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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353425/natural-attenuation-of-petroleum-hydrocarbons-a-study-of-biodegradation-effects-in-groundwater-vitanovac-serbia
#1
Nenad Marić, Ivan Matić, Petar Papić, Vladimir P Beškoski, Mila Ilić, Gordana Gojgić-Cvijović, Srđan Miletić, Zoran Nikić, Miroslav M Vrvić
The role of natural attenuation processes in groundwater contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is of intense scientific and practical interest. This study provides insight into the biodegradation effects in groundwater at a site contaminated by kerosene (jet fuel) in 1993 (Vitanovac, Serbia). Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH), hydrochemical indicators (O2, NO3-, Mn, Fe, SO42-, HCO3-), δ13C of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and other parameters were measured to demonstrate biodegradation effects in groundwater at the contaminated site...
January 20, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353308/single-stage-autotrophic-nitrogen-removal-process-at-high-loading-rate-granular-reactor-performance-kinetics-and-microbial-characterization
#2
Feiyue Qian, Abebe Temesgen Gebreyesus, Jianfang Wang, Yaoliang Shen, Wenru Liu, Lulin Xie
For the possible highest performance of single-stage combined partial nitritation/anammox (PNA) process, a continuous complete-mix granular reactor was operated at progressively higher nitrogen loading rate. The variations in bacterial community structure of granules were also characterized using high-throughput pyrosequencing, to give a detail insight to the relationship between reactor performance and functional organism abundance within completely autotrophic nitrogen removal system. In 172 days of operation, a superior total nitrogen (TN) removal rate over 3...
January 20, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353175/phyto-management-of-chromium-contaminated-soils-through-sunflower-under-exogenously-applied-5-aminolevulinic-acid
#3
Mujahid Farid, Shafaqat Ali, Muhammad Rizwan, Qasim Ali, Rashid Saeed, Tauqir Nasir, Ghulam Hasan Abbasi, Muhammad Ishaq Asif Rehmani, Syed Tahir Ata-Ul-Karim, Syed Asad Hussain Bukhari, Tanvir Ahmad
Soil contamination with heavy metals is threatening the food security around the globe. Chromium (Cr) contamination results in poor quality and reduction in yield of crops. The present research was performed to figure out the Cr toxicity in sunflower and the ameliorative role of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) as a plant growth regulator. The sunflower (FH-614) was grown under increasing concentration of Cr (0, 5, 10 and 20mgkg-1) alone and/or in combination with 5-ALA (0, 10 and 20mgL-1). Results showed that Cr suppressed the overall growth, biomass, gas exchange attributes and chlorophyll content of sunflower plants...
January 17, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353166/toxicological-responses-on-cytochrome-p450-and-metabolic-transferases-in-liver-of-goldfish-carassius-auratus-exposed-to-lead-and-paraquat
#4
Xiaoming Xu, Zhaojie Cui, Xinlei Wang, Xixin Wang, Su Zhang
As the producer of reactive oxygen species (ROS), both lead (Pb) and paraquat (PQ) can generate serious oxidative stress in target organs which result in irreversible toxic effects on organisms. They can disturb the normal catalytic activities of many enzymes by means of different toxicity mechanism. The changed responses of enzymes are frequently used as the biomarkers for indicating the relationship between toxicological effects and exposure levels. In this work, goldfish was exposed to a series of test groups containing lead and paraquat in the range of 0...
January 17, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353158/quantification-of-light-induced-minisog-superoxide-production-using-the-selective-marker-2-hydroxyethidium
#5
Miriam E Barnett, Timothy M Baran, Thomas H Foster, Andrew P Wojtovich
Genetically-encoded photosensitizers produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to light. Transgenic expression of fusion proteins can target the photosensitizers to specific cell regions and permit the spatial and temporal control of ROS production. These ROS-generating proteins (RGPs) are widely used for cell ablation, mutagenesis and chromophore-assisted light inactivation of target proteins. However, the species produced by RGPs are unclear due to indirect measures with confounding interpretations...
