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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551923/-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-israel-6-5-years-of-experience-at-the-largest-ecmo-treatment-center-in-israel
#1
Philip Biderman, Uri Carmi, Michael Fainblut, Oren Bachar, Benny Medallion, Dan Aravot
AIMS: The primary purpose of the study is to evaluate the characteristics of the population treated with ECMO at Beilinson Hospital, the treatment results and a comparison of results with ECMO centers in the world. The treatment outcomes relative to the experience of the team during the years 2008-2014 were also examined. The secondary purpose of this article is to increase the awareness of the medical staff to ECMO as a treatment option for patients with appropriate indications, where indications have increased in recent years...
April 2017: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551857/efficient-enzymatic-degradation-used-as-pre-stage-treatment-for-norfloxacin-removal-by-activated-sludge
#2
Ruinan Zhao, Xiaohong Li, Mancheng Hu, Shuni Li, Quanguo Zhai, Yucheng Jiang
Norfloxacin is often found in wastewater treatment plants, groundwater, and even drinking water causing environmental concerns because of its potential undesirable effects on human health or aquatic ecosystems. However, conventional treatments cannot deal with norfloxacin efficiently. This work proposes an efficiently enzymatic degradation of norfloxacin by chloroperoxidase (CPO). 82.18% degradation efficiency of norfloxacin was achieved after 25 min reaction time at pH 5.0 with an enzyme concentration of 1...
May 27, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551856/model-based-intensification-of-a-fed-batch-microbial-process-for-the-maximization-of-polyhydroxybutyrate-phb-production-rate
#3
Giannis Penloglou, Athina Vasileiadou, Christos Chatzidoukas, Costas Kiparissides
An integrated metabolic-polymerization-macroscopic model, describing the microbial production of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in Azohydromonas lata bacteria, was developed and validated using a comprehensive series of experimental measurements. The model accounted for biomass growth, biopolymer accumulation, carbon and nitrogen sources utilization, oxygen mass transfer and uptake rates and average molecular weights of the accumulated PHB, produced under batch and fed-batch cultivation conditions. Model predictions were in excellent agreement with experimental measurements...
May 27, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551846/ampk-and-sirt1-activation-contribute-to-inhibition-of-neuroinflammation-by-thymoquinone-in-bv2-microglia
#4
Ravikanth Velagapudi, Abdelmeneim El-Bakoush, Izabela Lepiarz, Folashade Ogunrinade, Olumayokun A Olajide
Thymoquinone is a known inhibitor of neuroinflammation. However, the mechanism(s) involved in its action remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the roles of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) in the anti-neuroinflammatory activity of thymoquinone. We investigated effects of the compound on ROS generation in LPS-activated microglia using the fluorescent 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFDA)-cellular ROS detection. Immunoblotting was used to detect protein levels of p40(phox), gp91(phox), AMPK, LKB1 and SIRT1...
May 27, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551805/mitochondria-damage-and-kidney-disease
#5
Pu Duann, Pei-Hui Lin
The kidney is a vital organ that demands an extraordinary amount of energy to actively maintain the body's metabolism, plasma hemodynamics, electrolytes and water homeostasis, nutrients reabsorption, and hormone secretion. Kidney is only second to the heart in mitochondrial count and oxygen consumption. As such, the health and status of the energy power house, the mitochondria, is pivotal to the health and proper function of the kidney. Mitochondria are heterogeneous and highly dynamic organelles and their functions are subject to complex regulations through modulation of its biogenesis, bioenergetics, dynamics and clearance within cell...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551802/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-cardiovascular-aging
#6
Charles L Hoppel, Edward J Lesnefsky, Qun Chen, Bernard Tandler
Mitochondria are the prime source of ATP in cardiomyocytes. Impairment of mitochondrial metabolism results in damage to existing proteins and DNA. Such deleterious effects are part and parcel of the aging process, reducing the ability of cardiomyocytes to counter stress, such as myocardial infarction and consequent reperfusion. In such conditions, mitochondria in the heart of aged individuals exhibit decreased oxidative phosphorylation, decreased ATP production, and increased net reactive oxygen species production; all of these effects are independent of the decrease in number of mitochondria that occurs in these situations...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551800/high-density-lipoprotein-regulation-of-mitochondrial-function
#7
C Roger White, Geeta Datta, Samantha Giordano
