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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944998/enhanced-immune-response-induced-by-p5-her2-neu-derived-peptide-pulsed-dendritic-cells-as-a-preventive-cancer-vaccine
#1
Zahra Gholizadeh, Jalil Tavakkol-Afshari, Amin Reza Nikpoor, Seyed Amir Jalali, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari
Dendritic cells are special and powerful antigen-presenting cells that can induce primary immune responses against tumour-associated antigens. They can present antigens via both MHC-I and MHC-II, so they have the ability to stimulate both cytotoxic T lymphocytes and T helper cells. Furthermore, CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes require activation by CD4(+) T cells. This requires a CD4(+) T cell activator molecule, of which PADRE is one of the best. We chose an approach to use both of these important arms of the immune system...
September 25, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944901/effect-of-modified-xiaochaihu-decoction%C3%A2-containing-serum-on-hepg2-2-15-cells-via-the-jak2-stat3-signaling-pathway
#2
Shaofang Chen, Zhanglin Wang, Shichuan Wan, Hai Huang, Huiqing Liang
The present study aimed to investigate the possible mechanisms underlying the effect of modified Xiaochaihu decoction (mXCHD) in the treatment of chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Patients with CHB, in addition to liver stagnation and spleen deficiency syndrome were randomly assigned to receive either Chinese (mXCHD) or western (entecavir) treatment, with 30 cases in each group. Serum was collected following treatment with mXCHD or entecavir for 7 days. A healthy group of 30 individuals was also included. HepG2...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944895/comparison-of-morphology-phenotypes-and-function-between-cultured-human-il%C3%A2-4%C3%A2-dc-and-ifn%C3%A2-dc
#3
Zhiliang Jin, Jing Fan, Yajuan Zhang, Yongxiang Yi, Lili Wang, Dandan Yin, Tao Deng, Wei Ye
Dendritic cells (DCs) as professional antigen presenting cells, are important in the initiation of the primary immune response. The present study compared the morphology, phenotypes and function between monocyte‑derived human DCs produced from a conventional culturing system containing granulocyte‑macrophage colony‑stimulating factor (GM‑CSF) and IL‑4 (IL‑4‑DC) and DCs generated by the stimulation of GM‑CSF and interferon (IFN)‑α (IFN‑DC). When compared with IL‑4‑DC in morphology, IFN‑DC contained more organelles, including endoplasmic reticulum and myelin figures, whereas mature (m)IL‑4‑DC contained more vacuoles in the cells...
September 21, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944852/use-of-immunoproteomics-to-identify-immunogenic-proteins-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#4
Zongshu Ji, Haiyan Liu, Linsen Fang, Youxin Yu, Zheng Zhou
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a common and life‑threatening clinical syndrome, and seeking biomarkers of ARDS has been an area of continuing research. The present study hypothesized that alterations to certain immunogenic substances occur in injured lungs and are able to specifically bind with corresponding proteins in the blood, and that these proteins may be readily detected. To investigate this hypothesis, a rat model of ARDS was established by cecal ligation and puncture surgery, and an immunoproteomics approach, using serum as the primary antibody in a western blot analysis, was used with the aim of identifying immunogenic proteins in the injured lungs...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944820/identification-of-14%C3%A2-3%C3%A2-3%C3%AE-as-a-potential-biomarker-in-gastric-cancer-by-proteomics%C3%A2-based-analysis
#5
Xin-Xin Liu, Hua Ye, Peng Wang, Yi Zhang, Jian-Ying Zhang
The identification of tumor biomarkers to support early diagnosis and tumor progression monitoring may potentially reduce the mortality of gastric cancer (GC). The present study aimed to detect novel tumor‑associated antigens from the AGS GC cell line, and to identify their associated autoantibodies in sera from patients with GC by proteomics‑based approaches. Proteins from AGS cell lysates were isolated using two‑dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and western blotting was subsequently performed, to determine autoantibody responses in sera derived from patients with GC and healthy individuals...
