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Matteo M Pusceddu, Philip Kelly, Catherine Stanton, John F Cryan, Timothy G Dinan
OBJECTIVE: The impact of lifetime dietary habits and their role in physical, mental, and social well-being has been the focus of considerable recent research. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) as a dietary constituent have been under the spotlight for decades. n-3 PUFAs constitute key regulating factors of neurotransmission, neurogenesis, and neuroinflammation and are thereby fundamental for development, functioning and ageing of the CNS. Of note is the fact that these processes are altered in various psychiatric disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression and Alzheimer...
September 8, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Natalie Parletta, Theophile Niyonsenga, Jacques Duff
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have lower omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA) levels compared with controls and conflicting evidence regarding omega-6 (n-6) PUFA levels. OBJECTIVES: This study investigated whether erythrocyte n-3 PUFAs eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were lower and n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) higher in children with ADHD, ASD and controls, and whether lower n-3 and higher n-6 PUFAs correlated with poorer scores on the Australian Twin Behaviour Rating Scale (ATBRS; ADHD symptoms) and Test of Variable Attention (TOVA) in children with ADHD, and Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS) in children with ASD...
2016: PloS One
Toshiko Matsudaira, Rachel V Gow, Joanna Kelly, Caroline Murphy, Laura Potts, Alexander Sumich, Kebreab Ghebremeskel, Michael A Crawford, Eric Taylor
BACKGROUND: An abnormality in long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) levels has been implicated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Studies evaluating LC-PUFA supplementation for therapeutic efficacy in ADHD have shown mixed and, therefore, inconclusive results. METHODS: Seventy-six male adolescents (age 12-16 years, mean = 13.7) with ADHD were assessed for the effects of 12 weeks omega-3 and omega-6 supplements on biochemical and psychological outcomes in a randomized, placebo-controlled, clinical trial...
December 2015: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Rhonda P Patrick, Bruce N Ames
Serotonin regulates a wide variety of brain functions and behaviors. Here, we synthesize previous findings that serotonin regulates executive function, sensory gating, and social behavior and that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and impulsive behavior all share in common defects in these functions. It has remained unclear why supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D improve cognitive function and behavior in these brain disorders. Here, we propose mechanisms by which serotonin synthesis, release, and function in the brain are modulated by vitamin D and the 2 marine omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)...
June 2015: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Katharina Widenhorn-Müller, Simone Schwanda, Elke Scholz, Manfred Spitzer, Harald Bode
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether supplementation with the long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) affects behavioral symptoms and cognitive impairments in children 6-12 years of age diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). STUDY DESIGN: The randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled 16 weeks trial was conducted with 95 children diagnosed with ADHD according to DSM-IV criteria. Behavior was assessed by parents, teachers and investigators using standardized rating scales and questionnaires...
July 2014: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Alan D Strickland
This hypothesis states that cerebral palsy (CP), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are all caused by an exaggerated central nervous system inflammatory response to a prenatal insult. This prenatal insult may be one or more episodes of ischemia-reperfusion, an infectious disease of the mother or the fetus, or other causes of maternal inflammation such as allergy or autoimmune disease. The resultant fetal inflammatory hyper-response injures susceptible neurons in the developing white matter of the brain in specific areas at specific gestational ages...
May 2014: Medical Hypotheses
M Hariri, A Djazayery, M Djalali, A Saedisomeolia, A Rahimi, E Abdolahian
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with difficulties in learning, behaviour and psychosocial adjustment that persist into adulthood. Decreased omega-3 fatty acids and increased inflammation or oxidative stress may contribute to neuro-developmental and psychiatric disorders such as ADHD. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of n-3 supplementation on hyperactivity, oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators in children with ADHD. METHODS: In this double blind study, 103 children (6-12 years) with ADHD receiving maintenance therapy were assigned randomly into two groups...
