganization of remaining motor cortical movement representations, but this reorganization follows behavioral improvements. A more detailed understanding of the neural bases of rehabilitation efficacy is needed to inform therapeutic efforts to improve it. Using a rat model of upper extremity impairments after ischemic stroke, we examined effects of motor rehabilitative training at the ultrastructural level in peri-infarct motor cortex...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119311/cortical-processing-of-level-cues-for-spatial-hearing-is-impaired-in-children-with-prelingual-deafness-despite-early-bilateral-access-to-sound
#7
Vijayalakshmi Easwar, Hiroshi Yamazaki, Michael Deighton, Blake Papsin, Karen Gordon
Bilateral cochlear implantation aims to restore binaural hearing, important for spatial hearing, to children who are deaf. Improvements over unilateral implant use are attributed largely to the detection of interaural level differences (ILDs) but emerging evidence of impaired sound localization and binaural fusion suggest that these binaural cues are abnormally coded by the auditory system. We used multichannel electroencephalography (EEG) to assess cortical responses to ILDs in two groups: 13 children who received early bilateral cochlear implants (CIs) simultaneously, known to protect the developing auditory cortices from unilaterally driven reorganization, and 15 age matched peers with normal hearing...
November 8, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118195/binocular-deprivation-induces-both-age-dependent-and-age-independent-forms-of-plasticity-in-parvalbumin-inhibitory-neuron-visual-response-properties
#8
Berquin D Feese, Diego E Pafundo, Meredith N Schmehl, Sandra J Kuhlman
Activity of cortical inhibitory interneurons is rapidly reduced in response to monocular deprivation during the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity and in response to salient events encountered during learning. In the case of primary sensory cortex, a decrease in mean evoked firing rate of parvalbumin-positive (PV) inhibitory neurons is causally linked to a reorganization of excitatory networks following sensory perturbation. Converging evidence indicates that it is deprivation, and not an imbalance between open and closed eye inputs, that triggers rapid plasticity in PV neurons...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114213/visually-evoked-visual-auditory-changes-associated-with-auditory-performance-in-children-with-cochlear-implants
#9
Maojin Liang, Junpeng Zhang, Jiahao Liu, Yuebo Chen, Yuexin Cai, Xianjun Wang, Junbo Wang, Xueyuan Zhang, Suijun Chen, Xianghui Li, Ling Chen, Yiqing Zheng
Activation of the auditory cortex by visual stimuli has been reported in deaf children. In cochlear implant (CI) patients, a residual, more intense cortical activation in the frontotemporal areas in response to photo stimuli was found to be positively associated with poor auditory performance. Our study aimed to investigate the mechanism by which visual processing in CI users activates the auditory-associated cortex during the period after cochlear implantation as well as its relation to CI outcomes. Twenty prelingually deaf children with CI were recruited...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112509/association-between-sensorimotor-impairments-and-functional-brain-changes-in-patients-with-low-back-pain-a-critical-review
#10
Nina Goossens, Sofie Rummens, Lotte Janssens, Karen Caeyenberghs, Simon Brumagne
Low back pain (LBP) coincides with sensorimotor impairments, e.g., reduced lumbosacral tactile and proprioceptive acuity and postural control deficits. Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies suggest that sensorimotor impairments in LBP may be associated with brain changes. However, no consensus exists regarding the relationship between functional brain changes and sensorimotor behavior in LBP. Therefore, this review critically discusses the available fMRI studies on brain activation related to non-nociceptive somatosensory stimulation and motor performance in individuals with LBP...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111113/understanding-the-relationship-between-brain-and-upper-limb-function-in-children-with-unilateral-motor-impairments-a-multimodal-approach
#11
Maya Weinstein, Dido Green, Julian Rudisch, Ingar M Zielinski, Marta Benthem-Muñiz, Marijtje L A Jongsma, Verity McClelland, Bert Steenbergen, Shelly Shiran, Dafna Ben Bashat, Gareth J Barker
Atypical brain development and early brain injury have profound and long lasting impact on the development, skill acquisition, and subsequent independence of a child. Heterogeneity is present at the brain level and at the motor level; particularly with respect to phenomena of bilateral activation and mirrored movements (MMs). In this multiple case study we consider the feasibility of using several modalities to explore the relationship between brain structure and/or activity and hand function: Electroencephalography (EEG), both structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI, fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), Electromyography (EMG) and hand function assessments...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109971/%C3%AE-2%C3%AE-1-signaling-drives-cell-death-synaptogenesis-circuit-reorganization-and-gabapentin-mediated-neuroprotection-in-a-model-of-insult-induced-cortical-malformation
