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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928708/neural-patterns-of-reorganization-after-intensive-robot-assisted-virtual-reality-therapy-and-repetitive-task-practice-in-patients-with-chronic-stroke
#1
Soha Saleh, Gerard Fluet, Qinyin Qiu, Alma Merians, Sergei V Adamovich, Eugene Tunik
Several approaches to rehabilitation of the hand following a stroke have emerged over the last two decades. These treatments, including repetitive task practice (RTP), robotically assisted rehabilitation and virtual rehabilitation activities, produce improvements in hand function but have yet to reinstate function to pre-stroke levels-which likely depends on developing the therapies to impact cortical reorganization in a manner that favors or supports recovery. Understanding cortical reorganization that underlies the above interventions is therefore critical to inform how such therapies can be utilized and improved and is the focus of the current investigation...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928479/decline-of-long-range-temporal-correlations-in-the-human-brain-during-sustained-wakefulness
#2
Christian Meisel, Kimberlyn Bailey, Peter Achermann, Dietmar Plenz
Sleep is crucial for daytime functioning, cognitive performance and general well-being. These aspects of daily life are known to be impaired after extended wake, yet, the underlying neuronal correlates have been difficult to identify. Accumulating evidence suggests that normal functioning of the brain is characterized by long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) in cortex, which are supportive for decision-making and working memory tasks. Here we assess LRTCs in resting state human EEG data during a 40-hour sleep deprivation experiment by evaluating the decay in autocorrelation and the scaling exponent of the detrended fluctuation analysis from EEG amplitude fluctuations...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919535/altered-gray-matter-volume-cerebral-blood-flow-and-functional-connectivity-in-chronic-stroke-patients
#3
Peifang Miao, Caihong Wang, Peng Li, Sen Wei, Chunshan Deng, Dandan Zheng, Jingliang Cheng
It is entangled connections and intensive functional interactions between cortex and subcortical structures that enable our brain to perform delicate movement, and poses plasticity to recover from stroke. However, it is still unclear how cortical structures and functions change in well-recovered patients from subcortical infarctions in motor pathway. In order to reveal neuroplasticity underlying well-recovered stroke patients, both structural (gray matter volume, GMV) and functional reorganizations (cerebral blood flow, CBF and resting-state functional connectivity, rsFC) were investigated by using multi-modal MRI...
September 14, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893422/the-brain-is-needed-to-cure-spinal-cord-injury
#4
REVIEW
Tadashi Isa
Damage to corticospinal fibers in the cervical spinal cord is known to impair dexterous hand movements. However, accumulating evidence has shown that precision grip can recover considerably through rehabilitative training. Recent multidisciplinary studies have revealed that, at the spinal level, this recovery is possible due to an indirect neural pathway through propriospinal neurons (PNs), which relay cortical commands to hand motoneurons. Although this indirect spinal pathway is heavily involved in recovery, its role is dwarfed by a simultaneous large-scale network reorganization spanning motor-related cortices and mesolimbic structures...
September 8, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892464/network-wide-reorganization-of-procedural-memory-during-nrem-sleep-revealed-by-fmri
#5
Shahabeddin Vahdat, Stuart Fogel, Habib Benali, Julien Doyon
Sleep is necessary for the optimal consolidation of newly acquired procedural memories. However, the mechanisms by which motor memory traces develop during sleep remain controversial in humans, as this process has been mainly investigated indirectly by comparing pre- and post-sleep conditions. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography during sleep following motor sequence learning to investigate how newly-formed memory traces evolve dynamically over time. We provide direct evidence for transient reactivation followed by downscaling of functional connectivity in a cortically-dominant pattern formed during learning, as well as gradual reorganization of this representation toward a subcortically-dominant consolidated trace during non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep...
September 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891782/functional-preference-for-object-sounds-but-not-for-voices-in-the-occipitotemporal-cortex-of-early-blind-individuals
#6
Giulia Dormal, Maxime Pelland, Mohamed Rezk, Esther Yakobov, Franco Lepore, Olivier Collignon
Sounds activate occipital regions in early blind individuals. However, how different sound categories map onto specific regions of the occipital cortex remains a matter of debate. We used fMRI to characterize brain responses of early blind and sighted individuals to familiar object sounds, human voices, and their respective low-level control sounds. In addition, sighted participants were tested while viewing pictures of faces, objects, and phase-scrambled control pictures. In both early blind and sighted, a double dissociation was evidenced in bilateral auditory cortices between responses to voices and object sounds: Voices elicited categorical responses in bilateral superior temporal sulci, whereas object sounds elicited categorical responses along the lateral fissure bilaterally, including the primary auditory cortex and planum temporale...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883420/personalized-structural-image-analysis-in-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy
#7
Christian Rummel, Nedelina Slavova, Andrea Seiler, Eugenio Abela, Martinus Hauf, Yuliya Burren, Christian Weisstanner, Serge Vulliemoz, Margitta Seeck, Kaspar Schindler, Roland Wiest
Volumetric and morphometric studies have demonstrated structural abnormalities related to chronic epilepsies on a cohort- and population-based level. On a single-patient level, specific patterns of atrophy or cortical reorganization may be widespread and heterogeneous but represent potential targets for further personalized image analysis and surgical therapy. The goal of this study was to compare morphometric data analysis in 37 patients with temporal lobe epilepsies with expert-based image analysis, pre-informed by seizure semiology and ictal scalp EEG...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874923/noninvasive-brain-stimulation-maladaptive-plasticity-and-bayesian-analysis-in-phantom-limb-pain
#8
REVIEW
Leon Morales-Quezada
Introduction: Phantom limb pain (PLP) is a common and poorly understood pathology of difficult medical control that progressively takes place after amputation occurs. Objective: This article discusses the multifactorial bases of PLP. These bases involve local changes at the stump level, spinal modifications of excitability, deafferentation, and central sensitization, leading to the development of maladaptive plasticity, and consequentially, defective processing of sensory information by associative neural networks...