September 18, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944617/genetic-diversity-anti-microbial-resistance-plasmid-profile-and-frequency-of-the-vi-antigen-in-salmonella-dublin-strains-isolated-in-brazil
#6
F P Vilela, M R Frazão, D P Rodrigues, R G Costa, M R T Casas, S A Fernandes, J P Falcão, F Campioni
Salmonella Dublin is strongly adapted to cattle causing enteritis and/or systemic disease with high rates of mortality. However, it can be sporadically isolated from humans, usually causing serious disease, especially in patients with underlying chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to molecularly type S. Dublin strains isolated from humans and animals in Brazil to verify the diversity of these strains as well as to ascertain possible differences between strains isolated from humans and animals. Moreover, the presence of the capsular antigen Vi and the plasmid profile was characterized in addition to the anti-microbial resistance against 15 drugs...
September 24, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944517/biomechanical-comparison-of-xenogeneic-bone-material-treated-with-different-methods
#7
Wei Feng, Dongsong Li, Junting Zang, Li Fu
Bone xenografting is considered one of the most effective ways to address the shortage of bone autografts and allografts. Various methods have been employed to minimize the immune rejection issues associated with bone xenografts. However, the side effects of such methods on bone biomechanical properties remain unclear. As such, the objective of this study was to compare the influence of different treatments on the biomechanical properties of porcine bones. Fresh pig ribs were cut into 1.5 × 0.5 × 0.4 cm specimens, which were randomly divided into four groups and subjected to different modification regimes: group A by degreasing and partial deproteinization, group B by cryopreservation, group C by cryopreservation and enzyme digestion, and group D was a control group using fresh bone...
September 24, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944167/regulation-of-cytotoxic-t-cell-responses-by-p53-in-cancer
#8
Mitchell W Braun, Tomoo Iwakuma
An intriguing aspect of the tumor suppressor p53 is its ability to communicate to the adaptive immune system and control the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response to cancer cells. Wild-type p53 (wtp53) communicates with CTLs through proteins involved in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation pathway [e.g., transporter associated with antigen processing 1 (TAP1) and endoplasmic reticulum amino peptidase 1 (ERAP1)], the apoptosis signal receptor Fas/APO-1, and the inhibitory immune-checkpoint programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1)...
December 2016: Translational Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944092/mefa-multiepitope-fusion-antigen-novel-technology-for-structural-vaccinology-proof-from-computational-and-empirical-immunogenicity-characterization-of-an-enterotoxigenic-escherichia-coli-etec-adhesin-mefa
#9
Qiangde Duan, Kuo Hao Lee, Rahul M Nandre, Carolina Garcia, Jianhan Chen, Weiping Zhang
Vaccine development often encounters the challenge of virulence heterogeneity. Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) bacteria producing immunologically heterogeneous virulence factors are a leading cause of children's diarrhea and travelers' diarrhea. Currently, we do not have licensed vaccines against ETEC bacteria. While conventional methods continue to make progress but encounter challenge, new computational and structure-based approaches are explored to accelerate ETEC vaccine development. In this study, we applied a structural vaccinology concept to construct a structure-based multiepitope fusion antigen (MEFA) to carry representing epitopes of the seven most important ETEC adhesins [CFA/I, CFA/II (CS1-CS3), CFA/IV (CS4-CS6)], simulated antigenic structure of the CFA/I/II/IV MEFA with computational atomistic modeling and simulation, characterized immunogenicity in mouse immunization, and examined the potential of structure-informed vaccine design for ETEC vaccine development...
August 2017: Journal of Vaccines & Vaccination
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944050/carbohydrates-as-potentially-versatile-core-subcarriers-for-multivalent-immunogens
#10
Divya Kushwaha, Peng Xu, Pavol Kováč
Synthetic multivalent glycoclusters that carry carbohydrate antigen epitopes have been recognized as promising candidates for the development of carbohydrate based vaccines. Here we describe a convergent strategy for the synthesis of conjugation-ready multivalent glycoclusters using sugars as versatile core subcarriers. d-Glucose and gentiobiose were converted into poly-alkyne functionalized cores which were then decorated with an azide bearing model ligand d-glucose using click chemistry, to form structurally well-defined tetra- and heptavalent glycoclusters...