#12
Lauren A Lau, Farzad Noubary, Dongqing Wang, Chris G Dulla
Developmental cortical malformations (DCMs) result from pre- and perinatal insults, as well as genetic mutations. Hypoxia, viral infection, and traumatic injury are the most common environmental causes of DCMs, and are associated with the subsyndromes focal polymicrogyria and focal cortical dysplasia (FCD) Type IIId, both of which have a high incidence of epilepsy. Understanding the molecular signals that lead to the formation of a hyperexcitable network in DCMs is critical to devising novel treatment strategies...
September 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106370/cytokinesis-in-vertebrate-cells-initiates-by-contraction-of-an-equatorial-actomyosin-network-composed-of-randomly-oriented-filaments
#13
Felix Spira, Sara Cuylen-Haering, Shalin Mehta, Matthias Samwer, Anne Reversat, Amitabh Verma, Rudolf Oldenbourg, Michael Sixt, Daniel W Gerlich
The actomyosin ring generates force to ingress the cytokinetic cleavage furrow in animal cells, yet its filament organization and the mechanism of contractility is not well understood. We quantified actin filament order in human cells using fluorescence polarization microscopy and found that cleavage furrow ingression initiates by contraction of an equatorial actin network with randomly oriented filaments. The network subsequently gradually reoriented actin filaments along the cell equator. This strictly depended on myosin II activity, suggesting local network reorganization by mechanical forces...
November 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100949/plasticity-of-the-human-visual-brain-after-early-cortical-lesion
#14
K Mikellidou, R Arrighi, G Aghakhanyan, F Tinelli, F Frijia, S Crespi, F De Masi, D Montanaro, M C Morrone
In adults, partial damage to V1 or optic radiations abolishes perception in the corresponding part of the visual field, causing a scotoma. However, it is widely accepted that the developing cortex has superior capacities to reorganize following an early lesion to endorse adaptive plasticity. Here we report a single patient case (G.S.) with near normal central field vision despite a massive unilateral lesion to the optic radiations acquired early in life. The patient underwent surgical removal of a right hemisphere parieto-temporal-occipital atypical choroid plexus papilloma of the right lateral ventricle at four months of age, which presumably altered the visual pathways during in utero development...
October 31, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099351/corticospinal-tract-atrophy-and-motor-fmri-predict-motor-preservation-after-functional-cerebral-hemispherectomy
#15
Anthony C Wang, George M Ibrahim, Andrew V Poliakov, Page I Wang, Aria Fallah, Gary W Mathern, Robert T Buckley, Kelly Collins, Alexander G Weil, Hillary A Shurtleff, Molly H Warner, Francisco A Perez, Dennis W Shaw, Jason N Wright, Russell P Saneto, Edward J Novotny, Amy Lee, Samuel R Browd, Jeffrey G Ojemann
OBJECTIVE The potential loss of motor function after cerebral hemispherectomy is a common cause of anguish for patients, their families, and their physicians. The deficits these patients face are individually unique, but as a whole they provide a framework to understand the mechanisms underlying cortical reorganization of motor function. This study investigated whether preoperative functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could predict the postoperative preservation of hand motor function. METHODS Thirteen independent reviewers analyzed sensorimotor fMRI and colored fractional anisotropy (CoFA)-DTI maps in 25 patients undergoing functional hemispherectomy for treatment of intractable seizures...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097049/the-absence-of-resting-state-high-gamma-cross-frequency-coupling-in-patients-with-tinnitus
#16
Min-Hee Ahn, Sung Kwang Hong, Byoung-Kyong Min
Tinnitus is a psychoacoustic phantom perception of currently unknown neuropathology. Despite a growing number of post-stimulus tinnitus studies, uncertainty still exists regarding the neural signature of tinnitus in the resting-state brain. In the present study, we used high-gamma cross-frequency coupling and a Granger causality analysis to evaluate resting-state electroencephalographic (EEG) data in healthy participants and patients with tinnitus. Patients with tinnitus lacked robust frontal delta-phase/central high-gamma-amplitude coupling that was otherwise clearly observed in healthy participants...
