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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221763/inactivation-clearance-and-functional-effects-of-lung-instilled-short-and-long-silver-nanowires-in-rats
#1
Kian Fan Chung, Joanna Seiffert, Shu Chen, Ioannis G Theodorou, Angela Erin Goode, Bey Fen Leo, Catriona M McGilvery, Farhana Hussain, Coen Wiegman, Christos Rossios, Jie Zhu, Jicheng Gong, Farid Tariq, Vladimir Yufit, Alexander J Monteith, Teruo Hashimoto, Jeremy N Skepper, Mary P Ryan, Junfeng Jim Zhang, Teresa D Tetley, Alexandra E Porter
There is a potential for silver nanowires (AgNWs) to be inhaled but there is little information on their health effects and their chemical transformation inside the lungs in vivo. We studied the effects of short (S-AgNWs; 1.5µm) and long (L-AgNWs; 10 µm) nanowires instilled into the lungs of Sprague-Dawley rats. S- and L-AgNWs were phagocytosed and degraded by macrophages; there was no frustrated phagocytosis. Interestingly, both AgNWs were internalized in alveolar Type II epithelial cells (ATII), with precipitation of Ag2S on their surface as secondary Ag2S nanoparticles...
February 21, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221241/hyperpolarized-helium-3-diffusion-weighted-magnetic-resonance-imaging-detects-abnormalities-of-lung-structure-in-children-with-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#2
Lucia Flors, John P Mugler, Alix Paget-Brown, Deborah K Froh, Eduard E de Lange, James T Patrie, Talissa A Altes
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to determine whether hyperpolarized He diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging detects abnormalities in the lungs in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) as compared with age-matched normal children. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All experiments were compliant with Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and performed with Food and Drug Administration approval under an IND application. The protocol was approved by our Institutional Review Board, and written informed consent was obtained...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199823/an-experimental-study-of-a-rat-model-of-emphysema-induced-by-cigarette-smoke-exposure-and-the-effect-of-survanta-therapy
#3
Assmaa O Selim, Zienab A Gouda, Sally A Selim
The present study was performed to test the therapeutic effects of Survanta (an exogenous surfactant) on Wistar rat models of emphysema. Thirty-five adult male Wistar rats were divided randomly into the following groups; control subgroups Ia&b (n=14); emphysematous model subgroups IIa,b&c (n=21) exposed to cigarette smoke (CS), received phosphate buffer solution (PBS) and Survanta respectively. The levels of serum myeloperoxidase (MPO), lung tissue lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as antioxidants: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and oxidative stress: malondialdehyde (MDA) markers were measured...
February 12, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199407/keratin14-mrna-expression-in-human-pneumocytes-during-quiescence-repair-and-disease
#4
Marco Confalonieri, Emanuele Buratti, Gabriele Grassi, Rossana Bussani, Marco Chilosi, Rossella Farra, Michela Abrami, Cristiana Stuani, Francesco Salton, Miriam Ficial, Paola Confalonieri, Lorenzo Zandonà, Maurizio Romano
The lung alveoli slowly self-renew pneumocytes, but their facultative regeneration capacity is rapidly efficient after an injury, so fibrosis infrequently occurs. We recently observed Keratin 14 (KRT14) expression during diffuse alveolar damage (DAD), but not in controls. We wonder if KRT14 may be a marker of pneumocyte transition from quiescence to regeneration. Quantitative PCR and Western blot analyses highlighted the presence of KRT14 (mRNA and protein) only in human lung samples with DAD or interstitial lung disease (ILD)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28198368/tlr4-signaling-induces-tlr3-up-regulation-in-alveolar-macrophages-during-acute-lung-injury
#5
Xibing Ding, Shuqing Jin, Yao Tong, Xi Jiang, Zhixia Chen, Shuya Mei, Liming Zhang, Timothy R Billiar, Quan Li
Acute lung injury is a life-threatening inflammatory response caused by severe infection. Toll-like receptors in alveolar macrophages (AMΦ) recognize the molecular constituents of pathogens and activate the host's innate immune responses. Numerous studies have documented the importance of TLR-TLR cross talk, but few studies have specifically addressed the relationship between TLR4 and TLR3. We explored a novel mechanism of TLR3 up-regulation that is induced by LPS-TLR4 signaling in a dose- and time-dependent manner in AMΦ from C57BL/6 mice, while the LPS-induced TLR3 expression was significantly reduced in TLR4(-/-) and Myd88(-/-) mice and following pretreatment with a NF-κB inhibitor...
