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drosophila peripheral nervous system

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888110/tubby-domain-superfamily-protein-is-required-for-the-formation-of-the-7s-snare-complex-in-drosophila
#1
Eun Jang Yoon, Yong Taek Jeong, Ji Eun Lee, Seok Jun Moon, Chul Hoon Kim
Tubby domain superfamily protein (TUSP) is a distant member of the Tubby-like protein (TULP) family. Although other TULPs play important roles in sensation, metabolism, and development, the molecular functions of TUSP are completely unknown. Here, we explore the function of TUSP in the Drosophila nervous system where it is expressed in all neurons. Tusp mutant flies exhibit a temperature-sensitive paralysis. This paralysis can be rescued by tissue-specific expression of Tusp in the giant fibers and peripherally synapsing interneurons of the giant fiber system, a well-characterized neuronal circuit that mediates rapid escape behavior in flies...
November 22, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637927/differential-ligand-regulation-of-plexb-signaling-in-motor-neuron-axon-guidance-in-drosophila
#2
Seyun Roh, Da-Som Yang, Sangyun Jeong
Plexins (Plexs) are a large family of phylogenetically conserved guidance receptors that bind specifically to semaphorins (Semas), another large family of guidance molecules. In the Drosophila embryonic central nervous system (CNS), the secreted semaphorins Sema-2a and Sema-2b both act as ligands for PlexB, but mediate mutually independent and opposite functions (repulsive and attractive guidance, respectively). PlexB is also known to regulate motor axon guidance in the embryonic peripheral nervous system (PNS)...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27598401/an-intronic-polymorphism-in-couch-potato-is-not-distributed-clinally-in-european-drosophila-melanogaster-populations-nor-does-it-affect-diapause-inducibility
#3
Valeria Zonato, Giorgio Fedele, Charalambos P Kyriacou
couch potato (cpo) encodes an RNA binding protein that has been reported to be expressed in the peripheral and central nervous system of embryos, larvae and adults, including the major endocrine organ, the ring gland. A polymorphism in the D. melanogaster cpo gene coding region displays a latitudinal cline in frequency in North American populations, but as cpo lies within the inversion In(3R)Payne, which is at high frequencies and itself shows a strong cline on this continent, interpretation of the cpo cline is not straightforward...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27588305/presynaptic-gaba-receptors-mediate-temporal-contrast-enhancement-in-drosophila-olfactory-sensory-neurons-and-modulate-odor-driven-behavioral-kinetics
#4
Davide Raccuglia, Li Yan McCurdy, Mahmut Demir, Srinivas Gorur-Shandilya, Michael Kunst, Thierry Emonet, Michael N Nitabach
Contrast enhancement mediated by lateral inhibition within the nervous system enhances the detection of salient features of visual and auditory stimuli, such as spatial and temporal edges. However, it remains unclear how mechanisms for temporal contrast enhancement in the olfactory system can enhance the detection of odor plume edges during navigation. To address this question, we delivered to Drosophila melanogaster flies pulses of high odor intensity that induce sustained peripheral responses in olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs)...
July 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27555807/caffeine-taste-signaling-in-drosophila-larvae
#5
Anthi A Apostolopoulou, Saskia Köhn, Bernhard Stehle, Michael Lutz, Alexander Wüst, Lorena Mazija, Anna Rist, C Giovanni Galizia, Alja Lüdke, Andreas S Thum
The Drosophila larva has a simple peripheral nervous system with a comparably small number of sensory neurons located externally at the head or internally along the pharynx to assess its chemical environment. It is assumed that larval taste coding occurs mainly via external organs (the dorsal, terminal, and ventral organ). However, the contribution of the internal pharyngeal sensory organs has not been explored. Here we find that larvae require a single pharyngeal gustatory receptor neuron pair called D1, which is located in the dorsal pharyngeal sensilla, in order to avoid caffeine and to associate an odor with caffeine punishment...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27507933/analysis-of-amyloid-precursor-protein-function-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
REVIEW
Marlène Cassar, Doris Kretzschmar
The Amyloid precursor protein (APP) has mainly been investigated in connection with its role in Alzheimer's Disease (AD) due to its cleavage resulting in the production of the Aβ peptides that accumulate in the plaques characteristic for this disease. However, APP is an evolutionary conserved protein that is not only found in humans but also in many other species, including Drosophila, suggesting an important physiological function. Besides Aβ, several other fragments are produced by the cleavage of APP; large secreted fragments derived from the N-terminus and a small intracellular C-terminal fragment...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27162329/prevalent-presence-of-periodic-actin-spectrin-based-membrane-skeleton-in-a-broad-range-of-neuronal-cell-types-and-animal-species
#7
Jiang He, Ruobo Zhou, Zhuhao Wu, Monica A Carrasco, Peri T Kurshan, Jonathan E Farley, David J Simon, Guiping Wang, Boran Han, Junjie Hao, Evan Heller, Marc R Freeman, Kang Shen, Tom Maniatis, Marc Tessier-Lavigne, Xiaowei Zhuang
Actin, spectrin, and associated molecules form a periodic, submembrane cytoskeleton in the axons of neurons. For a better understanding of this membrane-associated periodic skeleton (MPS), it is important to address how prevalent this structure is in different neuronal types, different subcellular compartments, and across different animal species. Here, we investigated the organization of spectrin in a variety of neuronal- and glial-cell types. We observed the presence of MPS in all of the tested neuronal types cultured from mouse central and peripheral nervous systems, including excitatory and inhibitory neurons from several brain regions, as well as sensory and motor neurons...
