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drosophila peripheral nervous system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127725/a-loss-of-function-homozygous-mutation-in-ddx59-implicates-a-conserved-dead-box-rna-helicase-in-nervous-system-development-and-function
#1
Vincenzo Salpietro, Stephanie Efthymiou, Andreea Manole, Bhawana Maurya, Sarah Wiethoff, Balasubramaniem Ashokkumar, Maria Concetta Cutrupi, Valeria Dipasquale, Sara Manti, Juan A Botia, Mina Ryten, Jana Vandrovcova, Oscar D Bello, Conceicao Bettencourt, Kshitij Mankad, Ashim Mukherjee, Mousumi Mutsuddi, Henry Houlden
We report on a homozygous frameshift deletion in DDX59 (c.185del: p.Phe62fs*13) in a family presenting with oro-facio-digital syndrome phenotype associated to a broad neurological involvement characterized by microcephaly, intellectual disability, epilepsy, and white matter signal abnormalities associated with cortical and sub-cortical ischemic events. DDX59 encodes a DEAD-box RNA helicase and its role in brain function and neurological diseases is unclear. We showed a reduction of mutant cDNA and perturbation of SHH signalling from patient-derived cell lines; furthermore, analysis of human brain gene expression provides evidence that DDX59 is enriched in oligodendrocytes and might act within pathways of leukoencephalopathies associated genes...
November 11, 2017: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116083/odor-evoked-inhibition-of-olfactory-sensory-neurons-drives-olfactory-perception-in-drosophila
#2
Li-Hui Cao, Dong Yang, Wei Wu, Xiankun Zeng, Bi-Yang Jing, Meng-Tong Li, Shanshan Qin, Chao Tang, Yuhai Tu, Dong-Gen Luo
Inhibitory response occurs throughout the nervous system, including the peripheral olfactory system. While odor-evoked excitation in peripheral olfactory cells is known to encode odor information, the molecular mechanism and functional roles of odor-evoked inhibition remain largely unknown. Here, we examined Drosophila olfactory sensory neurons and found that inhibitory odors triggered outward receptor currents by reducing the constitutive activities of odorant receptors, inhibiting the basal spike firing in olfactory sensory neurons...
November 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074576/a-pre-synaptic-function-of-shank-protein-in-drosophila
#3
Song Wu, Guangming Gan, Zhiping Zhang, Jie Sun, Qifu Wang, Zhongbao Gao, Meixiang Li, Shan Jin, Juan Huang, Ulrich Thomas, Yong-Hui Jiang, Yan Li, Rui Tian, Yong Q Zhang
Human genetic studies support that loss of function mutations in the [highlight]SH[/highlight]3 domain and [highlight]ank[/highlight]yrin repeat containing family proteins (SHANK1-3), the large synaptic scaffolding proteins enriched at the postsynaptic density of excitatory synapses, are causative for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and other neuropsychiatric disorders in humans. To better understand the in vivo functions of Shank and facilitate dissection of neuropathology associated with SHANK mutations in human, we generated multiple mutations in the Shank gene, the only member of the SHANK family in Drosophila melanogaster Both male and female Shank null mutants were fully viable and fertile with no apparent morphological or developmental defects...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943854/insulin-signaling-in-the-peripheral-and-central-nervous-system-regulates-female-sexual-receptivity-during-starvation-in-drosophila
#4
Sébastien Lebreton, Mikael A Carlsson, Peter Witzgall
Many animals adjust their reproductive behavior according to nutritional state and food availability. Drosophila females for instance decrease their sexual receptivity following starvation. Insulin signaling, which regulates many aspects of insect physiology and behavior, also affects reproduction in females. We show that insulin signaling is involved in the starvation-induced reduction in female receptivity. More specifically, females mutant for the insulin-like peptide 5 (dilp5) were less affected by starvation compared to the other dilp mutants and wild-type flies...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28940692/dpff-1-transcription-factor-deficiency-causes-the-aberrant-activation-of-mpk-1-and-meiotic-defects-in-the-caenorhabditis-elegans-germline
#5
Emmanuel Villanueva-Chimal, Laura S Salinas, Laura P Fernández-Cardenas, Gabriela Huelgas-Morales, Alejandro Cabrera-Wrooman, Rosa E Navarro
The d4 family of transcription factors consists of three members in mammals. DPF1/neuro-d4 is expressed mainly in neurons and the peripheral nervous system, and is important for brain development. DPF2/requiem/ubi-d4 is expressed ubiquitously and presumably functions as an apoptotic factor, especially during the deprivation of trophic factors. DPF3/cer-d4 is expressed in neurons and in the heart, and is important for heart development and function in zebrafish. In Drosophila, there is only one member, dd4, whose function is still unknown, but it is expressed in many tissues and is particularly abundant in the brain of developing embryos and in adults...