December 2012: Malaysian Journal of Nutrition
Catherine M Milte, Natalie Parletta, Jonathan D Buckley, Alison M Coates, Ross M Young, Peter R C Howe
OBJECTIVE: To investigate effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on attention, literacy, and behavior in children with ADHD. METHOD: Ninety children were randomized to consume supplements high in EPA, DHA, or linoleic acid (control) for 4 months each in a crossover design. Erythrocyte fatty acids, attention, cognition, literacy, and Conners' Parent Rating Scales (CPRS) were measured at 0, 4, 8, 12 months...
November 2015: Journal of Attention Disorders
James D Kean, David Camfield, Jerome Sarris, Marni Kras, Richard Silberstein, Andrew Scholey, Con Stough
BACKGROUND: The prevalence rate of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) within Western cultures is between 5% and 12%, and is the most common psychiatric illness among school-aged children, with an estimated 50% of these children retaining ADHD symptoms for the rest of their lives. Children with ADHD have lower blood levels of long-chain Poly Unsaturated Fatty Acids (LC PUFAs) compared with children without ADHD, and following PUFA supplementation, have shown improvements in ADHD-related symptoms...
2013: Nutrition Journal
Paul Montgomery, Jennifer R Burton, Richard P Sewell, Thees F Spreckelsen, Alexandra J Richardson
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), especially DHA (docosahexaenonic acid) are essential for brain development and physical health. Low blood Omega-3 LC-PUFA have been reported in children with ADHD and related behavior/learning difficulties, as have benefits from dietary supplementation. Little is known, however, about blood fatty acid status in the general child population. We therefore investigated this in relation to age-standardized measures of behavior and cognition in a representative sample of children from mainstream schools...
2013: PloS One
Rachel V Gow, Frederic Vallee-Tourangeau, Michael Angus Crawford, Eric Taylor, Kebreab Ghebremeskel, Allain A Bueno, Joseph R Hibbeln, Alexander Sumich, Katya Rubia
A number of research studies have reported abnormal plasma fatty acid profiles in children with ADHD along with some benefit of n-3 to symptoms of ADHD. However, it is currently unclear whether (lower) long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are related to ADHD pathology or to associated behaviours. The aim of this study was to test whether (1) ADHD children have abnormal plasma LC-PUFA levels and (2) ADHD symptoms and associated behaviours are correlated with LC-PUFA levels. Seventy-two, male children with (n=29) and without a clinical diagnosis of ADHD (n=43) were compared in their plasma levels of LC-PUFA...
June 2013: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Kine S Dervola, Bjørg A Roberg, Grete Wøien, Inger Lise Bogen, Torbjørn H Sandvik, Terje Sagvolden, Christian A Drevon, Espen Borgå Johansen, Sven Ivar Walaas
BACKGROUND: Previous reports suggest that omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplements may reduce ADHD-like behaviour. Our aim was to investigate potential effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation in an animal model of ADHD. METHODS: We used spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). SHR dams were given n-3 PUFA (EPA and DHA)-enriched feed (n-6/n-3 of 1:2.7) during pregnancy, with their offspring continuing on this diet until sacrificed. The SHR controls and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) control rats were given control-feed (n-6/n-3 of 7:1)...
2012: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Małgorzata Szkup-Jabłońska
INTRODUCTION: Impulsiveness, hyperactivity, and attention deficit are the most frequent neurocognitive disorders of childhood. Leaving aside the putative role of environmental and nutritive factors, the etiology and pathogenesis of these disorders remains unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the concentration of lead, cadmium, and polyunsaturated fatty acids, and functioning of the child with developmental disorders. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study enrolled 78 children with behavioral disorders...
2011: Annales Academiae Medicae Stetinensis
Mats Johnson, Jan-Eric Månsson, Sven Ostlund, Gunnar Fransson, Björn Areskoug, Kerstin Hjalmarsson, Magnus Landgren, Björn Kadesjö, Christopher Gillberg
The aim of this study was to assess baseline levels and changes in plasma fatty acid profiles in children and adolescents with ADHD, in a placebo-controlled study with Omega 3/6 supplementation, and to compare with treatment response. Seventy-five children and adolescents aged 8-18 years with DSM-IV ADHD were randomized to 3 months of Omega 3/6 (Equazen eye q) or placebo, followed by 3 months of open phase Omega 3/6 for all. n-3, n-6, n-6/n-3 ratio, EPA and DHA in plasma were measured at baseline, 3 and 6 months...
