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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096777/efficacy-and-safety-of-pediatric-prolonged-release-melatonin-for-insomnia-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#1
Paul Gringras, Tali Nir, John Breddy, Anat Frydman-Marom, Robert L Findling
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of novel pediatric-appropriate, prolonged-release melatonin minitablets (PedPRM) versus placebo for insomnia in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), with or without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) comorbidity, and neurogenetic disorders (NGD). METHOD: A total of 125 children and adolescents (2-17.5 years of age; 96.8% ASD, 3.2% Smith-Magenis syndrome [SMS]) whose sleep failed to improve on behavioral intervention alone were randomized (1:1 ratio), double-blind, to receive PedPRM (2 mg escalated to 5 mg) or placebo for 13 weeks...
November 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874238/-off-label-prescription-of-psychopharmacological-drugs-for-children-and-adolescents
#2
Anne Katrine Pagsberg, Per Hove Thomsen
Despite regulatory initiatives, psychopharmacological treatment of adolescents is challenged by missing trial data on efficacy and safety. In Denmark, an estimated mean off-label prescription rate of 30-40% in clinical child- and adolescent mental health services has been found in recent studies. The lowest rates were found for drugs treating ADHD (2-3%), and the highest for antipsychotics (96%) and melatonin (100%). The use of melatonin is growing, while the use of other psychopharmacological drugs appears to be stabilizing or decreasing, in spite of an increased number of adolescents treated in Danish mental health services...
August 28, 2017: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444684/-evaluation-and-treatment-of-sleep-problems-in-children-diagnosed-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-an-update-of-the-evidence
#3
REVIEW
M Chamorro, J P Lara, I Insa, M Espadas, J A Alda-Diez
INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects approximately 5% of all children and adolescents, and these patients frequently suffer from sleep problems. The association between sleep disorders and ADHD, however, is multifaceted and complex. AIMS: To explore the relationship between sleep disorders and ADHD. DEVELOPMENT: Sleep problems in children with ADHD include altered sleep and specific disorders per se or that may be due to comorbid psychiatric disorders or to the stimulants they receive as treatment for their ADHD...
May 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391425/safety-tolerability-and-efficacy-of-drugs-for-treating-behavioural-insomnia-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-systematic-review-with-methodological-quality-assessment
#4
REVIEW
Shweta Anand, Henry Tong, Frank M C Besag, Esther W Chan, Samuele Cortese, Ian C K Wong
OBJECTIVE: A large proportion of paediatric patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have associated sleep problems which not only affect the child's wellbeing but also impact family functioning. Management of sleep problems is consequently an important aspect of overall ADHD management in paediatric patients. Although some drugs are being used off-label for the management of paediatric insomnia, there is scant clinical evidence supporting their use. Our aim was to identify and assess the quality of published studies reporting the safety, tolerability and efficacy of drugs used for treating behavioural insomnia in children with ADHD...
June 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331380/classical-conditioning-for-preserving-the-effects-of-short-melatonin-treatment-in-children-with-delayed-sleep-a-pilot-study
#5
Annette van Maanen, Anne Marie Meijer, Marcel G Smits, Frans J Oort
Melatonin treatment is effective in treating sleep onset problems in children with delayed melatonin onset, but effects usually disappear when treatment is discontinued. In this pilot study, we investigated whether classical conditioning might help in preserving treatment effects of melatonin in children with sleep onset problems, with and without comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or autism. After a baseline week, 16 children (mean age: 9.92 years, 31% ADHD/autism) received melatonin treatment for 3 weeks and then gradually discontinued the treatment...
2017: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327443/correcting-delayed-circadian-phase-with-bright-light-therapy-predicts-improvement-in-adhd-symptoms-a-pilot-study
#6
Rachel E Fargason, Aaron D Fobian, Lauren M Hablitz, Jodi R Paul, Brittny A White, Karen L Cropsey, Karen L Gamble
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common condition with comorbid insomnia reported in >70% of children and adults. These patients demonstrate delays in sleep-wake rhythms, nocturnal rise in melatonin, and early morning rise in cortisol. Given that standard psychopharmacologic treatments for ADHD often do not completely control symptoms in participants with circadian rhythm delay, we sought to test whether bright light therapy (BLT) advances circadian rhythms and further reduces ADHD symptoms over standard treatments...
August 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236851/infant-acetylcholine-dopamine-and-melatonin-dysregulation-neonatal-biomarkers-and-causal-factors-for-asd-and-adhd-phenotypes
#7
Kahl Hellmer, Pär Nyström
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and ADHD are common neurodevelopmental disorders that benefit from early intervention but currently suffer from late detection and diagnosis: neurochemical dysregulations are extant already at birth but clinical phenotypes are not distinguishable until preschool age or later. The vast heterogeneity between subjects' phenotypes relates to interaction between multiple unknown factors, making research on factor causality insurmountable. To unlock this situation we pose the hypothesis that atypical pupillary light responses from rods, cones, and the recently discovered ipRGC system reflect early acetylcholine, melatonin, and dopamine dysregulation that are sufficient but not necessary factors for developing ASD and/or ADHD disorders...