September 23, 2017: Genesis: the Journal of Genetics and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803873/neural-circuitry-that-evokes-escape-behavior-upon-activation-of-nociceptive-sensory-neurons-in-drosophila-larvae
#6
Jiro Yoshino, Rei K Morikawa, Eri Hasegawa, Kazuo Emoto
Noxious stimuli trigger a stereotyped escape response in animals. In Drosophila larvae, class IV dendrite arborization (C4 da) sensory neurons in the peripheral nervous system are responsible for perception of multiple nociceptive modalities, including noxious heat and harsh mechanical stimulation, through distinct receptors [1-9]. Silencing or ablation of C4 da neurons largely eliminates larval responses to noxious stimuli [10-12], whereas optogenetic activation of C4 da neurons is sufficient to provoke corkscrew-like rolling behavior similar to what is observed when larvae receive noxious stimuli, such as high temperature or harsh mechanical stimulation [10-12]...
August 21, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28748922/regulation-of-drosophila-hematopoietic-sites-by-activin-%C3%AE-from-active-sensory-neurons
#7
Kalpana Makhijani, Brandy Alexander, Deepti Rao, Sophia Petraki, Leire Herboso, Katelyn Kukar, Itrat Batool, Stephanie Wachner, Katrina S Gold, Corinna Wong, Michael B O'Connor, Katja Brückner
An outstanding question in animal development, tissue homeostasis and disease is how cell populations adapt to sensory inputs. During Drosophila larval development, hematopoietic sites are in direct contact with sensory neuron clusters of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), and blood cells (hemocytes) require the PNS for their survival and recruitment to these microenvironments, known as Hematopoietic Pockets. Here we report that Activin-β, a TGF-β family ligand, is expressed by sensory neurons of the PNS and regulates the proliferation and adhesion of hemocytes...
July 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733238/circadian-regulation-of-caterpillar-feeding-and-growth
#8
Agnieszka Suszczynska, Magdalena Maria Kaniewska, Piotr Bebas, Jadwiga Maria Giebultowicz, Joanna Kotwica-Rolinska
Circadian clocks orchestrate many physiological processes in adult organisms. For example, rhythmic feeding behavior is regulated by the central clock in the nervous system in coordination with metabolic rhythms, which in turn depend mostly on peripheral clocks localized in many tissues. Disruption of the circadian clock leads to metabolic dysregulation both in mammals and in the model insect Drosophila melanogaster. Circadian coordination of feeding and metabolism has been studied mainly in adult insects and not in larval stages, which are dramatically different from adults in species with complete full metamorphosis...
August 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716930/conserved-gene-regulatory-module-specifies-lateral-neural-borders-across-bilaterians
#9
Yongbin Li, Di Zhao, Takeo Horie, Geng Chen, Hongcun Bao, Siyu Chen, Weihong Liu, Ryoko Horie, Tao Liang, Biyu Dong, Qianqian Feng, Qinghua Tao, Xiao Liu
The lateral neural plate border (NPB), the neural part of the vertebrate neural border, is composed of central nervous system (CNS) progenitors and peripheral nervous system (PNS) progenitors. In invertebrates, PNS progenitors are also juxtaposed to the lateral boundary of the CNS. Whether there are conserved molecular mechanisms determining vertebrate and invertebrate lateral neural borders remains unclear. Using single-cell-resolution gene-expression profiling and genetic analysis, we present evidence that orthologs of the NPB specification module specify the invertebrate lateral neural border, which is composed of CNS and PNS progenitors...
