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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734051/a-user-s-guide-for-%C3%AE-synuclein-biomarker-studies-in-biological-fluids-perianalytical-considerations
#1
REVIEW
Brit Mollenhauer, Richard Batrla, Omar El-Agnaf, Douglas R Galasko, Hilal A Lashuel, Kalpana M Merchant, Lesley M Shaw, Dennis J Selkoe, Robert Umek, Hugo Vanderstichele, Henrik Zetterberg, Jing Zhang, Chelsea Caspell-Garcia, Chris Coffey, Samantha J Hutten, Mark Frasier, Peggy Taylor
Parkinson's disease biomarkers are needed to increase diagnostic accuracy, to objectively monitor disease progression and to assess therapeutic efficacy as well as target engagement when evaluating novel drug and therapeutic strategies. This article summarizes perianalytical considerations for biomarker studies (based on immunoassays) in Parkinson's disease, with emphasis on quantifying total α-synuclein protein in biological fluids. Current knowledge and pitfalls are discussed, and selected perianalytical variables are presented systematically, including different temperature of sample collection and types of collection tubes, gradient sampling, the addition of detergent, aliquot volume, the freezing time, and the different thawing methods...
July 22, 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715729/consistent-association-between-hypnotics-sedatives-and-non-traffic-injuries-results-from-a-national-household-survey
#2
María Del Mar Martín-Rodríguez, José Pulido, Eladio Jiménez-Mejías, Juan Hoyos, Pablo Lardelli-Claret, Gregorio Barrio
AIM: To quantify the relationship between patterns of psychostimulants, hypnotics/sedatives and alcohol consumption and the frequency of unintentional non-traffic injuries (UNTIs) requiring medical assistant in Spain. METHODS: We carried out a cross sectional study using a randomized pooled sample from two household surveys on psychoactive drugs use (n=51,649 subjects aged 15-64 years). We estimated the magnitude of the association between the use of psychostimulants and hypnotics/sedatives in the last 12 months as well as alcohol consumption in the last 30days with the occurrence of UNTIs in the last 12 months (falls, knocks/bumps and cuts) by building several logistic regression models, which took into account the effect of sociodemographic characteristics and the use of other psychoactive drugs (including cannabis)...
July 14, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674622/use-of-non-steroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-us-adults-changes-over-time-and-by-demographic
#3
Jennifer S Davis, Hwa Young Lee, Jihye Kim, Shailesh M Advani, Ho-Lan Peng, Emilyn Banfield, Ernest T Hawk, Shine Chang, Alexis C Frazier-Wood
OBJECTIVE: Aspirin and non-aspirin non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are preventive against cardiovascular disease (CVD) and several cancer types, but long-term use has been associated with significant health risks, resulting in conflicting recommendations on NSAID use for prevention of CVD and cancer. Previous research indicates that aspirin use increases with age and CVD risk factors and that a large percentage of the US population regularly use analgesics, including NSAIDs, but there has not been a recent, in-depth assessment of NSAID use prevalence, changes in use over time or predictors of NSAID use in the USA...
2017: Open Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641128/expectancy-of-impairment-attenuates-marijuana-induced-risk-taking
#4
Rachel L Gunn, Linda Skalski, Jane Metrik
BACKGROUND: Marijuana use has been associated with increased risk-taking and impulsive behavior. While pharmacologic effects of marijuana can lead to inhibitory impairment, expectancy of potential impairment may result in compensatory behavioral response by decreasing impulsive decisions and risky behaviors. With the increases in marijuana use and related problems, a better understanding of the individual characteristics associated with marijuana intoxication and risky behavior is needed...
