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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531450/estimating-energy-expenditure-in-vascular-surgery-patients-are-predictive-equations-accurate-enough
#1
J Suen, J M Thomas, C L Delaney, J I Spark, M D Miller
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Malnutrition is prevalent in vascular surgical patients who commonly seek tertiary care at advanced stages of disease. Adjunct nutrition support is therefore pertinent to optimise patient outcomes. To negate consequences related to excessive or suboptimal dietary energy intake, it is essential to accurately determine energy expenditure and subsequent requirements. This study aims to compare resting energy expenditure (REE) measured by indirect calorimetry, a commonly used comparator, to REE estimated by predictive equations (Schofield, Harris-Benedict equations and Miller equation) to determine the most suitable equation for vascular surgery patients...
December 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530514/public-understanding-of-the-purpose-of-cancer-screening-a-population-based-survey
#2
Amanda J Chorley, Yasemin Hirst, Charlotte Vrinten, Christian von Wagner, Jane Wardle, Jo Waller
Objectives In examining informed choice in cancer screening, we investigated public awareness that some screening programmes aim to prevent cancer, while others seek to detect cancer at an early stage. Methods A population-based survey of adults aged 50-70 in England (n = 1433), including data on demographic characteristics and screening experience. Participants were asked to select the main purpose of cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening (both faecal occult blood testing and flexible sigmoidoscopy)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529440/parents-primary-professional-sources-of-parenting-advice-moderate-predictors-of-parental-attitudes-toward-corporal-punishment
#3
Catherine A Taylor, Sarah McKasson, Guenevere Hoy, William DeJong
Despite the risk it poses to children's mental and physical health, approval and use of corporal punishment (CP) remains high in the United States. Informed by the Theory of Planned Behavior, we examined potential predictors of attitudes supportive of CP while assessing the moderating effects of parents' (N=500) chosen primary professional source of advice regarding child discipline: pediatricians (47.8%), religious leaders (20.8%), mental health professionals (MHPs) (n=18.4%), or other identified professionals (13...
February 2017: Journal of Child and Family Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529169/caregiver-burden-in-adults-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#4
Richa Shukla, Elyse Thakur, Andrea Bradford, Jason K Hou
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic condition which has a relapsing and remitting disease course. There is high degree of inpatient and outpatient health care utilization by IBD patients along with a great deal of psychosocial stress associated with the condition. Patients frequently rely on family, friends and other informal caregivers to provide medical, instrumental and emotional support. The role of caregiving for adult IBD patients can lead to significant caregiver burden. At present, there are limited data on the existence of caregiver burden in adult IBD patients...
May 18, 2017: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528527/health-literacy-and-associated-factors-among-hmong-american-immigrants-addressing-the-health-disparities
#5
Belle P Khuu, Hee Y Lee, Anne Q Zhou
Hmong Americans face a disproportionate health burden ranging from the high prevalence of diabetes to depressive disorders. Little research attention has been paid toward exploring contributing factors to this disparity. As such, the present study seeks to fill the gap in the literature by examining the health literacy levels in Hmong Americans and its associated factors. The present study employed Andersen's behavioral model of health service as the theoretical framework. A cross-sectional survey research design was used and information was gathered from 168 Hmong American immigrants...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527590/phosphate-scouting-by-root-tips
#6
REVIEW
Steffen Abel
Chemistry assigns phosphate (Pi) dominant roles in metabolism; however, it also renders the macronutrient a genuinely limiting factor of plant productivity. Pi bioavailability is restricted by low Pi mobility in soil and antagonized by metallic toxicities, which force roots to actively seek and selectively acquire the vital element. During the past few years, a first conceptual outline has emerged of the sensory mechanisms at root tips, which monitor external Pi and transmit the edaphic cue to inform root development...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526252/determinants-of-sleep-behavior-in-adolescents-a-pilot-study
#7
Reut Gruber, Gail Somerville, Soukaina Paquin, Johanne Boursier
PURPOSE: To identify determinants of sleep behavior in adolescents of middle to high socioeconomic status. METHODS: Eighteen students (9 boys, 9 girls) with a mean age of 14.9±1.5years were interviewed using a standardized script inspired by the theory of planned behavior. Interviews were audio-recorded and anonymously transcribed verbatim. In addition, participants completed a survey assessing demographic and health characteristics and their sleep duration was measured using actigraphy...