January 17, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353042/ginkgolic-acid-induces-interplay-between-apoptosis-and-autophagy-regulated-by-ros-generation-in-colon-cancer
#6
Yuxia Liu, Bin Yang, Lirong Zhang, Xianling Cong, Zhen Liu, Yu Hu, Jing Zhang, Haixia Hu
Presently, developing effective anti-colon cancer drugs still remains to be important. Ginkgolic acids (GA), as a botanical drug extracted from the seed coat of Ginkgo biloba L., possess various bioactive properties. Our findings, for the first time, indicated that GA suppressed colon cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion. GA led to cell death through G0/G1 phase arrest. In addition, apoptosis was significantly induced by GA treatment. The intrinsic apoptosis pathway was included, proved by the release of cytochrome c (Cyto-c) from the mitochondria into the cytosol...
January 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353037/curcumin-protects-cortical-neurons-against-oxygen-and-glucose-deprivation-reoxygenation-injury-through-flotillin-1-and-extracellular-signal-regulated-kinase1-2-pathway
#7
Zhengyu Lu, Yanping Liu, Yang Shi, Xinjie Shi, Xin Wang, Chuan Xu, Hong Zhao, Qiang Dong
In this study, we provided evidence that curcumin could be a promising therapeutic agent for ischemic stroke by activating neuroprotective signaling pathways. Post oxygen and glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R), primary mouse cortical neurons treated with curcumin exhibited a significant decrease in cell death, LDH release and enzyme caspase-3 activity under OGD/R circumstances, which were abolished by flotillin-1 downregulation or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor. Moreover, flotillin-1 knockdown led to suppression of curcumin-mediated ERK phosphorylation under OGD/R condition...
January 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352975/pinocembrin-from-penthorum-chinense-pursh-suppresses-hepatic-stellate-cells-activation-through-a-unified-sirt3-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-signaling-pathway
#8
Fayang Zhou, Anqi Wang, Dan Li, Yitao Wang, Ligen Lin
The inactivation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) has been verified to be an effective therapeutic strategy for treatment of liver fibrosis. Penthorum chinense Pursh has been widely used to protect liver in China; while, the role of P. chinense Pursh in treatment of liver fibrosis is still unexplored. In the current study, the aqueous extract of P. chinense Pursh (PCE) was found to suppress the expressions of fibrotic markers, including collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), in human HSCs (LX-2); and its major active constituent, pinocembrin (PIN), was discovered to inhibit the expressions of fibrotic markers in LX-2 cells and rat HSCs (HSC-T6)...
January 15, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352967/product-specificity-of-fungal-8r-and-9s-dioxygenases-of-the-peroxidase-cyclooxygenase-superfamily-with-amino-acid-derivatized-polyenoic-fatty-acids
#9
Ernst H Oliw
Pathogenic fungi express fatty acid dioxygenases (DOX) fused to cytochromes P450 with diol or allene oxide synthase activities. The orientation of the fatty acids in the active sites of DOX was investigated with amino acid conjugates of 18:3n-3 and 18:2n-6. 9S-DOX-allene oxide synthase (AOS) oxidized the Gly, Ile, and Trp derivatives at C-9, which suggests that these conjugates enter the substrate recognition site with the omega end in analogy with fatty acids bound to cyclooxygenases and coral 8R-lipoxygenase (8R-LOX)...
January 15, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352964/c24-hydroxylated-stigmastane-derivatives-as-liver-x-receptor-agonists
#10
Francisco Fermin Castro Navas, Gianluca Giorgi, Daniela Maggioni, Manuela Pacciarini, Vincenzo Russo, Maura Marinozzi
Phytosterols are stucturally correlated to the endogenous ligands of Liver X Receptor (LXR), a ligand-activated nuclear receptor that has emerged as an attractive drug target due to its ability to integrate metabolic and inflammatory signaling. Natural and semi-synthetic phytosterol derivatives characterized by the presence of side-chain oxygenated functions have shown to be able to modulate LXR activity. Here, we describe the efficient synthesis of four stigmastane derivatives, endowed with a hydroxyl group at C24 position, namely (24R)- and (24S)-stigmasta-5,28-diene-3β,24-ols (also referred to as saringosterols, 10a and 10b) and (24R)- and (24S)-stigmasta-5-ene-3β,24-ols (11a and 11b), starting from the readily available stigmasterol...
