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Regular drug user

Jennifer Power, Gosia Mikołajczak, Adam Bourne, Graham Brown, William Leonard, Anthony Lyons, Gary W Dowsett, Jayne Lucke
Background: This paper explores associations between use of party-and-play drugs, including crystal methamphetamine, and wellbeing among HIV positive gay and bisexual men (GBM) in Australia. This study considers whether use of drugs in a social or sex-based setting facilitates access to social and support networks, which may in turn support wellbeing. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of Australian people living with HIV (PLHIV) was conducted. There were 714 participants (79.7%) who identified as GBM. Differences between party-and-play drug users and non-users were examined using bivariate and multinomial logistic regressions...
March 16, 2018: Sexual Health
Geoff Bardwell, Solanna Anderson, Lindsey Richardson, Lorna Bird, Hugh Lampkin, Will Small, Ryan McNeil
BACKGROUND: While drug user organizations (DUO) have received public health attention as a means to potentially reduce the harms associated with drug use, there is a lack of research on the compensation and structural forces that promote or inhibit participation in DUO. Against the backdrop of structural vulnerability experienced by people who use drugs (PWUD), we examined the impact of monetary 'volunteer stipends' provided through a DUO and explore their role in providing low-threshold employment opportunities and shaping participation in DUO...
March 1, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Manjula Bhattarai, Jagat Bahadur Baniya, Nirmal Aryal, Bimal Shrestha, Ramanuj Rauniyar, Anurag Adhikari, Pratik Koirala, Pardip Kumar Oli, Ram Deo Pandit, David A Stein, Birendra Prasad Gupta
HBV and HCV infections are widespread among the HIV-infected individuals in Nepal. The goals of this study were to investigate the epidemiological profile and risk factors for acquiring HBV and/or HCV coinfection in disadvantaged HIV-positive population groups in Nepal. We conducted a retrospective study on blood samples from HIV-positive patients from the National Public Health Laboratory at Kathmandu to assay for HBsAg, HBeAg, and anti-HCV antibodies, HIV viral load, and CD4+ T cell count. Among 579 subjects, the prevalence of HIV-HBV, HIV-HCV, and HIV-HBV-HCV coinfections was 3...
2018: BioMed Research International
Melissa L Anderson, Bei-Hung Chang, Nisha Kini
BACKGROUND: Within the field of behavioral health research, one of the most understudied populations is the U.S. Deaf and hard-of-hearing (D/HH) population - a diverse group of individuals with hearing loss that have varied language and communication preferences, community affiliations, and sociocultural norms. Recent research identified concerning behavioral health disparities experienced by the D/HH population; yet, little research has been conducted to extend these findings to the topic of substance use disorder...
February 16, 2018: Substance Abuse
Attila Szabo, Mark D Griffiths, Rikke Aarhus Høglid, Zsolt Demetrovics
Background: Scholastic works suggest that those at risk for exercise addiction are also often addicted to illicit drugs, nicotine, and/or alcohol, but empirical evidence is lacking. Aims: The aim of the present work was to examine the co-occurrence of illicit drug, nicotine, and alcohol use frequency (prevalence of users) and severity (level of problem in users) among exercisers classified at three levels of risk for exercise addiction: (i) asymptomatic, (ii) symptomatic, and (iii) at-risk...
June 2018: Addictive Behaviors Reports
Harsh Sheth, Emma Northwood, Cornelia M Ulrich, Dominique Scherer, Faye Elliott, Jennifer H Barrett, David Forman, C Roland Wolf, Gillian Smith, Michael S Jackson, Mauro Santibanez-Koref, Robert Haile, Graham Casey, Mark Jenkins, Aung Ko Win, John L Hopper, Loic Le Marchand, Noralane M Lindor, Stephen N Thibodeau, John D Potter, John Burn, D Timothy Bishop
Regular aspirin use is associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Variation in aspirin's chemoprevention efficacy has been attributed to the presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We conducted a meta-analysis using two large population-based case-control datasets, the UK-Leeds Colorectal Cancer Study Group and the NIH-Colon Cancer Family Registry, having a combined total of 3325 cases and 2262 controls. The aim was to assess 42 candidate SNPs in 15 genes whose association with colorectal cancer risk was putatively modified by aspirin use, in the literature...