June 13, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632075/-is-marijuana-even-a-drug-a-qualitative-study-of-how-teens-view-marijuana-use-and-why-they-use-it
#5
Bettina Friese
This qualitative study examines how youth in the San Francisco Bay Area perceive marijuana and their motives for using or not using marijuana. Current regular users were more likely to perceive marijuana smoking as an enjoyable activity, comparable to a hobby or sport. Current occasional users commonly reported smoking marijuana when it was offered to them, on special occasions, and sometimes as a result of not wanting to be left out. Most former regular users reported quitting marijuana use due to getting into trouble, being ordered into drug treatment and/or being drug tested...
February 26, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618002/novel-psychoactive-substance-use-among-treatment-seeking-opiate-users-the-role-of-life-events-and-psychiatric-symptoms
#6
Máté Kapitány-Fövény, Judit Farkas, Patrícia Andrea Pataki, Anna Kiss, Janka Horváth, Róbert Urbán, Zsolt Demetrovics
OBJECTIVE: Over the past 5 years, a shift to the use of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) has been observed among opioid users. The aim of this study was to assess the potential reasons for NPS use among treatment-seeking patients receiving opiate substitution therapy. METHOD: A structured questionnaire was filled out by a sample of 198 opiate dependent patients of Hungary's National Institute of Psychiatry and Addiction. This questionnaire assessed demographics, treatment characteristics, lifetime substance use, potential reasons for NPS use, negative life events (Life Events Scale), and psychiatric symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory)...
May 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617623/timing-of-aspirin-and-other-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-use-among-patients-with-colorectal-cancer-in-relation-to-tumor-markers-and-survival
#7
Xinwei Hua, Amanda I Phipps, Andrea N Burnett-Hartman, Scott V Adams, Sheetal Hardikar, Stacey A Cohen, Jonathan M Kocarnik, Dennis J Ahnen, Noralane M Lindor, John A Baron, Polly A Newcomb
Purpose Regular use of aspirin is associated with improved survival for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the timing of and the subtype of CRC that would benefit the most from using aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in relation to survival is unclear. Patients and Methods In all, 2,419 patients age 18 to 74 years with incident invasive CRC who were diagnosed from 1997 to 2008 were identified from population-based cancer registries in the United States, Canada, and Australia...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615159/mobile-health-in-oncology-a-patient-survey-about-app-assisted-cancer-care
#8
Kerstin Anne Kessel, Marco Me Vogel, Carmen Kessel, Henning Bier, Tilo Biedermann, Helmut Friess, Peter Herschbach, Rüdiger von Eisenhart-Rothe, Bernhard Meyer, Marion Kiechle, Ulrich Keller, Christian Peschel, Roland M Schmid, Stephanie E Combs
BACKGROUND: In the last decade, the health care sector has been enriched by numerous innovations such as apps and connected devices that assist users in weight reduction and diabetes management. However, only a few native apps in the oncological context exist, which support patients during treatment and aftercare. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze patients' acceptance regarding app use and to investigate the functions of an oncological app that are most required, and the primary reasons for patients to refuse app-assisted cancer care...
June 14, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599683/pain-sensitivity-and-analgesic-use-among-10-486-adults-the-troms%C3%A3-study
#9
Per-Jostein Samuelsen, Christopher Sivert Nielsen, Tom Wilsgaard, Audun Stubhaug, Kristian Svendsen, Anne Elise Eggen
BACKGROUND: Increased pain sensitivity is a putative risk factor for chronic pain and consequently for analgesic use. Conversely, analgesic use may be a cause of increased pain sensitivity, e.g., through opioid-induced hyperalgesia. We aimed to study the association between pain sensitivity and analgesic use in a general population, and to test the hypothesis that increased baseline pain sensitivity is a risk factor for future persistent analgesic use. METHODS: The Tromsø Study (2007-08), a population-based health study, was linked with eight years of prescription data from the Norwegian Prescription Database...