January 15, 2018: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352918/structural-characteristics-and-anticancer-activity-in-vitro-of-fucoidan-from-brown-alga-padina-boryana
#11
Roza V Usoltseva, Stanislav D Anastyuk, Irina A Ishina, Vladimir V Isakov, Tatiana N Zvyagintseva, Pham Duc Thinh, Pavel A Zadorozhny, Pavel S Dmitrenok, Svetlana P Ermakova
The sulfated and acetylated fucoidan fraction, containing fucose, galactose, mannose, glucose and uronic acid residues, was isolated from the brown alga Padina boryana. The structure of galactofucan part was studied after different modifications by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. It was shown that galactofucan contained the main chain of alternating 1,4-linked α-l-fucopyranose and 1,3-linked β-d-Galactopyranose. Single fucose residues were found as branches at C4 of galactose residues. Also, fucoidan contained 1,3- or 1,4-linked Fuc-Fuc and Gal-Gal fragments...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352916/effect-of-punica-granatum-peel-extracts-on-antimicrobial-properties-in-walnut-shell-cellulose-reinforced-bio-thermoplastic-starch-films-from-cashew-nut-shells
#12
K Harini, C Chandra Mohan, K Ramya, S Karthikeyan, M Sukumar
The main aim of the present study is to extract and characterize cashew nut shell (CNS) starch and walnut shell cellulose (WNC) for development of cellulose reinforced starch films. Moreover, the extraction and characterization of pomegranate peel extract, for incorporation with CNS-WNC films, was investigated. CNS starch was examined to be a moderate amylose starch with 26.32 ± 0.43% amylose content. Thermal degradation temperature of CNS starch was found to be 310 °C. Walnut shell cellulose was found to have high crystallinity index of 72%, with two thermal degradation temperatures of 319 °C and 461 °C...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352914/silica-in-situ-enhanced-pva-chitosan-biodegradable-films-for-food-packages
#13
Zhen Yu, Baoqiang Li, Jiayu Chu, Peifeng Zhang
Non-degradable plastic food packages threaten the security of environment. The cost-effective and biodegradable polymer films with good mechanical properties and low permeability are very important for food packages. Among of biodegradable polymers, PVA/chitosan (CS) biodegradable films have attracted considerable attention because of feasible film forming ability. However, PVA/CS biodegradable films suffered from poor mechanical properties. To improve mechanical properties of PVA/CS biodegradable films, we developed SiO2in situ to enhance PVA/CS biodegradable films via hydrolysis of sodium metasilicate in presence of PVA and chitosan solution...
March 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352886/aldehyde-functionalized-chitosan-montmorillonite-films-as-dynamically-assembled-switchable-chemical-release-bioplastics
#14
Jamal Chabbi, Oumayma Jennah, Nadia Katir, Mohamed Lahcini, Mosto Bousmina, Abdelkrim El Kadib
Temporal release of synergistic and/or complementary chemicals (e.g.: drugs) is recognized as extremely challenging because of their frequently intertwined kinetic delivery and presently, straightforward concepts enabling to circumvent this bottleneck are missing in the open literature. In this framework, we report herein on aldehyde-functionalized, transparent and flexible chitosan-montmorillonite hybrid films that act as a new generation of eco-friendly, controlled-chemical release bioplastics. These dynamically-assembled nanomaterials are designed by a ternary assembly from biowaste derived chitin biopolymer, aromatic aldehydes and layered clay nanoparticles...