February 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194704/challenges-and-future-prospects-for-the-delivery-of-biologics-oral-mucosal-pulmonary-and-transdermal-routes
#6
Javier O Morales, Kristin R Fathe, Ashlee Brunaugh, Silvia Ferrati, Song Li, Miguel Montenegro-Nicolini, Zeynab Mousavikhamene, Jason T McConville, Mark R Prausnitz, Hugh D C Smyth
Biologic products are large molecules such as proteins, peptides, nucleic acids, etc., which have already produced many new drugs for clinical use in the last decades. Due to the inherent challenges faced by biologics after oral administration (e.g., acidic stomach pH, digestive enzymes, and limited permeation through the gastrointestinal tract), several alternative routes of administration have been investigated to enable sufficient drug absorption into systemic circulation. This review describes the buccal, sublingual, pulmonary, and transdermal routes of administration for biologics with relevant details of the respective barriers...
February 13, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191637/mammary-alveolar-epithelial-cells-convert-to-brown-adipocytes-in-post-lactating-mice
#7
Antonio Giordano, Jessica Perugini, David M Kristensen, Loris Sartini, Andrea Frontini, Shingo Kajimura, Karsten Kristiansen, Saverio Cinti
During pregnancy and lactation, subcutaneous white adipocytes in the mouse mammary gland transdifferentiate reversibly to milk-secreting epithelial cells. In this study, we demonstrate by transmission electron microscopy that in the post-lactating mammary gland interscapular multilocular adipocytes found close to the mammary alveoli contain milk protein granules. Use of the Cre-loxP recombination system allowed showing that the involuting mammary gland of whey acidic protein-Cre/R26R mice, whose secretory alveolar cells express the lacZ gene during pregnancy, contains some X-Gal-stained and uncoupling protein 1-positive interscapular multilocular adipocytes...
February 12, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185902/lung-remodeling-in-aging-surfactant-protein-d-deficient-mice
#8
Jan Philipp Schneider, Martina Arkenau, Lars Knudsen, Dirk Wedekind, Matthias Ochs
Pulmonary surfactant, a mixture of lipids and proteins at the air-liquid interface of alveoli, prevents the lungs from collapsing due to surface tension. One constituent is surfactant-associated protein-D (SP-D), a protein involved in surfactant homeostasis and innate immunity. Mice deficient in SP-D (SP-D (-/-)) have been described as developing a characteristic phenotype which affects the surfactant system (including changes in the intra-cellular and intra-alveolar surfactant pool, alveolar epithelial type II cells and alveolar macrophages), lung architecture and its inflammatory state (development of an emphysema-like pathology, inflammatory cell infiltration)...
February 6, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163207/expression-of-recombinant-surfactant-protein-sfta3-in-the-human-kidney-cell-line-hek-293t
#9
H Schröder, R Fischer, L Sollfrank, F Paulsen, L Bräuer, M Schicht
Pulmonary surfactant is broadly known to keep the lung dry, clean and open by lowering the surface tension of the fluid-film that lines the alveoli. The surfactant's protein component, the so called surfactant proteins (SPs), make up a multifunctional protein family. In addition to the four "classical" surfactant proteins (SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D), which possess immunologic as well as surfactant regulatory properties, two novel putative surfactant proteins (SFTA2 and SFTA3) have recently been described. Neither of them shows sequential nor structural similarity with the already known surfactant proteins...
February 3, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150228/personalizing-mechanical-ventilation-according-to-physiologic-parameters-to-stabilize-alveoli-and-minimize-ventilator-induced-lung-injury-vili
#10
REVIEW
Gary F Nieman, Joshua Satalin, Penny Andrews, Hani Aiash, Nader M Habashi, Louis A Gatto
It has been shown that mechanical ventilation in patients with, or at high-risk for, the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) can be a double-edged sword. If the mechanical breath is improperly set, it can amplify the lung injury associated with ARDS, causing a secondary ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Conversely, the mechanical breath can be adjusted to minimize VILI, which can reduce ARDS mortality. The current standard of care ventilation strategy to minimize VILI attempts to reduce alveolar over-distension and recruitment-derecruitment (R/D) by lowering tidal volume (Vt) to 6 cc/kg combined with adjusting positive-end expiratory pressure (PEEP) based on a sliding scale directed by changes in oxygenation...