2017: RSC Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943952/mirna-biogenesis-associated-rnase-iii-nucleases-drosha-and-dicer-are-upregulated-in-colorectal-adenocarcinoma
#11
Shin Kim, Mei Ling Song, Hyeonji Min, Ilseon Hwang, Seong Kyu Baek, Taeg Kyu Kwon, Jong-Wook Park
Drosha and Dicer are important regulators of microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis, and it has been suggested that their aberrant regulation may cause colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the mRNA expression levels of these two important RNase III nucleases and their association with clinical features in CRC specimens from South Korean patients. The expression levels of Drosha and Dicer mRNA were investigated in 77 CRC tissues and adjacent histologically non-neoplastic tissues using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943900/influence-of-chronic-inflammation-on-bcl-2-and-pcna-expression-in-prostate-needle-biopsy-specimens
#12
Michael Glover, Shardul Soni, Qinghu Ren, Gregory T Maclennan, Pingfu Fu, Sanjay Gupta
The association between inflammation and cancer has been established in certain forms of human malignancies; however, its role in prostate cancer remains unclear. The present study investigates a possible association between chronic inflammation and the development of epithelial neoplasia in the prostate. Needle biopsy specimens were obtained from patients with serum prostate-specific antigen levels >4 ng/ml, evaluated for morphological findings, and immunostained for Bcl-2 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)...
October 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943896/a-large-chinese-pedigree-of-multiple-endocrine-neoplasia-type-2a-with-a-novel-c634y-d707e-germline-mutation-in-ret-exon-11
#13
Fanqian Lu, Xiaohong Chen, Yunlong Bai, Yaru Feng, Jian Wu
The present study identified the clinical features of the largest multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN2) A pedigree from China, with a novel double missense rearranged during transfection (RET) mutation (C634Y/D707E). To the best of our knowledge, the D707E mutation has not been identified to date. In the present study, a total of 101 family members who originated from a large pedigree (134 members in total) underwent RET mutation screening by next-generation sequencing and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification, followed by direct bidirectional DNA sequencing...
September 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943560/serum-biomarkers-for-the-diagnosis-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis-and-eosinophilic-gastroenteritis
#14
Shunji Ishihara, Tetsuo Shoda, Norihisa Ishimura, Shoichiro Ohta, Junya Ono, Yoshinori Azuma, Eiko Okimoto, Kenji Izuhara, Ichiro Nomura, Kenji Matsumoto, Yoshikazu Kinoshita
Objective Clinically useful serum biomarkers for the diagnosis and monitoring of eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases are not available. This study was conducted to examine the possible value of eosinophil-related proteins as serum biomarkers. Methods The serum concentrations of 49 cytokines, chemokines, and other proteins were measured in 29 patients with eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases and 80 controls. Results The levels of interleukin (IL)-5, IL-33, eotaxin-3, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), previously reported as possible biomarkers of eosinophilic esophagitis, were not significantly elevated in the serum...
September 25, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943243/hucmsc-exosome-transported-14-3-3%C3%AE-prevents-the-injury-of-cisplatin-to-hk-2-cells-by-inducing-autophagy-in-vitro
#15
REVIEW
Juanjuan Wang, Haoyuan Jia, Bin Zhang, Lei Yin, Fei Mao, Jing Yu, Cheng Ji, Xiao Xu, Yongmin Yan, Wenrong Xu, Hui Qian
BACKGROUND AIMS: On the basis of previous studies, exosomes secreted by human umbilical cord mesenchymal stromal cell (hucMSC-ex) could prevent and repair acute kidney injury induced by cisplatin in rats. However, its potential mechanism is still unclear. In the present study, the model with hucMSC-ex pretreated human renal tubular epithelial cell lines HK-2 that could prevent the injury of cisplatin was successfully established. METHODS: First, we pretreated the HK-2 cells with hucMSC-ex for 24 h...