December 2012: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
Per A Gustafsson, Ulrika Birberg-Thornberg, Karel Duchén, Magnus Landgren, Kerstin Malmberg, Henrik Pelling, Birgitta Strandvik, Thomas Karlsson
AIM: Measure efficacy of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: Randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 0.5 g EPA or placebo (15 weeks) in 92 children (7-12 years) with ADHD. Efficacy measure was Conners' Parent/Teacher Rating Scales (CPRS/CTRS). Fatty acids were analysed in serum phospholipids and red blood cell membranes (RBC) at baseline and endpoint with gas chromatography. RESULTS: EPA improved CTRS inattention/cognitive subscale (p = 0...
October 2010: Acta Paediatrica
Catherine Transler, Ans Eilander, Siobhan Mitchell, Nelly van de Meer
OBJECTIVES: To review the impact of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in reducing ADHD symptoms in children. METHODS: Peer-reviewed experimental literature published from 1980 to Mai 2009 is consulted (Psychinfo, Medline, and resulting reference lists). RESULTS: Placebo-controlled studies with ADHD or hyperactive children show no effects on behaviors or cognition when only n-6 (omega-6) PUFA, only docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), or n-6 and n-3 (omega-3) short-chain PUFA are supplemented...
November 2010: Journal of Attention Disorders
Jan Philipp Schuchardt, Michael Huss, Manuela Stauss-Grabo, Andreas Hahn
omega-6 and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) play a central role in the normal development and functioning of the brain and central nervous system. Long-chain PUFAs (LC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5omega-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6omega-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4omega-6), in particular, are involved in numerous neuronal processes, ranging from effects on membrane fluidity to gene expression regulation. Deficiencies and imbalances of these nutrients, not only during the developmental phase but throughout the whole life span, have significant effects on brain function...
February 2010: European Journal of Pediatrics
Ka-Hung Ng, Barbara J Meyer, Lauren Reece, Natalie Sinn
Research has shown associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and erythrocyte long-chain n-3 PUFA (LC n-3 PUFA) levels, with limited evidence for dietary LC n-3 PUFA intake and ADHD. The aims of the present study were to assess dietary PUFA intakes and food sources in children with ADHD, to compare these intakes to previously published Australian National Nutrition Survey (NNS) data and determine any relationships between intakes and ADHD symptoms. Eighty-six 3-d-weighed food records (FR) were analysed from children with ADHD...
December 2009: British Journal of Nutrition
Alexander Sumich, Toshiko Matsudaira, Rachel V Gow, Almira Ibrahimovic, Kebreab Ghebremeskel, Michael Crawford, Eric Taylor
Abnormal fatty acid status has been implicated in the aetiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Delayed maturation in ADHD may result in raised frontal low frequency (theta) electroencephalographic activity (EEG) and a reduction in posterior high frequency (beta, alpha) activity. The current study used sequential linear regression to investigate the association between age, resting-state EEG and levels of long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in red blood cells in 46 adolescent boys with ADHD symptoms...
December 2009: Neuropharmacology
Rachel V Gow, Toshiko Matsudaira, Eric Taylor, Katya Rubia, Michael Crawford, Kebreab Ghebremeskel, Almira Ibrahimovic, Frédéric Vallée-Tourangeau, Leanne M Williams, Alexander Sumich
Affective impairment is observed in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Low levels of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), specifically omega-3 (omega-3) fatty acids in blood measures have been linked to a range of behavioural and mood disorders including ADHD. However, nothing is known about the relationship between omega-3 and brain function in children with ADHD. In the current study, 20 adolescent boys with ADHD were assessed for total lipid fractions in red blood cells and their event-related potential (ERP) response to the presentation of facial expressions of happiness, sadness and fearfulness...
February 2009: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
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