August 1, 2017: Medical Acupuncture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870605/the-roles-of-cortical-astrocytes-in-chronic-pain-and-other-brain-pathologies
#9
REVIEW
Kei Eto, Sun Kwang Kim, Ikuko Takeda, Junichi Nabekura
Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the brain. Several decades ago, they were considered to be only support cells in the central nervous system. Recent studies using advanced technologies have clarified that astrocytes play more active roles in regulating neuronal function and remodeling synaptic structures by releasing molecules called gliotransmitters. In addition to various physiological functions, astrocytes are activated under disease conditions, such as chronic pain, releasing molecules that in turn cause reorganization of the central nervous system microstructure and disrupt behavior in pathological conditions...
September 1, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862531/unisensory-and-multisensory-self-referential-stimulation-of-the-lower-limb-an-exploratory-fmri-study-on-healthy-subjects
#10
Ana Isabel Vieira, Patrícia Almeida, Nádia Canário, Miguel Castelo-Branco, Maria Vânia Nunes, Alexandre Castro-Caldas
BACKGROUND: The holistic view of the person is the essence of the physiotherapy. Knowledge of approaches that develop the whole person promotes better patient outcomes. Multisensory Self-referential stimulation, more than a unisensory one, seems to produce a holistic experience of the Self ("Core-Self"). OBJECTIVES: (1) To analyze the somatotopic brain activation during unisensory and multisensorial Self-referential stimulus; and (2) to understand if the areas activated by multisensorial Self-referential stimulation are the ones responsible for the "Core-Self...
September 1, 2017: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855675/increased-cross-modal-functional-connectivity-in-cochlear-implant-users
#11
Ling-Chia Chen, Sebastian Puschmann, Stefan Debener
Previous studies have reported increased cross-modal auditory and visual cortical activation in cochlear implant (CI) users, suggesting cross-modal reorganization of both visual and auditory cortices in CI users as a consequence of sensory deprivation and restoration. How these processes affect the functional connectivity of the auditory and visual system in CI users is however unknown. We here investigated task-induced intra-modal functional connectivity between hemispheres for both visual and auditory cortices and cross-modal functional connectivity between visual and auditory cortices using functional near infrared spectroscopy in post-lingually deaf CI users and age-matched normal hearing controls...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843538/neurophysiological-evidence-for-enhanced-tactile-acuity-in-early-blindness-in-some-but-not-all-haptic-tasks
#12
Ane Gurtubay-Antolin, Antoni Rodríguez-Fornells
Previous research assessing the presence of enhanced tactile skills in early-blind (EB) population obtained conflicting results. Most of the studies relied on behavioral measures with which different mechanisms leading to the same outcome go unnoticed. Moreover, the scarce electrophysiological research that has been conducted focused exclusively on the processing of microgeometric properties. To clarify the extent of superior tactile abilities in EBs using high-density multichannel electrophysiological recordings, the present study compared the electrophysiological correlates of EBs and sighted controls (CON) in two tactile discrimination tasks that targeted microgeometric (texture) and macrogeometric (shape) properties...
August 24, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836302/combination-of-cuprizone-and-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-to-study-inflammatory-brain-lesion-formation-and-progression
#13
Bernhard Josef Rüther, Miriam Scheld, Daniela Dreymueller, Tim Clarner, Eugenia Kress, Lars-Ove Brandenburg, Tine Swartenbroekx, Chloé Hoornaert, Peter Ponsaerts, Petra Fallier-Becker, Cordian Beyer, Sven Olaf Rohr, Christoph Schmitz, Uta Chrzanowski, Tanja Hochstrasser, Stella Nyamoya, Markus Kipp
Brain-intrinsic degenerative cascades are a proposed factor driving inflammatory lesion formation in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. We recently described a model combining noninflammatory cytodegeneration (via cuprizone) with the classic active experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (Cup/EAE model), which exhibits inflammatory forebrain lesions. Here, we describe the histopathological characteristics and progression of these Cup/EAE lesions. We show that inflammatory lesions develop at various topographical sites in the forebrain, including white matter tracts and cortical and subcortical grey matter areas...