March 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352810/ectopic-expression-of-the-apple-nucleus-encoded-thylakoid-protein-mdy3ip1-triggers-early-flowering-and-enhanced-salt-tolerance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#15
Jian-Qiang Yu, Jia-Hui Wang, Cui-Hui Sun, Quan-Yan Zhang, Da-Gang Hu, Yu-Jin Hao
BACKGROUND: The roles in photosystem I (PSI) assembly of the nucleus-encoded thylakoid protein Y3IP1 who interacts with the plastid-encoded Ycf3 protein that has been well-characterized in plants. However, its function and potential mechanisms in other aspects remain poorly understood. RESULTS: We identified the apple MdY3IP1 gene, which encodes a protein highly homologous to the Arabidopsis Y3IP1 (AtY3IP1). Ectopic expression of MdY3IP1 triggered early-flowering and enhanced salt tolerance in Arabidopsis plants...
January 20, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352783/addressing-global-uncertainty-and-sensitivity-in-first-principles-based-microkinetic-models-by-an-adaptive-sparse-grid-approach
#16
Sandra Döpking, Craig P Plaisance, Daniel Strobusch, Karsten Reuter, Christoph Scheurer, Sebastian Matera
In the last decade, first-principles-based microkinetic modeling has been developed into an important tool for a mechanistic understanding of heterogeneous catalysis. A commonly known, but hitherto barely analyzed issue in this kind of modeling is the presence of sizable errors from the use of approximate Density Functional Theory (DFT). We here address the propagation of these errors to the catalytic turnover frequency (TOF) by global sensitivity and uncertainty analysis. Both analyses require the numerical quadrature of high-dimensional integrals...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352744/crystal-structure-of-adp-dependent-glucokinase-from-methanocaldococcus-jannaschii-in-complex-with-5-iodotubercidin-reveals-phosphoryl-transfer-mechanism
#17
Piotr Tokarz, Magdalena Wiśniewska, Marcin M Kamiński, Grzegorz Dubin, Przemysław Grudnik
ADP-dependent glucokinase (ADPGK) is an alternative novel glucose phosphorylating enzyme in a modified glycolysis pathway of hyperthermophilic Archaea. In contrast to classical ATP-dependent hexokinases, ADPGK utilizes ADP as a phosphoryl group donor. Here we present a crystal structure of archaeal ADPGK from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii in complex with an inhibitor, 5-iodotubercidin, D-glucose, inorganic phosphate and a magnesium ion. Detailed analysis of the architecture of the active site allowed for confirmation of the previously proposed phosphorylation mechanism and the crucial role of the invariant arginine residue (Arg197)...
January 20, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352729/voxelotor-gbt440-a-first-in-class-hemoglobin-oxygen-affinity-modulator-has-promising-and-reassuring-preclinical-and-clinical-data
#18
Jeremie H Estepp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 20, 2018: American Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352710/changes-in-hepg2-spheroid-behavior-induced-by-differences-in-the-gap-distance-between-spheroids-in-a-micropatterned-culture-system
#19
Daisuke Miyamoto, Takuya Hara, Ai Hyakutake, Kohji Nakazawa
Micropatterning is a promising technique for modulating culture environments. In this study, we investigated the effect of spheroid separation distance on their properties in a micropatterned chip of HepG2 spheroids. The basic chip design consisted of 37 collagen spots (300 μm in diameter) in a hexagonal arrangement on a glass substrate; the region without collagen-spots was modified by polyethylene glycol to create the non-adhesive surface. Three similar chips were fabricated with gap distances between collagen-spots of 500, 1000, and 1500 μm...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352676/cardiorespiratory-dynamics-of-rescuers-during-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-in-a-hypoxic-environment
#20
Tomonobu Sato, Tomonori Takazawa, Masahiro Inoue, Yasunori Tada, Takashi Suto, Masaru Tobe, Shigeru Saito
OBJECTIVE: We had previously experienced a case involving prolonged cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on Mt. Fuji (3776 m), demanding strenuous work by the rescuers. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of compression-only and conventional CPR on oxygen saturation of rescuers in a hypoxemic environment. METHODS: Changes in percutaneous arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate during CPR action were measured in a hypobaric chamber with barometric pressure adjusted to be equivalent to 3700 m above sea level (630-640 hPa)...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
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