March 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138105/sleep-problems-as-predictors-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-causal-mechanisms-consequences-and-treatment
#8
REVIEW
Yoo Hyun Um, Seung-Chul Hong, Jong-Hyun Jeong
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is notorious for its debilitating consequences and early age of onset. The need for early diagnosis and intervention has frequently been underscored. Previous studies have attempted to clarify the bidirectional relationship between ADHD and sleep problems, proposing a potential role for sleep problems as early predictors of ADHD. Sleep deprivation, sleep-disordered breathing, and circadian rhythm disturbances have been extensively studied, yielding evidence with regard to their induction of ADHD-like symptoms...
February 28, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064405/a-systematic-review-of-circadian-function-chronotype-and-chronotherapy-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#9
REVIEW
Andrew N Coogan, Niall M McGowan
Reports of sleep disturbances in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are common in both children and adults; however, the aetiology of such disturbances is poorly understood. One potentially important mechanism which may be implicated in disrupted sleep in ADHD is the circadian clock, a known key regulator of the sleep/wake cycle. In this systematic review, we analyse the evidence for circadian rhythm changes associated with ADHD, as well as assessing evidence for therapeutic approaches involving the circadian clock in ADHD...
January 7, 2017: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911044/utilization-of-stimulants-and-atomoxetine-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-among-5-4-million-children-using-population-based-longitudinal-data
#10
Kari Furu, Øystein Karlstad, Helga Zoega, Jaana E Martikainen, Shahram Bahmanyar, Helle Kieler, Anton Pottegård
Use of stimulants to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has increased over the past two decades and varies substantially between countries. The objective of this multinational population-based study was to examine utilization of ADHD drugs (stimulants and atomoxetine) including comedication with other psychotropic drugs in the entire child population in the five Nordic countries. We included longitudinal data on dispensed ADHD drugs from five Nordic prescription registers during 2008-2012, which in 2012 comprised 48,296 individuals among 5...
April 2017: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27540232/impact-of-a-computerised-outpatient-prescription-printing-system-copps-on-melatonin-prescribing-in-a-community-child-health-clinic
#11
Liz Webb, Jum Skingle
AIM: COPPS is a computerised outpatient prescription printing system for WP10 prescriptions. It aims to improve the quality and safety of service, as patients will be provided with a legible, complete prescription to take to a community pharmacy of their choice. Patients requiring specialist medicines will have their medicines dispensed more promptly by the hospital pharmacy or medicines home care provider. The software ensures prescriptions contain all the required information to allow safe dispensing, reducing frequency of delays...
September 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27529772/off-label-prescription-of-psychopharmacological-drugs-in-child-and-adolescent-psychiatry
#12
Julie Vestergaard Braüner, Lily Manzello Johansen, Troels Roesbjerg, Anne Katrine Pagsberg
This study aimed to describe the frequency of off-label prescriptions of psychopharmacological drugs in a child and adolescent psychiatric setting. A cross-sectional study was conducted on November 1, 2014, including all inpatients and outpatients at the Mental Health Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Capital Region of Denmark, aged 0 to 17 years receiving medical treatment with antidepressants, antipsychotic agents, benzodiazepines, melatonin and/or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516379/top-ten-research-priorities-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-treatment
#13
Stella Jacobson, Pernilla Östlund, Lena Wallgren, Marie Österberg, Sofia Tranæus
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this project was to identify the ten most important research questions for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatment as identified by people with ADHD together with personnel involved in the treatment of ADHD in school, health, and correction services. METHODS: A working group consisting of consumers and personnel was established. The method for prioritization was primarily based on James Lind Alliance's guidebook, consisting of an interim priority setting exercise and a workshop...
January 2016: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473269/melatonin-in-youth-n-of-1-trials-in-a-stimulant-treated-adhd-population-mynap-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Salima Punja, Catherine J Nikles, Hugh Senior, Geoffrey Mitchell, Christopher H Schmid, Helen Heussler, Manisha Witmans, Sunita Vohra
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurological disorder affecting 5 % of children worldwide. A prevalent problem for children with ADHD is initial insomnia. The gold standard treatment to manage ADHD symptoms is stimulant medications, which may exacerbate the severity of existing initial insomnia. Currently, no gold standard treatment option exists for initial insomnia for these children. Melatonin, a hormone and a popular natural health product, is commonly provided to children by parents and recommended by healthcare providers, but high quality pediatric evidence is lacking...