June 2017: Sleep Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525792/team-effectiveness-in-non-governmental-organizations-ngos-projects
#8
Khawaja Fawad Latif, Nigel Williams
The incorporation of team context into research and practice regarding team effectiveness in NGOs projects is a constant challenge. The research seeks to address the gap and identify the critical determinants of team effectiveness in projects undertaken by non-governmental organizations. Using a systematic process, the study involved both literature and focus group discussions to generate the required items. A total of 157 respondents (Team Members and Team Leaders) were part of the study that filled the questionnaires...
May 10, 2017: Evaluation and Program Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524382/an-observational-study-of-patient-care-outcomes-sensitive-to-handover-quality-in-the-post-anaesthetic-care-unit
#9
Nichole Lillibridge, Mari Botti, Beverley Wood, Bernice Redley
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To identify patient care outcome indicators sensitive to the quality of interprofessional handover between the anaesthetist and the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit nurse. BACKGROUND: The relationship between interprofessional clinical handover when patients are transferred from the operating theatre to the Post-Anaesthetic Care Unit and patient outcomes of subsequent patient care delivery is not well understood. DESIGN: Naturalistic, exploratory descriptive design using observation...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524377/to-be-or-not-to-be-a-caregiver-s-question-the-lived-experience-of-a-stroke-family-during-the-first-18-months-poststroke
#10
Cheryl L Olivier, Jill Phillips, Dianne E Roy
BACKGROUND: Disability following a stroke often requires family, commonly a spouse, to provide care enabling the stroke survivor to return home. Immediate or extended family and friends may help provide direct care or support the primary caregiver. While family members share the common stroke experience, this is lived within the context of separate lives. Research examining the individual nuances, roles and contribution of family and/or friends forming part of collective stroke networks, has largely been overlooked...
May 19, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524366/contrasting-hcv-and-hiv-seroepidemiology-in-11-years-of-blood-donors-screening-in-brazil
#11
J E Levi, S M Lira, C B Bub, M B Polite, C C Terzian, J M Kutner
BACKGROUND: Blood donors are, in principle, healthy individuals who may be revealed as infectious for blood-borne agents by the laboratory screening process, depicting the asymptomatic burden of the disease. Therefore, monitoring hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected donor and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected donor and associating to their demographical and behavioural characteristics may shed light on the dynamics and contemporary changes in these viruses' epidemiology. METHODS: Donors presenting repeatedly reactive HCV or HIV serology/nucleic acid testing (NAT) screening results were submitted to confirmatory testing...
May 19, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523218/valence-and-magnitude-ambiguity-in-feedback-processing
#12
Ruolei Gu, Xue Feng, Lucas S Broster, Lu Yuan, Pengfei Xu, Yue-Jia Luo
BACKGROUND: Outcome feedback which indicates behavioral consequences are crucial for reinforcement learning and environmental adaptation. Nevertheless, outcome information in daily life is often totally or partially ambiguous. Studying how people interpret this kind of information would provide important knowledge about the human evaluative system. METHODS: This study concentrates on the neural processing of partially ambiguous feedback, that is, either its valence or magnitude is unknown to participants...
May 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522894/interventional-audiology-to-address-hearing-health-care-disparities-oyendo-bien-pilot-study
#13
REVIEW
Nicole Marrone, Maia Ingram, Maria Somoza, Daisey Sánchez Jacob, Adriana Sanchez, Stephanie Adamovich, Frances P Harris
Interventional audiology, specifically community-based outreach, can connect people with the hearing health care system. Community-based participatory research methods were applied in two phases of research to: (1) investigate the needs of families affected by hearing loss in a rural Arizona community on the U.S.-Mexico border; and (2) evaluate an outreach program on hearing health. The needs assessment included interviews with persons with hearing loss and focus groups with family members and the greater community...
May 2017: Seminars in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521810/estimation-of-the-burden-of-varicella-in-europe-before-the-introduction-of-universal-childhood-immunization
#14
Margarita Riera-Montes, Kaatje Bollaerts, Ulrich Heininger, Niel Hens, Giovanni Gabutti, Angel Gil, Bayad Nozad, Grazina Mirinaviciute, Elmira Flem, Audrey Souverain, Thomas Verstraeten, Susanne Hartwig
BACKGROUND: Varicella is generally considered a mild disease. Disease burden is not well known and country-level estimation is challenging. As varicella disease is not notifiable, notification criteria and rates vary between countries. In general, existing surveillance systems do not capture cases that do not seek medical care, and most are affected by underreporting and underascertainment. We aimed to estimate the overall varicella disease burden in Europe to provide critical information to support decision-making regarding varicella vaccination...