October 30, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094306/early-sensory-experience-influences-the-development-of-multisensory-thalamocortical-and-intracortical-connections-of-primary-sensory-cortices
#17
Julia U Henschke, Anja M Oelschlegel, Frank Angenstein, Frank W Ohl, Jürgen Goldschmidt, Patrick O Kanold, Eike Budinger
The nervous system integrates information from multiple senses. This multisensory integration already occurs in primary sensory cortices via direct thalamocortical and corticocortical connections across modalities. In humans, sensory loss from birth results in functional recruitment of the deprived cortical territory by the spared senses but the underlying circuit changes are not well known. Using tracer injections into primary auditory, somatosensory, and visual cortex within the first postnatal month of life in a rodent model (Mongolian gerbil) we show that multisensory thalamocortical connections emerge before corticocortical connections but mostly disappear during development...
November 1, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070625/individualized-tracking-of-self-directed-motor-learning-in-group-housed-mice-performing-a-skilled-lever-positioning-task-in-the-home-cage
#18
Gergely Silasi, Jamie Boyd, Federico Bolanos, Jeff LeDue, Stephen H Scott, Timothy H Murphy
Skilled forelimb function in mice is traditionally studied through behavioural paradigms that require extensive training by investigators, and are limited by the number of trials individual animals are able to perform within supervised session. We developed a skilled lever positioning task that mice can perform within their home cage. The task requires mice to use their forelimb to precisely hold a lever mounted on a rotary encoder within a rewarded position in order to dispense a water reward. A Raspberry Pi microcomputer is used to record lever position during trials, and to control task parameters, thus making this low-footprint apparatus ideal for use within animal housing facilities...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067311/mnemonic-strategy-training-of-the-elderly-at-risk-for-dementia-enhances-integration-of-information-processing-via-cross-frequency-coupling
#19
Stavros I Dimitriadis, Ioannis Tarnanas, Mark Wiederhold, Brenda Wiederhold, Magda Tsolaki, Elgar Fleisch
INTRODUCTION: We sought to identify whether intensive 10-week mobile health mnemonic strategy training (MST) could shift the resting-state brain network more toward cortical-level integration, which has recently been proven to reflect the reorganization of the brain networks compensating the cognitive decline. METHODS: One hundred fifty-eight patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) were selected and participated in 10-week training lasting 90 min/d of memory training...
November 2016: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062685/loss-of-inhibition-in-sensorimotor-networks-in-focal-hand-dystonia
#20
Cecile Gallea, Priyantha Herath, Valerie Voon, Alicja Lerner, John Ostuni, Ziad Saad, Shantalaxmi Thada, Jeffrey Solomon, Silvina G Horovitz, Mark Hallett
OBJECTIVE: To investigate GABA-ergic receptor density and associated brain functional and grey matter changes in focal hand dystonia (FHD). METHODS: 18 patients with FHD of the right hand and 18 age and gender matched healthy volunteers (HV) participated in this study. We measured the density of GABA-A receptors using [(11)C] Flumazenil and perfusion using [(15)O] H2O. Anatomical images were also used to measure grey matter volume with voxel-based morphometry (VBM)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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