May 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26996133/models-of-axon-regeneration-in-drosophila
#8
REVIEW
E J Brace, Aaron DiAntonio
Maintaining neuronal connectivity in the face of injury and disease is a major challenge for the nervous system. The great length of axons makes them particularly vulnerable to insult with dire consequences for neuronal function. In the peripheral nervous system there is a program of axonal regeneration that can reestablish connectivity. In the mammalian central nervous system, however, injured axons have little or no capacity to regenerate. The molecular mechanisms that promote axon regeneration have begun to be identified and many of the implicated pathways are evolutionarily conserved...
January 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26898323/distal-less-homeobox-genes-of-insects-and-spiders-genomic-organization-function-regulation-and-evolution
#9
Bin Chen, William H Piel, Antónia Monteiro
The Distal-less (Dll) genes are homeodomain transcription factors that are present in most Metazoa and in representatives of all investigated arthropod groups. In Drosophila, the best studied insect, Dll plays an essential role in forming the proximodistal axis of the legs, antennae and analia, and in specifying antennal identity. The initiation of Dll expression in clusters of cells in mid-lateral regions of the Drosophila embryo represents the earliest genetic marker of limbs. Dll genes are involved in the development of the peripheral nervous system and sensitive organs, and they also function as master regulators of black pigmentation in some insect lineages...
June 2016: Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26818504/accumulation-of-laminin-monomers-in-drosophila-glia-leads-to-glial-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-and-disrupted-larval-locomotion
#10
Lindsay M Petley-Ragan, Evan L Ardiel, Catharine H Rankin, Vanessa J Auld
UNLABELLED: The nervous system is surrounded by an extracellular matrix composed of large glycoproteins, including perlecan, collagens, and laminins. Glial cells in many organisms secrete laminin, a large heterotrimeric protein consisting of an α, β, and γ subunit. Prior studies have found that loss of laminin subunits from vertebrate Schwann cells causes loss of myelination and neuropathies, results attributed to loss of laminin-receptor signaling. We demonstrate that loss of the laminin γ subunit (LanB2) in the peripheral glia of Drosophila melanogaster results in the disruption of glial morphology due to disruption of laminin secretion...
January 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26721856/a-novel-gene-controlling-the-timing-of-courtship-initiation-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#11
Peter Luu, Sadaf A Zaki, David H Tran, Rachael L French
Over the past 35 years, developmental geneticists have made impressive progress toward an understanding of how genes specify morphology and function, particularly as they relate to the specification of each physical component of an organism. In the last 20 years, male courtship behavior in Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as a robust model system for the study of genetic specification of behavior. Courtship behavior is both complex and innate, and a single gene, fruitless (fru), is both necessary and sufficient for all aspects of the courtship ritual...
March 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26650404/assaying-blood-cell-populations-of-the-drosophila-melanogaster-larva
#12
Sophia Petraki, Brandy Alexander, Katja Brückner
In vertebrates, hematopoiesis is regulated by inductive microenvironments (niches). Likewise, in the invertebrate model organism Drosophila melanogaster, inductive microenvironments known as larval Hematopoietic Pockets (HPs) have been identified as anatomical sites for the development and regulation of blood cells (hemocytes), in particular of the self-renewing macrophage lineage. HPs are segmentally repeated pockets between the epidermis and muscle layers of the larva, which also comprise sensory neurons of the peripheral nervous system...
November 11, 2015: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26472170/expression-of-the-drosophila-homeobox-gene-distal-less-supports-an-ancestral-role-in-neural-development
#13
Jessica S Plavicki, Jayne M Squirrell, Kevin W Eliceiri, Grace Boekhoff-Falk
BACKGROUND: Distal-less (Dll) encodes a homeodomain transcription factor expressed in developing appendages of organisms throughout metazoan phylogeny. Based on earlier observations in the limbless nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and the primitive chordate amphioxus, it was proposed that Dll had an ancestral function in nervous system development. Consistent with this hypothesis, Dll is necessary for the development of both peripheral and central components of the Drosophila olfactory system...