December 2017: Intensive Care Medicine Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148233/supplement-of-levosimendan-to-epinephrine-improves-initial-resuscitation-outcomes-from-asphyxial-cardiac-arrest
#11
Bingjing Wu, Yong G Peng, Shishi Zhao, Nana Bao, Linmin Pan, Jiaojiao Dong, Xuzhong Xu, Quanguang Wang
BACKGROUND: Levosimendan exerted favorable effects on the initial outcome in the treatment of ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest. This study investigated the efficacy of levosimendan in the treatment of asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest in rats. METHODS: Animals underwent asphyxial cardiac arrest/cardiopulmonary resuscitation, randomized to three treatment groups: epinephrine (10 μg/kg) supplemented with levosimendan (bolus 12 μg/kg and infusion for 1 h, EL group); epinephrine only (10 μg/kg, E group), or levosimendan only (bolus 12 μg/kg and infusion for 1 h, L group)...
February 2, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146639/fifty-years-of-research-in-ards-setting-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-in-the-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#12
Sarina K Sahetya, Ewan C Goligher, Roy G Brower
Positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) has been utilized during mechanical ventilation since the first description of the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In the subsequent decades, many different strategies for optimally titrating PEEP have been proposed. Higher PEEP can improve arterial oxygenation, reduce tidal lung stress and strain, and promote more homogenous ventilation by preventing alveolar collapse at end expiration. However, PEEP may also cause circulatory depression and contribute to ventilator-induced lung injury through alveolar overdistention...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138398/comparative-analysis-of-morphological-and-molecular-motifs-in-bronchiolitis-obliterans-and-alveolar-fibroelastosis-after-lung-and-stem-cell-transplantation
#13
Danny Jonigk, Berenice Rath, Paul Borchert, Peter Braubach, Lavinia Maegel, Nicole Izykowski, Gregor Warnecke, Wiebke Sommer, Hans Kreipe, Robert Blach, Adrian Anklamm, Axel Haverich, Matthias Eder, Michael Stadler, Tobias Welte, Jens Gottlieb, Mark Kuehnel, Florian Laenger
Chronic lung allograft dysfunction (CLAD) remains the major obstacle to long-term survival following lung transplantation (LuTx). Morphologically CLAD is defined by obliterative remodelling of the small airways (bronchiolitis obliterans, BO) as well as a more recently described collagenous obliteration of alveoli with elastosis summarised as alveolar fibroelastosis (AFE). Both patterns are not restricted to pulmonary allografts, but have also been reported following haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) and radio chemotherapy (RC)...
January 2017: Journal of Pathology. Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131371/two-years-of-surveillance-of-influenza-a-virus-infection-in-a-swine-herd-results-of-virological-serological-and-pathological-studies
#14
Javier Cappuccio, Marina Dibarbora, Inés Lozada, Alejandra Quiroga, Valeria Olivera, Marta Dángelo, Estefanía Pérez, Hernán Barrales, Carlos Perfumo, Ariel Pereda, Daniel R Pérez
Swine farms provide a dynamic environment for the evolution of influenza A viruses (IAVs). The present report shows the results of a surveillance effort of IAV infection in one commercial swine farm in Argentina. Two cross-sectional serological and virological studies (n=480) were carried out in 2011 and 2012. Virus shedding was detected in nasal samples from pigs from ages 7, 21 and 42-days old. More than 90% of sows and gilts but less than 40% of 21-days old piglets had antibodies against IAV. In addition, IAV was detected in 8/17 nasal swabs and 10/15 lung samples taken from necropsied pigs...
February 2017: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120553/what-makes-a-good-pediatric-transplant-lung-insights-from-in-vivo-lung-morphometry-with-hyperpolarized-3-he-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#15
Emily F Fishman, James D Quirk, Stuart C Sweet, Jason C Woods, David S Gierada, Mark S Conradi, Marilyn J Siegel, Dmitriy A Yablonskiy
Obtaining information on transplanted lung microstructure is an important part of the current care for monitoring transplant recipients. However, until now this information was only available from invasive lung biopsy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of an innovative non-invasive technique, in vivo lung morphometry with hyperpolarized ³He MRI-to characterize lung microstructure in the pediatric lung transplant population. This technique yields quantitative measurements of acinar airways' (alveolar ducts and sacs) parameters, such as acinar airway radii and alveolar depth...