August 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503020/circadian-rhythm-in-mrna-expression-of-the-glutathione-synthesis-gene-gclc-is-controlled-by-peripheral-glial-clocks-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#10
Eileen S Chow, Dani M Long, Jadwiga M Giebultowicz
Circadian coordination of metabolism, physiology, and behaviour is found in all living kingdoms. Clock genes are transcriptional regulators, and their rhythmic activities generate daily rhythms in clock-controlled genes which result in cellular and organismal rhythms. Insects provide numerous examples of rhythms in behaviour and reproduction, but less is known about control of metabolic processes by circadian clocks in insects. Recent data suggest that several pathways involved in protecting cells from oxidative stress may be modulated by the circadian system, including genes involved in glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis...
December 2016: Physiological Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388016/remodeling-of-peripheral-nerve-ensheathment-during-the-larval-to-adult-transition-in-drosophila
#11
Aswati Subramanian, Matthew Siefert, Soumya Banerjee, Kumar Vishal, Kayla A Bergmann, Clay C M Curts, Meredith Dorr, Camillo Molina, Joyce Fernandes
Over the course of a 4-day period of metamorphosis, the Drosophila larval nervous system is remodeled to prepare for adult-specific behaviors. One example is the reorganization of peripheral nerves in the abdomen, where five pairs of abdominal nerves (A4-A8) fuse to form the terminal nerve trunk. This reorganization is associated with selective remodeling of four layers that ensheath each peripheral nerve. The neural lamella (NL), is the first to dismantle; its breakdown is initiated by 6 hours after puparium formation, and is completely removed by the end of the first day...
April 7, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174239/ataxin-2-binding-protein-1-is-a-context-specific-positive-regulator-of-notch-signaling-during-neurogenesis-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#12
Jay Prakash Shukla, Girish Deshpande, L S Shashidhara
The role of the Notch pathway during the lateral inhibition that underlies binary cell fate choice is extensively studied, but the context specificity that generates diverse outcomes is less well understood. In the peripheral nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster, differential Notch signaling between cells of the proneural cluster orchestrates sensory organ specification. Here we report functional analysis of Drosophila Ataxin 2-binding protein 1 (A2BP1) during this process. Its human ortholog is linked to type 2 spinocerebellar ataxia and other complex neuronal disorders...
March 1, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107480/drosophila-vps13-is-required-for-protein-homeostasis-in-the-brain
#13
Jan J Vonk, Wondwossen M Yeshaw, Francesco Pinto, Anita I E Faber, Liza L Lahaye, Bart Kanon, Marianne van der Zwaag, Antonio Velayos-Baeza, Raimundo Freire, Sven C van IJzendoorn, Nicola A Grzeschik, Ody C M Sibon
Chorea-Acanthocytosis is a rare, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of locomotor and cognitive function. It is caused by loss of function mutations in the Vacuolar Protein Sorting 13A (VPS13A) gene, which is conserved from yeast to human. The consequences of VPS13A dysfunction in the nervous system are still largely unspecified. In order to study the consequences of VPS13A protein dysfunction in the ageing central nervous system we characterized a Drosophila melanogaster Vps13 mutant line...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028818/a-mechanism-for-sickness-sleep-lessons-from-invertebrates
#14
Kristen C Davis, David M Raizen
During health, animal sleep is regulated by an internal clock and by the duration of prior wakefulness. During sickness, sleep is regulated by cytokines released from either peripheral cells or from cells within the nervous system. These cytokines regulate central nervous system neurons to induce sleep. Recent research in the invertebrates Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster has led to new insights into the mechanism of sleep during sickness. Sickness is triggered by exposure to environments such as infection, heat, or ultraviolet light irradiation, all of which cause cellular stress...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888110/tubby-domain-superfamily-protein-is-required-for-the-formation-of-the-7s-snare-complex-in-drosophila
#15
Eun Jang Yoon, Yong Taek Jeong, Ji Eun Lee, Seok Jun Moon, Chul Hoon Kim
Tubby domain superfamily protein (TUSP) is a distant member of the Tubby-like protein (TULP) family. Although other TULPs play important roles in sensation, metabolism, and development, the molecular functions of TUSP are completely unknown. Here, we explore the function of TUSP in the Drosophila nervous system where it is expressed in all neurons. Tusp mutant flies exhibit a temperature-sensitive paralysis. This paralysis can be rescued by tissue-specific expression of Tusp in the giant fibers and peripherally synapsing interneurons of the giant fiber system, a well-characterized neuronal circuit that mediates rapid escape behavior in flies...