Lipoproteins play a key role in regulating plasma and tissue levels of cholesterol. Apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins, including chylomicrons, very-low density lipoprotein (VLDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL), serve as carriers of triglycerides and cholesterol and deliver these metabolites to peripheral tissues. In contrast, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) mediates Reverse Cholesterol Transport (RCT), a process by which excess cholesterol is removed from the periphery and taken up by hepatocytes where it is metabolized and excreted...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551799/mitochondria-and-angiogenesis
#8
Raluca Marcu, Ying Zheng, Brian J Hawkins
Angiogenesis is a dynamic and energy-consuming process, requiring endothelial cells to switch from a quiescent state to a migratory and proliferative phenotype in order to support the formation of new blood vessels. Despite their proximity to oxygenated blood endothelial cells are adept at utilizing glycolysis as an energy source to the detriment of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. In this context, endothelial mitochondria have emerged as signaling hubs that modulate a wide range of endothelial functions, including angiogenesis, by coordinating reactive oxygen species and calcium signaling, metabolism and apoptosis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551798/mitochondrial-proton-leak-plays-a-critical-role-in-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#9
Jiali Cheng, Gayani Nanayakkara, Ying Shao, Ramon Cueto, Luqiao Wang, William Y Yang, Ye Tian, Hong Wang, Xiaofeng Yang
Mitochondrial proton leak is the principal mechanism that incompletely couples substrate oxygen to ATP generation. This chapter briefly addresses the recent progress made in understanding the role of proton leak in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Majority of the proton conductance is mediated by uncoupling proteins (UCPs) located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. It is evident that the proton leak and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from electron transport chain (ETC) in mitochondria are linked to each other...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551796/nitrite-nitric-oxide-signaling-and-cardioprotection
#10
Matthias Totzeck, Ulrike B Hendgen-Cotta, Tienush Rassaf
Cardioprotective strategies to prevent damage to mitochondria in acute myocardial infarction are warranted to reduce lethal myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Mitochondrial antagonists in I/R are reactive oxygen species (ROS), deteriorated calcium signaling, permeabilization of the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) and deranged mitochondrial structural dynamism (fusion and fission). Nitric oxide (NO) related signaling can protect hearts from I/R. Albeit the underlying signaling is incompletely resolved, recent data point to a particular involvement of protective posttranslational modification of mitochondrial elements...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551794/functional-role-of-nox4-in-autophagy
#11
Maurizio Forte, Silvia Palmerio, Derek Yee, Giacomo Frati, Sebastiano Sciarretta
Accumulating lines of evidence suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may act as intracellular signaling molecules under cellular stress conditions, activating several molecular pathways. Autophagy, the intracellular mechanism by which cells digest and recycle unfolded proteins and dysfunctional organelles, is emerging as a major target of ROS and NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzymes, the major generators of ROS. While autophagy represents an important self-defense mechanism in promoting cell survival, it may be maladaptive in some conditions...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551793/mitochondria-in-structural-and-functional-cardiac-remodeling
#12
Natalia Torrealba, Pablo Aranguiz, Camila Alonso, Beverly A Rothermel, Sergio Lavandero
The heart must function continuously as it is responsible for both supplying oxygen and nutrients throughout the entire body, as well as for the transport of waste products to excretory organs. When facing either a physiological or pathological increase in cardiac demand, the heart undergoes structural and functional remodeling as a means of adapting to increased workload. These adaptive responses can include changes in gene expression, protein composition, and structure of sub-cellular organelles involved in energy production and metabolism...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551792/mechanistic-role-of-thioredoxin-2-in-heart-failure
#13
Chaofei Chen, Haixuan Chen, Huanjiao Jenny Zhou, Weidong Ji, Wang Min
Thioredoxin 2 (Trx2) is a pivotal mitochondrial protein that regulates redox signaling. The mitochondrial Trx2 is expressed ubiquitously, but it is found at the highest levels in metabolically active tissues like the heart. Global gene knockout of Trx2 results in embryonic lethality, likely due to the increased cellular oxidative stress. Moreover, mice with cardiac-specific Trx2 deletion develop spontaneous dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), correlating with increased apoptosis stress kinase-1 (ASK1) signaling and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551790/connexin-43-and-mitochondria-in-cardiovascular-health-and-disease
#14
Kerstin Boengler, Rainer Schulz