August 24, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834527/the-neurobiology-of-transition-to-psychosis-clearing-the-cache
#14
Lena Palaniyappan, Tushar Das, Kara Dempster
The prepsychotic phase of schizophrenia is not only important for indicated prevention strategies, but also crucial for developing mechanistic models of the emergence of frank psychosis (transition). This commentary highlights the work of Dukart and colleagues, published in this issue of the Journal of Psychiatry and Neurosicence, who sought to identify MRI-based anatomic endophenotypes of psychosis in a well-characterized sample of patients with at-risk mental state (ARMS) and first-episode psychosis (FEP)...
September 2017: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831711/altered-insula-default-mode-network-connectivity-in-fibromyalgia-a-resting-state-magnetoencephalographic-study
#15
Fu-Jung Hsiao, Shuu-Jiun Wang, Yung-Yang Lin, Jong-Ling Fuh, Yu-Chieh Ko, Pei-Ning Wang, Wei-Ta Chen
BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disabling chronic pain syndrome with unknown pathophysiology. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies on FM have suggested altered brain connectivity between the insula and the default mode network (DMN). However, this connectivity change has not been characterized through direct neural signals for exploring the embedded spectrotemporal features and the pertinent clinical relevance. METHODS: We recorded the resting-state magnetoencephalographic activities of 28 patients with FM and 28 age- and sex-matched controls, and analyzed the source-based functional connectivity between the insula and the DMN at 1-40 Hz by using the minimum norm estimates and imaginary coherence methods...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831096/inflammatory-cytokine-induced-changes-in-neural-network-activity-measured-by-waveform-analysis-of-high-content-calcium-imaging-in-murine-cortical-neurons
#16
Benjamin D S Clarkson, Robert J Kahoud, Christina B McCarthy, Charles L Howe
During acute neuroinflammation, increased levels of cytokines within the brain may contribute to synaptic reorganization that results in long-term changes in network hyperexcitability. Indeed, inflammatory cytokines are implicated in synaptic dysfunction in epilepsy and in an array of degenerative and autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system. Current tools for studying the impact of inflammatory factors on neural networks are either insufficiently fast and sensitive or require complicated and costly experimental rigs...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827395/cytoskeletal-variations-in-an-asymmetric-cell-division-support-diversity-in-nematode-sperm-size-and-sex-ratios
#17
Ethan S Winter, Anna Schwarz, Gunar Fabig, Jessica L Feldman, André Pires-daSilva, Thomas Müller-Reichert, Penny L Sadler, Diane C Shakes
Asymmetric partitioning is an essential component of many developmental processes. As spermatogenesis concludes, sperm are streamlined by discarding unnecessary cellular into cellular wastebags called residual bodies (RBs). During nematode spermatogenesis, this asymmetric partitioning event occurs shortly after anaphase II, and both microtubules and actin partition into a central RB. Here we use fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy to elucidate and compare the intermediate steps of RB formation in C...
August 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825699/an-apical-mrck-driven-morphogenetic-pathway-controls-epithelial-polarity
#18
Ceniz Zihni, Evi Vlassaks, Stephen Terry, Jeremy Carlton, Thomas King Chor Leung, Michael Olson, Franck Pichaud, Maria Susana Balda, Karl Matter
Polarized epithelia develop distinct cell surface domains, with the apical membrane acquiring characteristic morphological features such as microvilli. Cell polarization is driven by polarity determinants including the evolutionarily conserved partitioning-defective (PAR) proteins that are separated into distinct cortical domains. PAR protein segregation is thought to be a consequence of asymmetric actomyosin contractions. The mechanism of activation of apically polarized actomyosin contractility is unknown...
September 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821922/homeostatic-plasticity-in-human-extrastriate-cortex-following-a-simulated-peripheral-scotoma
#19
Matthew A Gannon, Stephanie M Long, Nathan A Parks
Neuroimaging and patient work over the past decade have indicated that, following retinal deafferentation, the human visual cortex undergoes a large-scale and enduring reorganization of its topography such that the classical retinotopic organization of deafferented visual cortex remaps to represent non-classical regions of visual space. Such long-term visual reorganization is proposed to occur through changes in the functional balance of deafferented visual circuits that engage more lasting changes through activity-dependent neuroplasticity...
August 18, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821647/plasticity-beyond-v1-reinforcement-of-motion-perception-upon-binocular-central-retinal-lesions-in-adulthood
#20
Kalina Burnat, Tjing-Tjing Hu, Małgorzata Kossut, Ulf T Eysel, Lutgarde Arckens
Induction of a central retinal lesion in both eyes of adult mammals is a model for macular degeneration and leads to retinotopic map reorganization in the primary visual cortex (V1). Here we characterized the spatio-temporal dynamics of molecular activity levels in the central and peripheral representation of five higher order visual areas, V2/18, V3/19, V4/21a,V5/PMLS, area 7, and V1/17, in adult cats with central 10° retinal lesions (both sexes), by means of real-time PCR for the neuronal activity reporter gene zif268...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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