January 22, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637927/differential-ligand-regulation-of-plexb-signaling-in-motor-neuron-axon-guidance-in-drosophila
#16
Seyun Roh, Da-Som Yang, Sangyun Jeong
Plexins (Plexs) are a large family of phylogenetically conserved guidance receptors that bind specifically to semaphorins (Semas), another large family of guidance molecules. In the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system (CNS), the secreted semaphorins Sema-2a and Sema-2b both act as ligands for PlexB, but mediate mutually independent and opposite functions (repulsive and attractive guidance, respectively). PlexB is also known to regulate motor axon guidance in the embryonic peripheral nervous system (PNS)...
December 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598401/an-intronic-polymorphism-in-couch-potato-is-not-distributed-clinally-in-european-drosophila-melanogaster-populations-nor-does-it-affect-diapause-inducibility
#17
Valeria Zonato, Giorgio Fedele, Charalambos P Kyriacou
couch potato (cpo) encodes an RNA binding protein that has been reported to be expressed in the peripheral and central nervous system of embryos, larvae and adults, including the major endocrine organ, the ring gland. A polymorphism in the D. melanogaster cpo gene coding region displays a latitudinal cline in frequency in North American populations, but as cpo lies within the inversion In(3R)Payne, which is at high frequencies and itself shows a strong cline on this continent, interpretation of the cpo cline is not straightforward...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588305/presynaptic-gaba-receptors-mediate-temporal-contrast-enhancement-in-drosophila-olfactory-sensory-neurons-and-modulate-odor-driven-behavioral-kinetics
#18
Davide Raccuglia, Li Yan McCurdy, Mahmut Demir, Srinivas Gorur-Shandilya, Michael Kunst, Thierry Emonet, Michael N Nitabach
Contrast enhancement mediated by lateral inhibition within the nervous system enhances the detection of salient features of visual and auditory stimuli, such as spatial and temporal edges. However, it remains unclear how mechanisms for temporal contrast enhancement in the olfactory system can enhance the detection of odor plume edges during navigation. To address this question, we delivered to Drosophila melanogaster flies pulses of high odor intensity that induce sustained peripheral responses in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs)...
July 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555807/caffeine-taste-signaling-in-drosophila-larvae
#19
Anthi A Apostolopoulou, Saskia Köhn, Bernhard Stehle, Michael Lutz, Alexander Wüst, Lorena Mazija, Anna Rist, C Giovanni Galizia, Alja Lüdke, Andreas S Thum
The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal, and ventral organ). However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507933/analysis-of-amyloid-precursor-protein-function-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
REVIEW
Marlène Cassar, Doris Kretzschmar
The Amyloid precursor protein (APP) has mainly been investigated in connection with its role in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) due to its cleavage resulting in the production of the Aβ peptides that accumulate in the plaques characteristic for this disease. However, APP is an evolutionary conserved protein that is not only found in humans but also in many other species, including Drosophila, suggesting an important physiological function. Besides Aβ, several other fragments are produced by the cleavage of APP; large secreted fragments derived from the N-terminus and a small intracellular C-terminal fragment...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
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