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Regular drug user

Trond Erik Grønnestad, Hildegunn Sagvaag
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to gain insight into how individuals who frequent open illicit drug scenes experience opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) and investigate how this appears to affect their recovery processes. METHOD: By means of the ethnographic method, one of the researchers spent time in an open illicit drug scene over a 1-year span, and gathered data on individuals who frequent the scene on a regular basis, and their experiences with OMT...
2016: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
Yutaka Imai
It has been confirmed that clinical significance of home blood pressure measurements (HBPM) is higher than clinic BP measurements and ambulatory BP monitoring. However, several drawbacks of HBPM have also been mentioned, e.g. selection and reporting biases, difficulties of calculation of multiple measurements, difficulties of onsite judgement of numerous recordings, etc. Recent devices for HBPM incorporate memory function. This function can overcome such drawbacks of HBPM. These memorized data can transmit, storage, retrieve, be arithmetic and control, be judged based on algorithm and be got feedback...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Fabien Cohen
This article reminds you that, whatever the psychoactive substance in question, it is not one that has repercussions on the oral health of its user. This affects both the tooth, the periodontal and oral mucosa. Drug addicts, especially those engaged in polydrug use, represent the population at the largest risk for oral cancer. Of all the factors, smoking is by far the largest risk. The alcohol has a synergistic effect with the tobacco, so that the combined effect is more than multiplied. Preventing risks of these products is possible through good oral hygiene and lifestyle, preventive care and followed by a regular dentist...
October 10, 2016: La Presse Médicale
Kaina Zhou, Hengxin Li, Xiaoli Wei, Xiaomei Li, Guihua Zhuang
OBJECTIVES: To identify medication adherence and its influencing factors among patients of 14 methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) clinics in Xi'an, China. METHODS: Data were obtained from the National AIDS Information System-Community Methadone Maintenance Treatment. All patients registered in the system were not permitted to take methadone at home without professionals' supervision. Medication adherence was assessed using categorical (ie, dropout or retained) and continuous (ie, treatment time, methadone use time, and percentage of methadone use days) variables...
September 19, 2016: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Yutaka Imai
It has been confirmed that clinical significance of home blood pressure measurements (HBPM) is higher than clinic BP measurements and ambulatory BP monitoring. However, several drawbacks of HBPM have also been mentioned, e.g. selection and reporting biases, difficulties of calculation of multiple measurements, difficulties of onsite judgement of numerous recordings, etc. Recent devices for HBPM incorporate memory function. This function can overcome such drawbacks of HBPM. These memorized data can transmit, storage, retrieve, be arithmetic and control, be judged based on algorithm and be got feedback...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
A King, J Thambyrajah, E Leng, M J Stewart
Herceptin (Trastuzumab) is a widely used and effective drug for the treatment of Her2+ breast cancer but its cardiotoxic side effects require regular monitoring by echocardiography. A 10% reduction in left ventricular ejection fraction can lead to suspension of treatment and therefore has significant implications for patient prognosis in terms of cardiac and cancer outcomes. Assessment of LV function by conventional 2D biplane method of discs (2DEF) has limitations in accuracy and reproducibility. Global longitudinal strain (GLS) is becoming more widely available and user friendly...
September 2016: Echo Research and Practice
Monika Wójta-Kempa, Dominik M Krzyżanowski
BACKGROUND: Almost 90% of households in Poland buy medicines on their own initiative. The most popular OTC medicines bought by Polish consumers are painkillers and non-steroid-anti-inflammatory drugs. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this article was to recognize and describe the most important predictive factors of the abuse and misuse of over-the-counter pain relievers among adults in Wrocław (Poland). The groups of users were selected and described. Some examples of misuse were analyzed...
March 2016: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Paul Vanderkam, Rémy Boussageon, Michel Underner, Nicolas Langbourg, Yann Brabant, Philippe Binder, Bernard Freche, Nematollah Jaafari
CONTEXT: Smoking is the first cause of preventable death in France and in the world. Without help, it was shown that 80 % of smokers who try to quit smoking relapse after one month with a low long-term success rate. Smoking reduction can concern smokers who did not want to quit or failed in their attempt to weaning. The final aim is to increase attractiveness of drug therapies by developing new products, such as electronic cigarettes, that can compete cigarette without reproducing its harmful effects...
September 2, 2016: La Presse Médicale
Jennifer L Guthrie, David C Alexander, Alex Marchand-Austin, Karen Lam, Michael Whelan, Brenda Lee, Colin Furness, Elizabeth Rea, Rebecca Stuart, Julia Lechner, Monali Varia, Jennifer McLean, Frances B Jamieson
OBJECTIVE: Develop a tool to disseminate integrated laboratory, clinical, and demographic case data necessary for improved contact tracing and outbreak detection of tuberculosis (TB). METHODS: In 2007, the Public Health Ontario Laboratories implemented a universal genotyping program to monitor the spread of TB strains within Ontario. Ontario Universal Typing of TB (OUT-TB) Web utilizes geographic information system (GIS) technology with a relational database platform, allowing TB control staff to visualize genotyping matches and microbiological data within the context of relevant epidemiological and demographic data...
September 2, 2016: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
A Weinstein, A Livny-Ezer, A Weizman
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug worldwide. Regular cannabis use has been associated with a range of acute and chronic mental health problems, such as anxiety, depression, psychotic symptoms and neurocognitive impairments and their neural mechanisms need to be examined. This review summarizes and critically evaluates brain-imaging studies of cannabis in recreational and regular cannabis users between January 2000 and January 2016. The search has yielded eligible 103 structural and functional studies...