September 21, 2017: Cytotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942432/the-application-and-mechanism-of-pd-pathway-blockade-for-cancer-therapy
#16
REVIEW
Xing Wang, Shan Huang, Ya Zhang, Lin Zhu, Xiaoliang Wu
Research in cancer therapeutics has achieved major progress in the understanding of the tumour-immunity cycle, which controls the delicate balance between the immune system and tumour. Identification of cancer cell T-cell inhibitory signals, including PD-L1, has generated novel insight into how to reinvigorate the patients' immune cells to respond to a variety of tumour types. PD-1 and PD-L1 (PD) inhibitory pathway blockade appears to a highly promising therapy and could accomplish durable anti-tumour responses with a reasonable toxicity profile...
September 23, 2017: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942366/t-regulatory-cells-mediate-local-immunosuppression-in-lymphedema
#17
Gabriela D García Nores, Catherine L Ly, Ira L Savetsky, Raghu P Kataru, Swapna Ghanta, Geoffrey E Hespe, Stanley G Rockson, Babak J Mehrara
Patients who suffer from lymphedema have impaired immunity and, as a result, are at an increased risk for infections. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that lymphadenectomy impairs acquisition of adaptive immune responses and antibody production in response to foreign antigens. Although it is clear that antigen presentation in lymph nodes plays a key role in adaptive immunity, the cellular mechanisms that regulate impaired immune responses in patients with lymphedema or following lymphatic injury remain unknown...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942035/putative-role-of-kir3dl1-3ds1-alleles-and-hla-bw4-ligands-with-end-stage-renal-disease-and-long-term-renal-allograft-survival
#18
Swayam Prakash, Aditya Narayan Sarangi, Shahnawaz Alam, Avinash Sonawane, Raj Kumar Sharma, Suraksha Agrawal
BACKGROUND: Killer immunoglobulin receptors (KIR) are highly polymorphic in nature. KIR3DL1/3DS1 genes are known to affect HLA-B antigen binding affinity causing natural killer (NK) cell inhibition, which results into successful renal transplantation. In this study we have examined whether alleles of KIR3DL1/3DS1 play any role in changing the binding affinity with HLA-Bw4 antigen and if so then how are they associated with long term renal allograft survival. We have also evaluated plausible association of KIR3DL1 with HLA-A23/A24/A32 with renal pathophysiology...
September 20, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942020/cd25-expressing-th17-cells-mediate-cd8-t-cell-suppression-in-ctla-4-dependent-mechanisms-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#19
Cuicui Lang, Jinyan Wang, Lei Chen
The tumor-associated immune response is governed by the signalling events of various regulatory molecules, one of which is the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4). In conventional T cells, CTLA-4 could outcompete CD28 in binding to CD80/86 but does not produce a co-stimulatory signal, resulting in T cell anergy. CTLA-4 in regulatory T cells (Tregs) could also function in a cell-extrinsic fashion by removing CD80/CD86 from the antigen-presenting cells (APCs), thus preventing further priming of other T cells...
September 20, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941991/conservation-in-gene-encoding-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-antigen-rv2660-and-a-high-predicted-population-coverage-of-h56-multistage-vaccine-in-south-africa
#20
Angy P Perez-Martinez, Edison Ong, Lixin Zhang, Carl F Marrs, Yongqun He, Zhenhua Yang
H56/AERAS-456+IC31 (H56), composed of two early secretion proteins, Ag85B and ESAT-6, and a latency associated protein, Rv2660, and the IC31 Intercell adjuvant, is a new fusion subunit vaccine candidate designed to induce immunity against both new infection and reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection. Efficacy of subunit vaccines may be affected by the diversity of vaccine antigens among clinical strains and the extent of recognition by the diverse HLA molecules in the recipient population. Although a previous study showed the conservative nature of Ag85B- and ESAT-6-encoding genes, genetic diversity of Rv2660c that encodes RV2660 is largely unknown...
September 20, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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