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Emil Brännström, Jennifer Strand, Peter Sand
Background: The aim of this qualitative study was to explore why some patients receive recurrent or prolonged psychiatric inpatient care, based on the experiences of the patients themselves. Methods: The participants were recruited at an outpatient clinic at the department of psychiatry for patients with affective disorders at Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Sweden. Ten patients, nine women and one man, aged 22-61 years, agreed to participate. A semi-structured interview guide was used during the interviews, which were audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis...
2018: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
Susan M Tyree, Jeremy C Borniger, Luis de Lecea
The lateral hypothalamus is comprised of a heterogeneous mix of neurons that serve to integrate and regulate sleep, feeding, stress, energy balance, reward, and motivated behavior. Within these populations, the hypocretin/orexin neurons are among the most well studied. Here, we provide an overview on how these neurons act as a central hub integrating sensory and physiological information to tune arousal and motivated behavior accordingly. We give special attention to their role in sleep-wake states and conditions of hyper-arousal, as is the case with stress-induced anxiety...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Yazed AlRuthia, Bander Balkhi, Marwan Alrasheed, Ahmed Altuwaijri, Mohammad Alarifi, Huda Alzahrani, Wael Mansy
This study aimed to explore the health beliefs and patterns of dietary supplement usage among fitness center members. This cross-sectional study was conducted in four large indoor fitness centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. This study involved male fitness center members aged ≥18 years with no speech or hearing disabilities. In-person interviews were conducted with fitness center members who agreed to participate using a newly developed questionnaire. Information on participants' sociodemographics (e.g., age and education), smoking status, health status, exercise frequency, average time spent exercising, different supplements used, used supplements sources, and health beliefs regarding dietary supplements were obtained...
2018: PloS One
Giselle Corbie-Smith, Mysha Wynn, Alan Richmond, Stuart Rennie, Melissa Green, Stephanie M Hoover, Sable Watson-Hopper, Kyle Simone Nisbeth
Increasingly, researchers seek to engage communities, patients, and stakeholders as partners in the process and products of health research. However, there is no existing stakeholder-driven ethical framework for such engaged scholarship. We employed an iterative, stakeholder-engaged method to develop a data-driven framework for the ethical review and conduct of engaged scholarship. We used consensus development conference methods and a modified Delphi survey to engage 240 community members, ethicists, and academic researchers...
2018: PloS One
Galileu Barbosa Costa, Amy Gilbert, Benjamin Monroe, Jesse Blanton, Sali Ngam Ngam, Sergio Recuenco, Ryan Wallace
BACKGROUND: Rabies is a fatal encephalitis caused by lyssaviruses, with most human cases worldwide resulting from rabid dog bites. Although effective animal and human vaccines have been available for over 100 years, control efforts have not been adequately implemented on the global scale and rabies remains one of the greatest global zoonotic threats to human health. We conducted a knowledge, attitudes and practices survey in Northern Cameroon to describe dog ownership characteristics, rates of dog bites, and post-bite healthcare seeking behaviors...
2018: PloS One
Yubing Zheng, Yang Ma, Lixin Guo, Jianchuan Cheng, Yunlong Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Illegal parking in emergency lanes (paved highway shoulders) is becoming a serious road safety issue in China. The aim of this study was: 1) to examine the utility of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) extended with descriptive norm, past behavior, facilitating and deterring circumstances, sensation seeking and invulnerability in predicting Chinese drivers' intentions in illegal emergency lane parking; 2) to investigate whether respondents' demographic characteristics would impact their views towards the behavior and predictive patterns of intentions; 3) to identify significant predictors of intentions...
June 21, 2018: Traffic Injury Prevention
Petr Winkler, Tomáš Formánek, Karolína Mladá, Pavla Cermakova
OBJECTIVES: The CZEch Mental health Study (CZEMS) was launched to inform the ongoing mental health care reform. This paper describes rationale, methods, and the plan for the future analyses of this project. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey on a representative sample of the general adult noninstitutionalized population of the Czech Republic was conducted. Two-stage sampling was utilized and respondents were interviewed by centrally trained staff using a paper and pencil interviewing...