May 18, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521798/use-of-malaria-rdts-in-various-health-contexts-across-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review
#15
Matthew R Boyce, Wendy P O'Meara
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends parasitological confirmation of malaria prior to treatment. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) represent one diagnostic method that is used in a variety of contexts to overcome limitations of other diagnostic techniques. Malaria RDTs increase the availability and feasibility of accurate diagnosis and may result in improved quality of care. Though RDTs are used in a variety of contexts, no studies have compared how well or effectively RDTs are used across these contexts...
May 18, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521791/exploring-the-role-of-socioeconomic-factors-in-the-development-and-spread-of-anti-malarial-drug-resistance-a-qualitative-study
#16
Philip Emeka Anyanwu, John Fulton, Etta Evans, Timothy Paget
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a global health issue with the burden unevenly distributed to the disadvantage of the developing countries of the world. Poverty contributes to the malaria burden as it has the ability to affect integral aspects of malaria control. There have been renewed efforts in the global malaria control, resulting in reductions in the global malaria burden over the last decade. However, the development of resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapy threatens the sustainability of the present success in malaria control...
May 18, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521751/an-integrated-intervention-to-reduce-intimate-partner-violence-and-psychological-distress-with-refugees-in-low-resource-settings-study-protocol-for-the-nguvu-cluster-randomized-trial
#17
Wietse A Tol, M Claire Greene, Samuel Likindikoki, Lusia Misinzo, Peter Ventevogel, Ann G Bonz, Judith K Bass, Jessie K K Mbwambo
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a critical public health and human rights concern globally, including for refugee women in low-resource settings. Little is known about effective interventions for this population. IPV and psychological distress have a bi-directional relationship, indicating the potential benefit of a structured psychological component as part of efforts to reduce IPV for women currently in violent relationships. METHODS: This protocol describes a cluster randomized controlled trial aimed at evaluating an 8-session integrated psychological and advocacy intervention (Nguvu) with female adult survivors of past-year IPV displaying moderate to severe psychological distress...
May 18, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521251/the-protective-effect-of-character-maturity-in-child-aggressive-antisocial-behavior
#18
Nóra Kerekes, Örjan Falk, Sven Brändström, Henrik Anckarsäter, Maria Råstam, Björn Hofvander
BACKGROUND: Childhood aggressive antisocial behavior (CD) is one of the strongest predictors of mental health problems and criminal behavior in adulthood. The aims of this study were to describe personality profiles in children with CD, and to determine the strength of association between defined neurodevelopmental symptoms, dimensions of character maturity and CD. METHODS: A sample of 1886 children with a close to equal distribution of age (9 or 12) and gender, enriched for neurodevelopmental and psychiatric problems were selected from the nationwide Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden...
April 29, 2017: Comprehensive Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521129/integrating-results-across-methodologies-is-essential-for-producing-robust-neuronal-taxonomies
#19
Mark S Cembrowski, Nelson Spruston
Elucidating the diversity and spatial organization of cell types in the brain is an essential goal of neuroscience, with many emerging technologies helping to advance this endeavor. Using a new in situ hybridization method that can measure the expression of hundreds of genes in a given mouse brain section (amplified seqFISH), Shah et al. (2016) describe a spatial organization of hippocampal cell types that differs from previous reports. In seeking to understand this discrepancy, we find that many of the barcoded genes used by seqFISH to characterize this spatial organization, when cross-validated by other sensitive methodologies, exhibit negligible expression in the hippocampus...
May 17, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521078/the-evolution-of-uncertainty-in-second-opinions-about-prostate-cancer-treatment
#20
Marij A Hillen, Caitlin M Gutheil, Ellen M A Smets, Moritz Hansen, Terrence M Kungel, Tania D Strout, Paul K J Han
BACKGROUND: People who have cancer increasingly seek second opinions. Yet, we know little about what motivates patients to seek them and how beneficial they are. Uncertainty-experienced by patients or communicated by physician and patient-may be crucial throughout the second opinion process. OBJECTIVE: This study sought to investigate (1) how uncertainty influences men with prostate cancer to seek second opinions and (2) how second opinions may affect these patients' sense of uncertainty and subsequent experiences with their care...
May 18, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
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