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Megan S Keiser, Alejandro Mas Monteys, Romuald Corbau, Pedro Gonzalez-Alegre, Beverly L Davidson
OBJECTIVE: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 is an autosomal dominant fatal neurodegenerative disease caused by a polyglutamine expansion in the coding region of ATXN1. We showed previously that partial suppression of mutant ataxin-1 (ATXN1) expression, using virally-expressed RNAi triggers, could prevent disease symptoms in a transgenic mouse model and a knock in mouse model of the disease, using a single dose of virus. Here, we set out to test if RNAi triggers targeting ATXN1 could not only prevent, but also reverse disease readouts when delivered after symptom onset...
September 30, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Lili Guo, Wil Prall, Xiaolu Yang
Protein misfolding and aggregation are associated with various neurodegenerative diseases. Cellular mechanisms that recognize and degrade misfolded proteins may serve as potential therapeutic targets. To distinguish degradation of misfolding-prone proteins from other mechanisms that regulate their levels, one important method is to measure protein half-life in cells. However, this can be challenging because misfolding-prone proteins may exist in different forms, including the native form and misfolded forms of distinct characteristics...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jacob L Wagner, Deirdre M O'Connor, Anthony Donsante, Nicholas M Boulis
Spinocerebellar ataxia 1 is an autosomal dominant disease characterized by neurodegeneration and motor dysfunction. In disease pathogenesis, polyglutamine expansion within Ataxin-1, a gene involved in transcriptional repression, causes protein nuclear inclusions to form. Most notably, neuronal dysfunction presents in Purkinje cells. However, the effect of mutant Ataxin-1 is not entirely understood. Two mouse models are employed to represent spinocerebellar ataxia 1, a B05 transgenic model that specifically expresses mutant Ataxin-1 in Purkinje cells, and a Sca1 154Q/2Q model that inserts the polyglutamine expansion into the mouse Ataxin-1 locus so that the mutant Ataxin-1 is expressed in all cells that express Ataxin-1...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Juliana Bosso Taniguchi, Kanoh Kondo, Kyota Fujita, Xigui Chen, Hidenori Homma, Takeaki Sudo, Ying Mao, Kei Watase, Toshihiro Tanaka, Kazuhiko Tagawa, Takuya Tamura, Shin-Ichi Muramatsu, Hitoshi Okazawa
DNA damage and repair is a critical domain of many neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we focused on RpA1, a candidate key molecule in polyQ disease pathologies, and tested the therapeutic effect of adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector expressing RpA1 on mutant Ataxin-1 knock-in (Atxn1-KI) mice. We found significant effects on motor functions, normalized DNA damage markers (γH2AX and 53BP1), and improved Purkinje cell morphology; effects that lasted for 50 weeks following AAV-RpA1 infection. In addition, we confirmed that AAV-RpA1 indirectly recovered multiple cellular functions such as RNA splicing, transcription and cell cycle as well as abnormal morphology of dendrite and dendritic spine of Purkinje cells in Atxn1-KI mice...
August 11, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Ivelisse Sánchez, Eudald Balagué, Antoni Matilla-Dueñas
A polyglutamine expansion within the ataxin-1 protein (ATXN1) underlies spinocerebellar ataxia type-1 (SCA1), a neurological disorder mainly characterised by ataxia and cerebellar deficits. In SCA1, both loss and gain of ATXN1 biological functions contribute to cerebellar pathogenesis. However, the critical ATXN1 functions and pathways involved remain unclear. To further investigate the early signalling pathways regulated by ATXN1 we performed an unbiased proteomic study of the Atxn1-KO five-week old mice cerebellum...
July 27, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Qingxi Yue, Hong Zhen, Ming Huang, Xi Zheng, Lixing Feng, Baohong Jiang, Min Yang, Wanying Wu, Xuan Liu, Dean Guo
Although the possibility of developing cardiac steroids/cardiac glycosides as novel cancer therapeutic agents has been recognized, the mechanism of their anticancer activity is still not clear enough. Toad venom extract containing bufadienolides, which belong to cardiac steroids, has actually long been used as traditional Chinese medicine in clinic for cancer therapy in China. The cytotoxicity of arenobufagin, a bufadienolide isolated from toad venom, on human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells was checked. And, the protein expression profile of control HeLa cells and HeLa cells treated with arenobufagin for 48 h was analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis, respectively...