June 21, 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
T H Lam, K H Wong, K Kl Chan, M Cm Chan, D Vk Chao, A Ny Cheung, C Ym Fan, J Ho, E P Hui, K O Lam, C K Law, W L Law, H Hf Loong, R Kc Ngan, T Hf Tsang, M Cs Wong, R Mw Yeung, A Ch Ying, R Ching
In Hong Kong, breast cancer is the most common cancer among women and poses a significant health care burden. The Cancer Expert Working Group on Cancer Prevention and Screening (CEWG) was set up in 2002 by the Cancer Coordinating Committee to review and assess local and international scientific evidence, and to formulate recommendations for cancer prevention and screening. After considering the local epidemiology, emerging scientific evidence, and local and overseas screening practices, the CEWG concluded that it was unclear whether population-based breast cancer screening did more harm than good in local asymptomatic women at average risk...
June 2018: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
Dominic A Evans, A Vanessa Stempel, Ruben Vale, Sabine Ruehle, Yaara Lefler, Tiago Branco
Escaping from imminent danger is an instinctive behaviour that is fundamental for survival, and requires the classification of sensory stimuli as harmless or threatening. The absence of threat enables animals to forage for essential resources, but as the level of threat and potential for harm increases, they have to decide whether or not to seek safety 1 . Despite previous work on instinctive defensive behaviours in rodents2-11 , little is known about how the brain computes the threat level for initiating  escape...
June 20, 2018: Nature
Jingsong Zhao, Nageen Mir, Nicole Ackermann, Kimberly A Kaphingst, Mary C Politi
BACKGROUND: The rate of uninsured people has decreased dramatically since the Affordable Care Act was passed. To make an informed decision, consumers need assistance to understand the advantages and disadvantages of health insurance plans. The Show Me Health Plans Web-based decision support tool was developed to improve the quality of health insurance selection. In response to the promising effectiveness of Show Me Health Plans in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and the growing need for Web-based health insurance decision support, the study team used expert recommendations for dissemination and implementation, engaged external stakeholders, and made the Show Me Health Plans tool available to the public...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
William Liu, Thomas Walsh
BACKGROUND: A goal of effective electronic health record provider documentation platforms is to provide an efficient, concise, and comprehensive notation system that will effectively reflect the clinical course, including the diagnoses, treatments, and interventions. OBJECTIVE: The aim is to fully redesign and standardize the provider documentation process, seeking improvement in documentation based on ongoing All Patient Refined Diagnosis Related Group-based coding records, while maintaining noninferiority comparing provider satisfaction to our existing documentation process...
June 20, 2018: JMIR Medical Informatics
A Abukaraky, A-A Hamdan, M-N Ameera, M Nasief, Y Hassona
BACKGROUND: Patients search YouTube for health-care information. PURPOSE: To examine what YouTube offers patients seeking information on dental implants, and to evaluate the quality of provided information. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A systematic search of YouTube for videos containing information on dental implants was performed using the key words "Dental implant" and "Tooth replacement". Videos were examined by two senior Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery residents who were trained and calibrated to perform the search...
June 20, 2018: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
Justin J Elhoff, Kimberly E McHugh, Jason R Buckley, Shaine A Morris, Kit N Simpson, Mark A Scheurer
IntroductionFamilies of children born with CHD face added stress owing to uncertainty about the magnitude of the financial burden for medical costs they will face. This study seeks to assess the family responsibility for healthcare bills during the first 12 months of life for commercially insured children undergoing surgery for severe CHD. METHODS: The MarketScan ® database from Truven was used to identify commercially insured infants in 39 states from 2010 to 2012 with an ICD-9 diagnosis code for transposition of the great arteries, tetralogy of Fallot, or truncus arteriosus, as well as the corresponding procedure code for complete repair...