Connexin 43 (Cx43) is the major connexin protein in ventricular cardiomyocytes. Six Cx43 proteins assemble into so-called hemichannels at the sarcolemma and opposing hemichannels form gap junctions, which allow the passage of small molecules and electrical current flow between adjacent cells. Apart from its localization at the plasma membrane, Cx43 is also present in cardiomyocyte mitochondria, where it is important for mitochondrial function in terms of oxygen consumption and potassium fluxes. The expression of gap junctional and mitochondrial Cx43 is altered under several pathophysiological conditions among them are hypertension, hypertrophy, hypercholesterolemia, ischemia/reperfusion injury, post-infarction remodeling, and heart failure...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551786/mitochondrial-bioenergetics-during-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#15
Alicia E Consolini, María I Ragone, Patricia Bonazzola, Germán A Colareda
During ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) mitochondria suffer a deficiency to supply the cardiomyocyte with chemical energy, but also contribute to the cytosolic ionic alterations especially of Ca(2+). Their free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]m) mainly depends on mitochondrial entrance through the uniporter (UCam) and extrusion in exchange with Na(+) (mNCX) driven by the electrochemical gradient (ΔΨm). Cardiac energetic is frequently estimated by the oxygen consumption, which determines metabolism coupled to ATP production and to the maintaining of ΔΨm...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551784/mitochondrial-function-in-non-ischemic-heart-failure
#16
Anisha A Gupte, Dale J Hamilton
Provision for the continuous demand for energy from the beating heart relies heavily on efficient mitochondrial activity. Non-ischemic cardiomyopathy in which oxygen supply is not limiting results from etiologies such as pressure overload. It is associated with progressive development of metabolic stress culminating in energy depletion and heart failure. The mitochondria from the ventricular walls undergoing non-ischemic cardiomyopathy are subjected to long periods of adaptation to support the changing metabolic milieu, which has been described as mal-adaptation since it ultimately results in loss of cardiac contractile function...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551782/mitochondrial-bioenergetics-and-dysfunction-in-failing-heart
#17
Freya L Sheeran, Salvatore Pepe
Energy insufficiency has been recognized as a key feature of systolic heart failure. Although mitochondria have long been known to sustain myocardial work energy supply, the capacity to therapeutically target mitochondrial bioenergetics dysfunction is hampered by a complex interplay of multiple perturbations that progressively compound causing myocardial failure and collapse. Compared to non-failing human donor hearts, activity rates of complexes I and IV, nicotinamide nucleotide transhydrogenase (NADPH-transhydrogenase, Nnt) and the Krebs cycle enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase and aconitase are markedly decreased in end-stage heart failure...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551779/functional-implications-of-cardiac-mitochondria-clustering
#18
Felix T Kurz, Miguel A Aon, Brian O'Rourke, Antonis A Armoundas
The spatio-temporal organization of mitochondria in cardiac myocytes facilitates myocyte-wide, cluster-bound, mitochondrial inner membrane potential oscillatory depolarizations, commonly triggered by metabolic or oxidative stressors. Local intermitochondrial coupling can be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) that activate inner membrane pores to initiate a ROS-induced-ROS-release process that produces synchronized limit cycle oscillations of mitochondrial clusters within the whole mitochondrial network...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551758/oxidation-products-are-increased-in-patients-affected-by-non-segmental-generalized-vitiligo
#19
Mario Vaccaro, Gianluca Bagnato, Mariateresa Cristani, Francesco Borgia, Giovanna Spatari, Valeria Tigano, Antonina Saja, Fabrizio Guarneri, Serafinella P Cannavò, Sebastiano Gangemi
Several lines of evidence support the relevance of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in vitiligo, but the exact role of glycation and oxidation of macromolecules needs to be better addressed. To investigate the involvement of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), we performed a case-control association study by spectrofluorimetry and spectrophotometry, in 47 patients with non-segmental generalized vitiligo and 47 age- and sex-matched controls. Significantly higher levels of both AOPPs (p < 0...
May 27, 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551738/role-of-biochar-on-composting-of-organic-wastes-and-remediation-of-contaminated-soils-a-review
#20
Shaohua Wu, Huijun He, Xayanto Inthapanya, Chunping Yang, Li Lu, Guangming Zeng, Zhenfeng Han
Biochar is produced by pyrolysis of biomass residues under limited oxygen conditions. In recent years, biochar as an amendment has received increasing attention on composting and soil remediation, due to its unique properties such as chemical recalcitrance, high porosity and sorption capacity, and large surface area. This paper provides an overview on the impact of biochar on the chemical characteristics (greenhouse gas emissions, nitrogen loss, decomposition and humification of organic matter) and microbial community structure during composting of organic wastes...
May 27, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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