June 9, 2017: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594892/a-behavioral-typology-of-opioid-overdose-risk-behaviors-among-recent-veterans-in-new-york-city
#10
Alex S Bennett, Andrew Golub, Luther Elliott
OBJECTIVE: To identify meaningful classes of opioid-using military veterans in terms of self-reported opioid overdose risk behaviors. METHOD: The study recruited a sample of 218 military veterans in the NYC area who were discharged from active duty service after September 11, 2001 and reported past-month opioid use. Survey data including measures of mental health, social stressors, substance use, and opioid-related overdose risk behaviors were analyzed using Latent Class Analysis (LCA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592420/patterns-of-cannabis-use-during-adolescence-and-their-association-with-harmful-substance-use-behaviour-findings-from-a-uk-birth-cohort
#11
Michelle Taylor, Simon M Collin, Marcus R Munafò, John MacLeod, Matthew Hickman, Jon Heron
BACKGROUND: Evidence on the role of cannabis as a gateway drug is inconsistent. We characterise patterns of cannabis use among UK teenagers aged 13-18 years, and assess their influence on problematic substance use at age 21 years. METHODS: We used longitudinal latent class analysis to derive trajectories of cannabis use from self-report measures in a UK birth cohort. We investigated (1) factors associated with latent class membership and (2) whether latent class membership predicted subsequent nicotine dependence, harmful alcohol use and recent use of other illicit drugs at age 21 years...
August 2017: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587637/literature-evidence-in-open-targets-a-target-validation-platform
#12
Şenay Kafkas, Ian Dunham, Johanna McEntyre
BACKGROUND: We present the Europe PMC literature component of Open Targets - a target validation platform that integrates various evidence to aid drug target identification and validation. The component identifies target-disease associations in documents and ranks the documents based on their confidence from the Europe PMC literature database, by using rules utilising expert-provided heuristic information. The confidence score of a given document represents how valuable the document is in the scope of target validation for a given target-disease association by taking into account the credibility of the association based on the properties of the text...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Semantics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587622/the-validity-and-reliability-of-the-mandarin-chinese-version-of-the-drug-abuse-screening-test-among-adolescents-in-taiwan
#13
Jung-Yu Liao, Hsueh-Yun Chi, Jong-Long Guo, Chiu-Mieh Huang, Shu-Fang Shih
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the validity and reliability of the Mandarin Chinese version of the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-20) among adolescents, as well as examining the test's predictability with regard to the actual level of drug abuse. METHOD: A total of 100 adolescent participants were recruited with their consent, in which 49 were current drug users and 51 were non-users. Based on the frequency of their drug use, participants who had used drugs at least once every week during the past year were classified as regular users (34 participants); participants who had not reached the regular use frequency of once every week during the past year were classified as occasional users (15 participants)...
June 6, 2017: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578864/exposure-to-fentanyl-contaminated-heroin-and-overdose-risk-among-illicit-opioid-users-in-rhode-island-a-mixed-methods-study
#14
Jennifer J Carroll, Brandon D L Marshall, Josiah D Rich, Traci C Green
BACKGROUND: Illicit fentanyl use has become wide spread in the US, causing high rates of overdose deaths among people who use drugs. This study describes patterns and perceptions of fentanyl exposure among opioid users in Rhode Island. METHODS: A mixed methods study was conducted via questionnaire with a convenience sample of 149 individuals using illicit opioids or misusing prescription opioids in Rhode Island between January and November 2016. Of these, 121 knew of fentanyl and reported known or suspected exposure to fentanyl in the past year...
June 1, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577506/high-enhancer-downer-withdrawal-helper-multifunctional-nonmedical-benzodiazepine-use-among-young-adult-opioid-users-in-new-york-city
#15
Pedro Mateu-Gelabert, Lauren Jessell, Elizabeth Goodbody, Dongah Kim, Krista Gile, Jennifer Teubl, Cassandra Syckes, Kelly Ruggles, Jeffrey Lazar, Sam Friedman, Honoria Guarino
BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepines are a widely prescribed psychoactive drug; in the U.S., both medical and nonmedical use of benzodiazepines has increased markedly in the past 15 years. Long-term use can lead to tolerance and dependence, and abrupt withdrawal can cause seizures or other life-threatening symptoms. Benzodiazepines are often used nonmedically in conjunction with other drugs, and with opioids in particular-a combination that can increase the risk for fatal and non-fatal overdose...