June 20, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
Mia-Maria Perälä, Anna-Maija Tiainen, Jari Lahti, Satu Männistö, Marius Lahti, Kati Heinonen, Niina E Kaartinen, Anu-Katriina Pesonen, Eero Kajantie, Katri Räikkönen, Johan G Eriksson
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown that the temperament traits are related to risk factors for chronic diseases, which could be partly explained by lifestyle habits. However, little is known whether temperament traits associate with diet. The aim of this study was to examine the cross-sectional associations between temperament traits and the whole diet. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We studied 1668 men and women, aged 56-70, from the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Nick Diederich, Thorsten Bartsch, Hermann Kohlstedt, Martin Ziegler
Memristive systems have gained considerable attention in the field of neuromorphic engineering, because they allow the emulation of synaptic functionality in solid state nano-physical systems. In this study, we show that memristive behavior provides a broad working framework for the phenomenological modelling of cellular synaptic mechanisms. In particular, we seek to understand how close a memristive system can account for the biological realism. The basic characteristics of memristive systems, i.e. voltage and memory behavior, are used to derive a voltage-based plasticity rule...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Trisha Greenhalgh, Chrysanthi Papoutsi
Complexity is much talked about but sub-optimally studied in health services research. Although the significance of the complex system as an analytic lens is increasingly recognised, many researchers are still using methods that assume a closed system in which predictive studies in general, and controlled experiments in particular, are possible and preferred. We argue that in open systems characterised by dynamically changing inter-relationships and tensions, conventional research designs predicated on linearity and predictability must be augmented by the study of how we can best deal with uncertainty, unpredictability and emergent causality...
June 20, 2018: BMC Medicine
Duncan Henry, Travis Vesel, Christy Boscardin, Sandrijn van Schaik
BACKGROUND: For effective self-directed life-long learning physicians need to engage in feedback-seeking, which means fostering such behavior during training. Self-determination theory (SDT) posits that intrinsic motivation is fostered when the environment optimizes the individual's experience of autonomy, relatedness, and competence. Educational settings meeting these psychological needs may foster intrinsic motivation in trainees, enhance their desire for feedback, and promote feedback-seeking...
June 19, 2018: BMC Medical Education
Joel Lapin, Alexander A Nevzorov
An automated technique for the sequential assignment of NMR backbone resonances of oriented protein samples has been developed and tested based on 15 N-15 N homonuclear exchange and spin-exchanged separated local-field spectra. By treating the experimental spectral intensity as a pseudopotential, the Monte-Carlo Simulated Annealing algorithm has been employed to seek lowest-energy assignment solutions over a large sampling space where direct enumeration would be unfeasible. The determined sequential assignments have been scored based on the positions of the crosspeaks resulting from the possible orders for the main peaks...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Alia Moore, Sarah Ryan, Carol Stamm
Federal regulations governing access to levonorgestrel (LNG) emergency contraception (EC) have evolved since its introduction in the 1990s. LNG EC was initially available by prescription only, but is now available over-the-counter to consumers of all ages. Nonetheless, consumers seeking EC in their communities may face ongoing barriers to access including low stock and inaccurate information provided by pharmacy staff. We conducted a review of LNG EC secret shopper studies to describe changes in EC access and barriers over time...
June 19, 2018: Women & Health
Timothy S Bailey, John Walsh, Jenine Y Stone
New therapies, monitoring, and revolutionary enabling technologies applied to healthcare represent an historic opportunity to improve the lives of people with diabetes. These advances enable more meaningful monitoring of blood glucose values with the facilitation of more optimal insulin dosing and delivery. Newer insulins and delivery systems are in development that seek to mitigate both hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia and increase time in range. Information systems now exist that may be leveraged to merge data from previously discrete systems into new models of connected care...
June 2018: Diabetes Technology & Therapeutics
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