2018: PloS One
Masarah Paquet-Clouston, David Décary-Hétu, Carlo Morselli
BACKGROUND: Since 2011, drug market participants have traded illegal drugs through cryptomarkets, a user-friendly infrastructure in which drug market participants can conduct business transactions. This study assesses market competition and the size and scope of drug vendors' activities on one of the largest cryptomarkets, AlphaBay, in order to better understand the challenges that drug vendors face when selling on this venue. METHODS: Relying on data collected from AlphaBay, we calculate the degree of competition within the drug market using the Herfindhal-Hirshmann Index (HHI)...
January 30, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Raphael Laiber Bonadiman, Adriélly Fiorese Santanna, Girlandia Alexandre Brasil, Ewelyne Miranda de Lima, Dominik Lenz, Denise Coutinho Endringer, Tadeu Uggere Andrade
The scope of this study was to determine the satisfaction levels of users of public pharmacies and verify the knowledge of pharmacists in relation to dispensing of medicines. This is a descriptive study, conducted in municipalities in the State of Espírito Santo, in the period from May to August 2013. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire and SPSS20 software was used for statistical analysis. The Student t or ANOVA test was used for data with normal distribution, while the Mann-Whitney or Kruskal-Wallis test was applied for data without normal distribution...
February 2018: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
Stavros Petrou, Emil Kupek
Background: This study estimates trends in prevalence, and patterns, of individual and multiple substance use between 2002 and 2013 amongst adolescents in Scotland. Methods: The study uses data from 134 387 participants of the biennial national 'Scottish Schools Adolescent Lifestyle and Substance Use Survey' on smoking, alcohol and illicit drug use. Current regular use and current heavy use of smoking, alcohol, illicit drugs and multiple substances was measured...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Rafael A Guimarães, Luiz Hb Monteiro, Sheila A Teles, Inaina L Fernandes, Aurélio G Rodovalho, Graciele C Silva, Roselma Lucchese, Ivânia Vera, Andrécia C Silva, Valéria D Gregório, Priscilla M Ferreira, Mayara Ms de Almeida, Vanessa A Guimarães, Thiago A Amorim, Marise R de Souza
The objective of this study was to investigate risk behaviors for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in noninjecting drug users (NIDUs), using STI diagnosis history as an indicator. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 323 NIDUs of two facilities for alcohol and/or drug dependence treatment in the Goiás State, Central Brazil. All participants were interviewed about risk behaviors and STI history. Multivariable analysis was performed in order to identify predictors of STIs. Adjusted prevalence ratio (APR) with confidence intervals of 95% was obtained using a Poisson regression model...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Gemma Ibáñez-Sanz, Anna Díez-Villanueva, Laura Vilorio-Marqués, Esther Gracia, Nuria Aragonés, Rocío Olmedo-Requena, Javier Llorca, Juana Vidán, Pilar Amiano, Pilar Nos, Guillermo Fernández-Tardón, Ricardo Rada, María Dolores Chirlaque, Elisabet Guinó, Verónica Dávila-Batista, Gemma Castaño-Vinyals, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Benito Mirón-Pozo, Trinidad Dierssen-Sotos, Jaione Etxeberria, Amaia Molinuevo, Begoña Álvarez-Cuenllas, Manolis Kogevinas, Marina Pollán, Victor Moreno
A safe and effective colorectal cancer (CRC) chemoprevention agent remains to be discovered. We aim to evaluate the association between the use of glucosamine and/or chondroitin sulphate and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the MCC-Spain study, a case-control study performed in Spain that included 2140 cases of CRC and 3950 population controls. Subjects were interviewed on sociodemographic factors, lifestyle, family and medical history and regular drug use. Adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals were estimated...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hugues Sampasa-Kanyinga, Hayley A Hamilton, Allana G LeBlanc, Jean-Philippe Chaput
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use can have serious detrimental effects in children and adolescents. It is therefore important to continually assess the use of cannabis among young people in order to inform prevention efforts. We assessed the prevalence of cannabis use among middle and high school students in Ontario and examined its association with demographic and behavioural factors. METHODS: Data were obtained from the 2015 Ontario Student Drug Use and Health Survey, a province-wide school-based survey of students in grades 7 through 12...