July 29, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27382830/-drug-therapy-and-the-most-common-drugs-for-childhood-psychiatric-disorders
#15
REVIEW
Anita Puustjärvi, Hannu Raunio, Anne Lecklin, Kirsti Kumpulainen
Psychotropic drugs are more commonly prescribed for children, although scientific evidence about psychotrophic medication and long-term effects thereof in children is scarce. The drugs are often used off-label. ADHD drugs, antipsychotics and antidepressants and melatonin are the most commonly used drugs. ADHD medication possesses the most established status. Antipsychotic drugs are utilized for the treatment of psychoses, bipolar disorder, and conduct disorder symptoms in particular. Antidepressants are utilized for the treatment of childhood depression and anxiety disorders, melatonin for the treatment of children's sleep problems...
2016: Duodecim; Lääketieteellinen Aikakauskirja
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27357497/sleep-problems-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-current-status-of-knowledge-and-appropriate-management
#16
REVIEW
Ming-Horng Tsai, Jen-Fu Hsu, Yu-Shu Huang
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects approximately 5 % of children and adolescents, and sleep problems are common in these patients. There is growing evidence informing the significant importance of sleep problems in youth with ADHD. The sleep problems in children with ADHD include specific sleep disorders and sleep disturbances due to comorbid psychiatric disorders or ADHD medications. The specific sleep disorders of ADHD children include behaviorally based insomnia, sleep-disordered breathing, and restless legs syndrome/periodic limb movement disorder...
August 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255788/sleep-related-disorders-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-preliminary-results-of-a-full-sleep-assessment-study
#17
Silvia Miano, Maria Esposito, Giuseppe Foderaro, Gian Paolo Ramelli, Valdo Pezzoli, Mauro Manconi
BACKGROUND AND METHODS: We present the preliminary results of a prospective case-control sleep study in children with a diagnosis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A deep sleep assessment including sleep questionnaires, sleep habits, a video-polysomnographic recording with full high-density electroencephalography (EEG) and cardiorespiratory polygraphy, multiple sleep latency test, and 1-week actigraphic recording were performed to verify whether children with ADHD may be classified into one of the following five phenotypes: (1) hypoarousal state, resembling narcolepsy, which may be considered a "primary" form of ADHD; (2) delayed sleep onset insomnia; (3) sleep-disordered breathing; (4) restless legs syndrome and/or periodic limb movements; and (5) sleep epilepsy and/or EEG interictal epileptiform discharges...
November 2016: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27150337/associations-of-pineal-volume-chronotype-and-symptom-severity-in-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-healthy-controls
#18
Jan Malte Bumb, Daniela Mier, Ingo Noelte, Michael Schredl, Peter Kirsch, Oliver Hennig, Luisa Liebrich, Sabrina Fenske, Barbara Alm, Carina Sauer, Franz Markus Leweke, Esther Sobanski
The pineal gland, as part of the human epithalamus, is the main production site of peripheral melatonin, which promotes the modulation of sleep patterns, circadian rhythms and circadian preferences (morningness vs. eveningness). The present study analyses the pineal gland volume (PGV) and its association with circadian preferences and symptom severity in adult ADHD patients compared to healthy controls. PGV was determined manually using high-resolution 3T MRI (T1-magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo) in medication free adult ADHD patients (N=74) compared to healthy controls (N=86)...
July 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26879834/increased-urinary-6-hydroxymelatoninsulfate-levels-in-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-diagnosed-children-and-adolescent
#19
Ahmet Büber, Burcu Çakaloz, Yetiş Işıldar, Gülşen Ünlü, Hayrani Eren Bostancı, Hülya Aybek, Hasan Herken
There are some studies in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) which note altered circadian rhythms, suggesting abnormalities in melatonin physiology. In order to better characterize the possible melatonin alteration in ADHD, in this study we aimed to detect daytime, nighttime and 24 h levels of 6-hydroxymelatoninsulfate (6-OH MS) in the patients diagnosed with ADHD. Twenty-seven patients between 6 and 16 years-old, who had been diagnosed initially with ADHD, but without other physical and psychiatric disease history and who had not taken psychotropic pharmacotherapy for six months, plus 28 healthy volunteer controls, were included in the study...
March 23, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26847974/sleep-promoting-medications-in-children-physician-prescribing-habits-in-southwestern-ontario-canada
#20
Dirk E Bock, Elizabeth Roach-Fox, Jamie A Seabrook, Michael J Rieder, Doreen Matsui
BACKGROUND: Research indicates that physicians may frequently use pharmacotherapy to treat pediatric insomnia despite minimal safety data and very limited indications. Canadian data on the subject are lacking. This study aimed to determine physicians' views on and prescribing habits for sleep-promoting over-the-counter medication (OTCM) and prescription (RXM) medications for children. METHODS: A modified 26-item version of the 'Pediatric Sleep Medication Survey', originally developed by Judith Owens and colleagues, was sent to 100 pediatricians and a random sample of 421 family physicians in Southwestern Ontario, Canada...
January 2016: Sleep Medicine
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