January 24, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115235/anti-fibrotic-effects-of-chronic-treatment-with-the-selective-fxr-agonist-obeticholic-acid-in-the-bleomycin-induced-rat-model-of-pulmonary-fibrosis
#16
Paolo Comeglio, Sandra Filippi, Erica Sarchielli, Annamaria Morelli, Ilaria Cellai, Francesca Corcetto, Chiara Corno, Elena Maneschi, Alessandro Pini, Luciano Adorini, Gabriella Barbara Vannelli, Mario Maggi, Linda Vignozzi
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation by obeticholic acid (OCA) has been demonstrated to inhibit inflammation and fibrosis development in liver, kidney and intestine in multiple disease models. FXR activation has also been demonstrated to suppress the inflammatory response and to promote lung repair after lung injury. This study investigated the protective effects of OCA treatment (3 or 10mg/kg/day) on inflammation, tissue remodeling and fibrosis in the bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis rat model. Effects of OCA treatment on morphological and molecular alterations of the lung, as well as remodeling of the alveoli and the right ventricle were also evaluated...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107207/dynamic-mechanical-interactions-between-neighboring-airspaces-determine-cyclic-opening-and-closure-in-injured-lung
#17
Ludovic Broche, Gaetano Perchiazzi, Liisa Porra, Angela Tannoia, Mariangela Pellegrini, Savino Derosa, Alessandra Sindaco, João Batista Borges, Loïc Degrugilliers, Anders Larsson, Göran Hedenstierna, Anthony S Wexler, Alberto Bravin, Sylvia Verbanck, Bradford J Smith, Jason H T Bates, Sam Bayat
OBJECTIVES: Positive pressure ventilation exposes the lung to mechanical stresses that can exacerbate injury. The exact mechanism of this pathologic process remains elusive. The goal of this study was to describe recruitment/derecruitment at acinar length scales over short-time frames and test the hypothesis that mechanical interdependence between neighboring lung units determines the spatial and temporal distributions of recruitment/derecruitment, using a computational model. DESIGN: Experimental animal study...
January 19, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099335/micronodular-pattern-of-organizing-pneumonia-case-report-and-systematic-literature-review
#18
François Lebargy, Davy Picard, Jean Hagenburg, Olivier Toubas, Jeanne-Marie Perotin, Sebastian Sandu, Gaëtan Deslee, Sandra Dury
RATIONALE: Organizing pneumonia (OP) is a clinicopathological entity characterized by granulation tissue plugs in the lumen of small airways, alveolar ducts, and alveoli. OP can be cryptogenic (primary) (COP) or secondary to various lung injuries. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report the case of a 38-year-old male smoker with COP presenting in the form of diffuse micronodules on computed tomography (CT) scan and describe the clinical, radiological, and functional characteristics of micronodular pattern of organizing pneumonia (MNOP) based on a review of the literature including 14 cases...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097040/effects-of-inhalable-microparticles-of-seonpyejeongcheon-tang-in-an-asthma-mouse-model-effects-of-microparticles-of-sjt
#19
Won-Kyung Yang, Chul-Hwa Lee, Min-Hee Kim, Seung-Hyeong Kim, Hae-Yoon Choi, Yoon Yeo, Yang-Chun Park
OBJECTIVES: Allergic asthma generally presents with symptoms of wheezing, coughing, breathlessness, and airway inflammation. Seonpyejeongcheon-tang (SJT) consists of 12 herbs. It originated from Jeongcheon-tang (JT), also known as Ding-chuan-tang, composed of 7 herbs, in She-sheng-zhong-miao-fang. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of local delivery of SJT via inhalable microparticles in an asthma mouse model. METHODS: Microparticles containing SJT were produced by spray-drying with leucine as an excipient...
December 2016: Journal of Pharmacopuncture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093429/paediatric-ed-bipap-continuous-quality-improvement-programme-with-patient-analysis-2005-2013
#20
Thomas Abramo, Abby Williams, Samaiya Mushtaq, Mark Meredith, Rawle Sepaule, Kristen Crossman, Cheryl Burney Jones, Suzanne Godbold, Zhuopei Hu, Todd Nick
OBJECTIVE: In paediatric moderate-to-severe asthmatics, there is significant bronchospasm, airway obstruction, air trapping causing severe hyperinflation with more positive intraplural pressure preventing passive air movement. These effects cause an increased respiratory rate (RR), less airflow and shortened inspiratory breath time. In certain asthmatics, aerosols are ineffective due to their inadequate ventilation. Bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) in acute paediatric asthmatics can be an effective treatment...
January 16, 2017: BMJ Open
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