January 23, 2018: CMAJ Open
Naoki Kondo, Yoshiki Ishikawa
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomically vulnerable people are likely to have more health risks because of inadequate behaviour choices related to chronic social stresses. Brain science suggests that stress causes cognitively biased automatic decision making, preferring instant stress relief and pleasure (eg, smoking, alcohol use and drug abuse) as opposed to reflectively seeking health-maintenance services (eg, health check-ups). As such, hedonic stimuli that nudge people towards preventive actions could reduce health behaviour disparities...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health
Do Thi Vinh, Ho Thi Hien, Nguyen Manh Tri, Do Khac Huynh
We conducted a cross-sectional study among 148 women who were regular sexual partners of male injecting drug users in Tien Du, Bac Ninh province, Vietnam to identify the rate of HIV infection and factors associated with HIV transmission among them. HIV infection rate among sexual partners was high, 11.5%. Sexual violence was prevalent, 63.5% among sexual partners; 94.1% (16/17) among those with HIV. We discovered an association between sexual violence and HIV infection. Sexual partners suffering from sexual violence caused by their regular sexual partners faced 9...
January 9, 2018: Health Care for Women International
Marta Rychert, Chris Wilkins, Karl Parker, Karen Witten
INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: In July 2013, New Zealand passed the Psychoactive Substances Act (PSA), which established a legal regulated market for government-approved products containing new psychoactive substances (NPS). One of the aims of the PSA was to separate the market for approved NPS products from unapproved products and illegal drugs. The aim of this study was to explore perceived health risks and social acceptability of government-approved NPS compared to unapproved NPS and other drugs...
December 29, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Review
Rafael Alves Guimarães, Vivianne de Oliveira Landgraf de Castro, Sandra Maria do Valle Leone de Oliveira, Andréa Cristina Stabile, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta-Castro, Megmar Aparecida Dos Santos Carneiro, Lyriane Apolinário Araujo, Karlla Antonieta Amorim Caetano, Marcos André de Matos, Sheila Araujo Teles
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare sociodemographic characteristics, patterns of drug use, and risky sexual behaviour among female and male users of crack cocaine. METHODS: Between 2012 and 2013, we conducted a cross-sectional study of 919 crack cocaine users (783 men and 136 women) in Central Brazil using face-to-face interviews. Blood samples were collected to test for syphilis. The Chi-Square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) was used to explore the differences between genders...
December 28, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
Valentina Guercio, Federica Turati, Cristina Bosetti, Jerry Polesel, Diego Serraino, Maurizio Montella, Massimo Libra, Antonio Galfano, Carlo La Vecchia, Alessandra Tavani
The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between bladder cancer risk and the use of selected drugs for cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention, such as aspirin, statins, and calcium channel blockers (CCBs). We analyzed data from a multicentric case-control study carried out in Italy between 2003 and 2014, including 690 bladder cancer cases and 665 hospital controls. Odds ratios (ORs) of bladder cancer and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional multiple logistic regression models...
December 26, 2017: European Journal of Cancer Prevention
Benjamin A Bouvier, Katherine M Waye, Beth Elston, Scott E Hadland, Traci C Green, Brandon D L Marshall
BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepine use dramatically increases the risk of unintentional overdose among people who use opioids non-medically. However, little is known about the patterns of co-occurring benzodiazepine and opioid use among young adults in the United States. METHODS: The Rhode Island Young Adult Prescription Drug Study (RAPiDS) was a cross-sectional study from January 2015-February 2016. RAPiDS recruited 200 young adults aged 18-29 who reported past 30-day non-medical prescription opioid (NMPO) use...
December 7, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Mieke H J Schulte, Reinout W Wiers, Wouter J Boendermaker, Anna E Goudriaan, Wim van den Brink, Denise S van Deursen, Malte Friese, Emily Brede, Andrew J Waters
INTRODUCTION: Effective treatment for cocaine use disorder should dampen hypersensitive cue-induced motivational processes and/or strengthen executive control. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) and working memory (WM)-training to reduce cocaine use and craving and to improve inhibition assessed in the laboratory and during Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA). The second aim was to examine correspondence between laboratory and EMA data...
December 11, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
Kirsten M Frazer, Jennifer J Manly, Geraldine Downey, Carl L Hart
INTRODUCTION: There have been mixed findings assessing the impact of regular cocaine use on cognitive functioning. This study employed a comprehensive cognitive battery to compare the performance of individuals diagnosed with a cocaine use disorder (N = 3 abusers, N = 17 dependent) against the performance of two control groups: (a) non-drug-users, and (b) marijuana users who report no cocaine use (N = 7 marijuana abusers, N = 0 dependent, N = 13 marijuana users with no Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition, DSM-IV, diagnosis)...
December 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
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