2016: PloS One
David M Stucki, Céline Ruegsegger, Silvio Steiner, Julika Radecke, Michael P Murphy, Benoît Zuber, Smita Saxena
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), due to an unstable polyglutamine expansion within the ubiquitously expressed Ataxin-1 protein, leads to the premature degeneration of Purkinje cells (PCs), decreasing motor coordination and causing death within 10-15 years of diagnosis. Currently, there are no therapies available to slow down disease progression. As secondary cellular impairments contributing to SCA1 progression are poorly understood, here, we focused on identifying those processes by performing a PC specific proteome profiling of Sca1(154Q/2Q) mice at a symptomatic stage...
August 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Marija Cvetanovic, Yuan-Shih Hu, Puneet Opal
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine (Q) repeat tract in the protein ataxin-1 (ATXN1). Beginning as a cerebellar ataxic disorder, SCA1 progresses to involve the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and brainstem. Using SCA1 knock-in mice that mirror the complexity of the human disease, we report a significant decrease in the capacity of adult neuronal progenitor cells (NPCs) to proliferate. Remarkably, a decrease in NPCs proliferation can be observed in vitro, outside the degenerative milieu of surrounding neurons or glia, demonstrating that mutant ATXN1 acting cell autonomously within progenitor cells interferes with their ability to proliferate...
June 15, 2016: Cerebellum
Nana Suto, Tokue Mieda, Akira Iizuka, Kazuhiro Nakamura, Hirokazu Hirai
AIMS: Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is caused by the ataxin-1 protein (ATXN1) with an abnormally expanded polyglutamine tract and is characterized by progressive neurodegeneration. We previously showed that intrathecal injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) during the nonsymptomatic stage mitigates the degeneration of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) neurons in SCA1-knock-in (SCA1-KI) mice. We tested in this study whether the therapeutic effects of MSCs in SCA1-KI mice could be reproduced with MSC-releasing factor(s)...
August 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Ying Ding, Hiroaki Adachi, Masahisa Katsuno, Kentaro Sahashi, Naohide Kondo, Madoka Iida, Genki Tohnai, Hideaki Nakatsuji, Gen Sobue
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a dominantly inherited neurodegenerative disease caused by the expansion of a polyglutamine (polyQ) tract in ataxin-1 (ATXN1). The pathological hallmarks of SCA1 are the loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells and neurons in the brainstem and the presence of nuclear aggregates containing the polyQ-expanded ATXN1 protein. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors have been shown to reduce polyQ-induced toxicity. This study was designed to examine the therapeutic effects of BIIB021, a purine-scaffold Hsp90 inhibitor, on the protein homeostasis of polyQ-expanded mutant ATXN1 in a cell culture model of SCA1...
July 7, 2016: Neuroscience
Zachary M March, Oliver D King, James Shorter
Key challenges faced by all cells include how to spatiotemporally organize complex biochemistry and how to respond to environmental fluctuations. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae harnesses alternative protein folding mediated by yeast prion domains (PrDs) for rapid evolution of new traits in response to environmental stress. Increasingly, it is appreciated that low complexity domains similar in amino acid composition to yeast PrDs (prion-like domains; PrLDs) found in metazoa have a prominent role in subcellular cytoplasmic organization, especially in relation to RNA homeostasis...
September 15, 2016: Brain Research
Marco A Deriu, Gianvito Grasso, Jack A Tuszynski, Diana Massai, Diego Gallo, Umberto Morbiducci, Andrea Danani
Ataxin-1 is the protein responsible for the Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1, an incurable neurodegenerative disease caused by polyglutamine expansion. The AXH domain plays a pivotal role in physiological functions of Ataxin-1. In Spinocerebellar ataxia 1, the AXH domain is involved in the misfolding and aggregation pathway. Here molecular modeling is applied to investigate the protein-protein interactions contributing to the AXH dimer stability. Particular attention is focused on: (i) the characterization of AXH monomer-monomer interface; (ii) the molecular description of the AXH monomer-monomer interaction dynamics...
May 2016: Proteins
M Asher, A Johnson, B Zecevic, D Pease, M Cvetanovic
Polyglutamine expansion in the protein ATAXIN-1 (ATXN1) causes spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), an inherited neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor deficits, cognitive impairment and depression. Although ubiquitously expressed, mutant ATXN1 causes neurodegeneration primarily in the cerebellum, which is responsible for the observed motor deficits. The role of ATXN1 outside of the cerebellum and the causes of cognitive deficits and depression in SCA1 are less understood. In this study, we demonstrate a novel role of ATXN1 in the hippocampus as a regulator of adult neurogenesis...
May 13, 2016: Neuroscience
David Meierhofer, Melanie Halbach, Nesli Ece Şen, Suzana Gispert, Georg Auburger
Human Ataxin-2 (ATXN2) gene locus variants have been associated with obesity, diabetes mellitus type 1,and hypertension in genome-wide association studies, whereas mouse studies showed the knock-out of Atxn2 to lead to obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia. Intriguingly, the deficiency of ATXN2 protein orthologs in yeast and flies rescues the neurodegeneration process triggered by TDP-43 and Ataxin-1 toxicity. To understand the molecular effects of ATXN2 deficiency by unbiased approaches, we quantified the global proteome and metabolome of Atxn2-knock-out mice with label-free mass spectrometry...