August 22, 2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Victoria R Votaw, Justine Wittenauer, Hilary S Connery, Roger D Weiss, R Kathryn McHugh
AIMS: The prevalence of heroin use among nonmedical prescription opioid (NMPO) users has increased in recent years. Identifying characteristics associated with heroin use in this population can help inform efforts to prevent heroin initiation and maintenance. The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in perceived risk of heroin among NMPO users with and without histories of heroin use, and to examine temporal trends in perceived risk of heroin among this population. METHODS: Data are from the 2002-2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, and included all past-year NMPO users (N=49,045)...
August 15, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Amanda Bevan, Niesh Patel
BACKGROUND: Whilst the prescribing of both in-patient and discharge medicines is electronic, there was no automatic notification to clinical pharmacists when a discharge prescription was ready to be screened. The notification required a member of medical or nursing staff to bleep their pharmacist informing them of a prescription's availability. This manual process led to a delay in pharmacist screening which impacted on discharge. Prescriptions designated for pre-packed or patient's own medicine use were not seen at all by a clinical pharmacist...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
D B Anantha Narayana, Sharanbasappa Durg, P Ram Manohar, Anita Mahapatra, A R Aramya
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Chyawanprash (CP), a traditional immune booster recipe, has a long history of ethnic origin, development, household preparation and usage. There are even mythological stories about the origin of this recipe including its nomenclature. In the last six decades, CP, because of entrepreneurial actions of some research Vaidyas (traditional doctors) has grown to industrial production and marketing in packed forms to a large number of consumers/patients like any food or health care product...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Kate Vallance, Eric Roth, Kara Thompson, Clifton Chow, Gina Martin
BACKGROUND: Heavy episodic drinking (HED) has negative consequences for both the individual and society. Research on HED has focused mainly on the general population while research into HED and other drug use among recreational drug using populations is less developed. OBJECTIVES: This study explores factors related to HED on a previous weekend among male and female recreational drug users. METHODS: Cross-sectional interviews were undertaken with those age 19+ who regularly use recreational drugs in a nightlife setting in two cities in Canada (n = 931) between 2008 and 2014...
November 9, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Megan F Dickson, Michele Staton-Tindall, Kirsten E Smith, Carl Leukefeld, J Matthew Webster, Carrie B Oser
PURPOSE: Facebook (FB) use has grown exponentially over the past decade, including in rural areas. Despite its popularity, FB has been underutilized as a research follow-up approach to maintain contact with research participants and may have advantages in less densely populated areas and among more hard-to-reach, at-risk groups. The overall goal of this study was to examine FB as a supplemental follow-up approach to other follow-up strategies with rural drug-using women. METHODS: Face-to-face interviews were conducted with randomly selected women who completed baseline interviews in 3 rural jails in 1 state...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Rural Health
E B De Sousa Fernandes Perna, E L Theunissen, K P C Kuypers, S W Toennes, J G Ramaekers
RATIONALE: Alcohol and cannabis use have been implicated in aggression. Alcohol consumption is known to facilitate aggression, whereas a causal link between cannabis and aggression has not been clearly demonstrated. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the acute effects of alcohol and cannabis on subjective aggression in alcohol and cannabis users, respectively, following aggression exposure. Drug-free controls served as a reference. It was hypothesized that aggression exposure would increase subjective aggression in alcohol users during alcohol intoxication, whereas it was expected to decrease subjective aggression in cannabis users during cannabis intoxication...
September 2016: Psychopharmacology
Catherine Abbo, Elialilia S Okello, Wilson Muhwezi, Grace Akello, Emilio Ovuga
AIMS: 1) To determine the nature and extent of alcohol and substance use and 2) To describe the relationship between alcohol use and psychosocial competence among secondary school youths in Northern and Central Uganda. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Departments of Mental Health, Gulu University (Northern Uganda) and Department of Psychiatry, Makerere University College of Health Sciences (Central Uganda) between September 2011 and April 2012...
2016: International Neuropsychiatric Disease Journal
N Wt Cheung, Y W Cheung, X Chen
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effects of a permissive attitude towards regular and occasional drug use, life satisfaction, self-esteem, depression, and other psychosocial variables in the drug use of psychoactive drug users. Psychosocial factors that might affect a permissive attitude towards regular / occasional drug use and life satisfaction were further explored. METHODS: We analysed data of a sample of psychoactive drug users from a longitudinal survey of psychoactive drug abusers in Hong Kong who were interviewed at 6 time points at 6-month intervals between January 2009 and December 2011...
June 2016: East Asian Archives of Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Hong Kong College of Psychiatrists
Mohamed Khalifa, Ibrahim Zabani
Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) are designed to help making clinical decisions regarding the management of patients. CDS alerts can save lives but frequent insignificant ones might cause alert fatigue. Studies discuss that 33% to 96% of clinical alerts are ignored. We categorized best evidence based strategies, to reduce alert fatigue and improve CDSS utilization, into five major areas. Classify alerts in to three main levels; severe, moderate and minor then develop a core set of critical drug to drug interactions...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
M R Zannat, A Nessa, M M Hossain, R K Das, M Asrin, S Sufrin, M T Islam, T Tajkia, S Nasreen
In the present study serum glucose were estimated in pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy and third trimester of pregnancy to observe the frequency of hyperglycemia during pregnancy and to assess the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus. This study was a cross sectional study, carried out in the Department of Physiology of Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from July 2014 to June 2015. For this purpose, total 300 women with age ranged from 18 to 35 years were selected and divided into 100 healthy non pregnant women as control group and 200 normal pregnant women as study group...
April 2016: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
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