May 31, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28568705/hair-analysis-for-the-detection-of-drug-use-is-there-potential-for-evasion
#16
Shanna Marrinan, Andres Roman-Urrestarazu, Declan Naughton, Emerlinda Levari, John Collins, Robert Chilcott, Giuseppe Bersani, Ornella Corazza
BACKGROUND: Hair analysis for illicit substances is widely used to detect chronic drug consumption or abstention from drugs. Testees are increasingly seeking ways to avoid detection by using a variety of untested adulterant products (e.g., shampoos, cleansers) widely sold online. This study aims to investigate adulteration of hair samples and to assess effectiveness of such methods. METHODS: The literature on hair test evasion was searched for on PubMed or MEDLINE, Psycinfo, and Google Scholar...
May 31, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560818/emotion-regulation-deficits-in-regular-marijuana-users
#17
Kaeli Zimmermann, Christina Walz, Raissa T Derckx, Keith M Kendrick, Bernd Weber, Bruce Dore, Kevin N Ochsner, René Hurlemann, Benjamin Becker
Effective regulation of negative affective states has been associated with mental health. Impaired regulation of negative affect represents a risk factor for dysfunctional coping mechanisms such as drug use and thus could contribute to the initiation and development of problematic substance use. This study investigated behavioral and neural indices of emotion regulation in regular marijuana users (n = 23) and demographically matched nonusing controls (n = 20) by means of an fMRI cognitive emotion regulation (reappraisal) paradigm...
May 31, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552095/abdominal-aortic-aneurysms-pharmacoepidemiological-studies
#18
Holger Wemmelund
An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is an enlargement of the abdominal aorta. It is a common disease in the elderly, with a prevalence of 1-5%. An AAA is normally asymptomatic, and the diagnosis is often incidental, identified when a patient is examined for other conditions. The major risk of having an AAA is sudden rupture and death caused by massive hemorrhaging. As rupture risk increases with increasing AAA diameter, the current management strategies include regular imaging surveillance and elective repair before rupture occurs...
May 2017: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541440/estimating-the-number-of-people-who-inject-drugs-a-proposal-to-provide-figures-nationwide-and-its-application-to-france
#19
Eric Janssen
Background: This article provides an original method of estimating the prevalence of injecting drug users (IDU) in France. Method: In order to overcome legal restrictions hampering data linkage, the method relies on a single-source capture-recapture framework and makes use of individual data collected by a standardized survey conducted within treatment centres. Taking the hierarchical structure of data collection into consideration, a multilevel Zelterman regression model was used...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527411/trends-in-reports-of-driving-following-illicit-drug-consumption-among-regular-drug-users-in-australia-2007-2013-has-random-roadside-drug-testing-had-a-deterrent-effect
#20
Danielle Horyniak, Paul Dietze, Simon Lenton, Rosa Alati, Raimondo Bruno, Allison Matthews, Courtney Breen, Lucy Burns
INTRODUCTION: Driving following illicit drug consumption ('drug-driving') is a potential road safety risk. Roadside drug testing (RDT) is conducted across Australia with the dual aims of prosecuting drivers with drugs in their system and deterring drug-driving. We examined trends over time in self-reported past six-month drug-driving among sentinel samples of regular drug users and assessed the impact of experiences of RDT on drug-driving among these participants. METHODS: Data from 1913 people who inject drugs (PWID) and 3140 regular psychostimulant users (RPU) who were first-time participants in a series of repeat cross-sectional sentinel studies conducted in Australian capital cities from 2007 to 2013 and reported driving in the past six months were analysed...
July 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
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