May 2016: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
Valentina Bouché, Alma Perez Espinosa, Luigi Leone, Marco Sardiello, Andrea Ballabio, Juan Botas
An evolutionarily conserved gene network regulates the expression of genes involved in lysosome biogenesis, autophagy, and lipid metabolism. In mammals, TFEB and other members of the MiTF-TFE family of transcription factors control this network. Here we report that the lysosomal-autophagy pathway is controlled by Mitf gene in Drosophila melanogaster. Mitf is the single MiTF-TFE family member in Drosophila and prior to this work was known only for its function in eye development. We show that Mitf regulates the expression of genes encoding V-ATPase subunits as well as many additional genes involved in the lysosomal-autophagy pathway...
2016: Autophagy
Céline Ruegsegger, David M Stucki, Silvio Steiner, Nico Angliker, Julika Radecke, Eva Keller, Benoît Zuber, Markus A Rüegg, Smita Saxena
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1), due to the expansion of a polyglutamine repeat within the ubiquitously expressed Ataxin-1 protein, leads to the premature degeneration of Purkinje cells (PCs), the cause of which is poorly understood. Here, we identified the unique proteomic signature of Sca1(154Q/2Q) PCs at an early stage of disease, highlighting extensive alterations in proteins associated with synaptic functioning, maintenance, and transmission. Focusing on Homer-3, a PC-enriched scaffold protein regulating neuronal activity, revealed an early decline in its expression...
January 6, 2016: Neuron
Tokue Mieda, Nana Suto, Akira Iizuka, Serina Matsuura, Haku Iizuka, Kenji Takagishi, Kazuhiro Nakamura, Hirokazu Hirai
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder in which an abnormally expanded polyglutamine tract is inserted into causative ataxin-1 proteins. We have previously shown that SCA1 knockin (SCA1-KI) mice over 6 months of age exhibit a degeneration of motor neuron axons and their encasing myelin sheaths, as reported in SCA1 patients. We examined whether axon degeneration precedes myelin degeneration or vice versa in SCA1-KI mice and then attempted to mitigate motor neuron degeneration by intrathecally administering mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
March 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Cristian A Lasagna-Reeves, Maxime Wc Rousseaux, Marcos J Guerrero-Munoz, Luis Vilanova-Velez, Jeehye Park, Lauren See, Paymaan Jafar-Nejad, Ronald Richman, Harry T Orr, Rakez Kayed, Huda Y Zoghbi
Previously, we reported that ATXN1 oligomers are the primary drivers of toxicity in Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1; Lasagna-Reeves et al., 2015). Here we report that polyQ ATXN1 oligomers can propagate locally in vivo in mice predisposed to SCA1 following intracerebral oligomeric tissue inoculation. Our data also show that targeting these oligomers with passive immunotherapy leads to some improvement in motor coordination in SCA1 mice and to a modest increase in their life span. These findings provide evidence that oligomer propagation is regionally limited in SCA1 and that immunotherapy targeting extracellular oligomers can mildly modify disease phenotypes...
2015: ELife
Gianvito Grasso, Marco A Deriu, Jack A Tuszynski, Diego Gallo, Umberto Morbiducci, Andrea Danani
In this paper, we report the results of molecular dynamics simulations of AXH monomer of Ataxin-1. The AXH domain plays a crucial role in Ataxin-1 aggregation, which accompanies the initiation and progression of Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1. Our simulations involving both classical and replica exchange molecular dynamics, followed by principal component analysis of the trajectories obtained, reveal substantial conformational fluctuations of the protein structure, especially in the N-terminal region. We show that these fluctuations can be generated by thermal noise since the free energy barriers between conformations are small enough for thermally stimulated transitions...
January 2016: Proteins
Megan S Keiser, Jeffrey H Kordower, Pedro Gonzalez-Alegre, Beverly L Davidson
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 is one of nine polyglutamine expansion diseases and is characterized by cerebellar ataxia and neuronal degeneration in the cerebellum and brainstem. Currently, there are no effective therapies for this disease. Previously, we have shown that RNA interference mediated silencing of ATXN1 mRNA provides therapeutic benefit in mouse models of the disease. Adeno-associated viral delivery of an engineered microRNA targeting ATXN1 to the cerebella of well-established mouse models improved motor phenotypes, neuropathy, and transcriptional changes...
December 2015: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
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