January 2016: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26438517/pharmacological-identification-of-cholinergic-receptor-subtypes-on-drosophila-melanogaster-larval-heart
#14
Cole A Malloy, Kyle Ritter, Jonathan Robinson, Connor English, Robin L Cooper
The Drosophila melanogaster heart is a popular model in which to study cardiac physiology and development. Progress has been made in understanding the role of endogenous compounds in regulating cardiac function in this model. It is well characterized that common neurotransmitters act on many peripheral and non-neuronal tissues as they flow through the hemolymph of insects. Many of these neuromodulators, including acetylcholine (ACh), have been shown to act directly on the D. melanogaster larval heart. ACh is a primary neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) of vertebrates and at the neuromuscular junctions on skeletal and cardiac tissue...
January 2016: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26410165/pax-transcription-factors-in-neural-crest-development
#15
REVIEW
Anne H Monsoro-Burq
The nine vertebrate PAX transcription factors (PAX1-PAX9) play essential roles during early development and organogenesis. Pax genes were identified in vertebrates using their homology with the Drosophila melanogaster paired gene DNA-binding domain. PAX1-9 functions are largely conserved throughout vertebrate evolution, in particular during central nervous system and neural crest development. The neural crest is a vertebrate invention, which gives rise to numerous derivatives during organogenesis, including neurons and glia of the peripheral nervous system, craniofacial skeleton and mesenchyme, the heart outflow tract, endocrine and pigment cells...
August 2015: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26318336/intrinsic-dorsoventral-patterning-and-extrinsic-egfr-signaling-genes-control-glial-cell-development-in-the-drosophila-nervous-system
#16
H J Kim, H J Ahn, S Lee, J H Kim, J Park, S-H Jeon, S H Kim
Dorsoventral patterning and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling genes are essential for determining neural identity and differentiation of the Drosophila nervous system. Their role in glial cell development in the Drosophila nervous system is not clearly established. Our study demonstrated that the dorsoventral patterning genes, vnd, ind, and msh, are intrinsically essential for the proper expression of a master glial cell regulator, gcm, and a differentiation gene, repo, in the lateral glia. In addition, we showed that esg is particularly required for their expression in the peripheral glia...
October 29, 2015: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26271810/drosophila-shep-and-c-elegans-sup-26-are-rna-binding-proteins-that-play-diverse-roles-in-nervous-system-development
#17
Logan T Schachtner, Ismail E Sola, Daniel Forand, Simona Antonacci, Adam J Postovit, Nathan T Mortimer, Darrell J Killian, Eugenia C Olesnicky
The Caenorhabditis elegans gene sup-26 encodes a well-conserved RNA-recognition motif-containing RNA-binding protein (RBP) that functions in dendrite morphogenesis of the PVD sensory neuron. The Drosophila ortholog of sup-26, alan shepard (shep), is expressed throughout the nervous system and has been shown to regulate neuronal remodeling during metamorphosis. Here, we extend these studies to show that sup-26 and shep are required for the development of diverse cell types within the nematode and fly nervous systems during embryonic and larval stages...
November 2015: Development Genes and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26252385/rhomboid-enhancer-activity-defines-a-subset-of-drosophila-neural-precursors-required-for-proper-feeding-growth-and-viability
#18
Amy L Gresser, Lisa M Gutzwiller, Mackenzie K Gauck, Volker Hartenstein, Tiffany A Cook, Brian Gebelein
Organismal growth regulation requires the interaction of multiple metabolic, hormonal and neuronal pathways. While the molecular basis for many of these are well characterized, less is known about the developmental origins of growth regulatory structures and the mechanisms governing control of feeding and satiety. For these reasons, new tools and approaches are needed to link the specification and maturation of discrete cell populations with their subsequent regulatory roles. In this study, we characterize a rhomboid enhancer element that selectively labels four Drosophila embryonic neural precursors...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26178654/differentiation-of-drosophila-glial-cells
#19
REVIEW
Sofia Sasse, Helen Neuert, Christian Klämbt
Glial cells are important constituents of the nervous system and a hallmark of these cells are their pronounced migratory abilities. In Drosophila, glial lineages have been well described and some of the molecular mechanisms necessary to guide migrating glial cells to their final target sites have been identified. With the onset of migration, glial cells are already specified into one of five main glial cell types. The perineurial and subperineurial glial cells are eventually located at the outer surface of the Drosophila nervous system and constitute the blood-brain barrier...
November 2015: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26074772/on-the-teneurin-track-a-new-synaptic-organization-molecule-emerges
#20
REVIEW
Timothy J Mosca
To achieve proper synaptic development and function, coordinated signals must pass between the pre- and postsynaptic membranes. Such transsynaptic signals can be comprised of receptors and secreted ligands, membrane associated receptors, and also pairs of synaptic cell adhesion molecules. A critical open question bridging neuroscience, developmental biology, and cell biology involves identifying those signals and elucidating how they function. Recent work in Drosophila and vertebrate systems has implicated a family of proteins, the Teneurins, as a new transsynaptic signal in both the peripheral and central nervous systems...
2015: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
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