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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210318/inhalation-device-options-for-the-management-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#1
Michael DePietro, Ileen Gilbert, Lauren A Millette, Michael Riebe
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by chronic respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation, resulting from abnormalities in the airway and/or damage to the alveoli. Primary care physicians manage the healthcare of a large proportion of patients with COPD. In addition to determining the most appropriate medication regimen, which usually includes inhaled bronchodilators with or without inhaled corticosteroids, physicians are charged with optimizing inhalation device selection to facilitate effective drug delivery and patient adherence...
December 5, 2017: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185450/evaluation-of-bmmscs-epcs-sheets-for-repairing-alveolar-bone-defects-in-ovariectomized-rats
#2
Yi Wen, Hongxu Yang, Yanli Liu, Qian Liu, Axian Wang, Yin Ding, Zuolin Jin
The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) - endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), BMMSCs and EPCs sheets have on repairing maxillary alveolar defects in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. In this study, after identification using multi-lineage differentiation and flow cytometry, BMMSCs and EPCs were isolated from female rats. The BMMSCs-EPCs, BMMSCs and EPCs sheets were detected by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) staining and qRT-PCR...
November 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185156/hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-for-pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis-associated-with-primary-immunodeficiency-disease
#3
Mari Tanaka-Kubota, Koji Shinozaki, Satoshi Miyamoto, Masakatsu Yanagimachi, Tsubasa Okano, Noriko Mitsuiki, Masahiro Ueki, Masafumi Yamada, Kohsuke Imai, Masatoshi Takagi, Kazunaga Agematsu, Hirokazu Kanegane, Tomohiro Morio
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a rare disorder that is characterized by the excessive accumulation of surfactant-like materials in the alveoli, leading to hypoxemic respiratory failure. We describe two Japanese infants with PAP associated with hypogammaglobulinemia and monocytopenia. These patients may have underlying primary immunodeficiency (PID) and were successfully treated with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). This report indicates that allogeneic HSCT may provide a curative treatment for PAP associated with PID...
November 28, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175452/changes-in-expression-of-cytokines-in-polyhexamethylene-guanidine-induced-lung-fibrosis-in-mice-comparison-of-bleomycin-induced-lung-fibrosis
#4
Min-Seok Kim, Sung-Hwan Kim, Doin Jeon, Hyeon-Young Kim, Kyuhong Lee
Inhalation of polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG) causes irreversible pulmonary injury, such as pulmonary fibrosis. However, the mechanism underlying PHMG-induced lung injury is unclear. In this study, we compared the difference in time-dependent lung injury between PHMG- and bleomycin (BLM)-treated mice and determined cytokines involved in inducing lung injury by performing cytokine antibody array analysis. Mice were treated once with 1.8mg/kg BLM or 1.2mg/kg PHMG through intratracheal instillation and were sacrificed on days 7 and 28...
November 22, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163645/hypervitaminosis-d3-in-broiler-chicks-histopathological-immunomodulatory-and-immunohistochemical-approach
#5
R Kumar, R S Brar, H S Banga
The present study was undertaken to investigate the toxic effects of higher doses (1,00,000 IU i.e. 2.5 mg/kg body weight (BW)) of vitamin D3, concomitantly with bacterial endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides: LPS) to study the immunomodulatory potential of vitamin D3 in IBL-80 broiler chicks. The chicks were divided into four groups [group I (NSS), group II (LPS), group III (Vit. D3 + NSS), and group IV (Vit. D3 + LPS)] containing eight chicks in each group, treated accordingly for 21 days. Birds were kept under close observation for apparent clinical signs and symptoms...
2017: Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155131/human-lung-epithelial-cell-cultures-for-analysis-of-inhaled-toxicants-lessons-learned-and-future-directions
#6
REVIEW
Pieter S Hiemstra, Gwendolynn Grootaers, Anne M van der Does, Cyrille A M Krul, Ingeborg M Kooter
The epithelium that covers the conducting airways and alveoli is a primary target for inhaled toxic substances, and therefore a focus in inhalation toxicology. The increasing concern about the use of animal models has stimulated the development of in vitro cell culture models for analysis of the biological effects of inhaled toxicants. However, the validity of the current in vitro models and their acceptance by regulatory authorities as an alternative to animal models is a reason for concern, and requires a critical review...
November 15, 2017: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141525/hyperacute-hemodynamic-effects-of-bipap-noninvasive-ventilation-in-patients-with-acute-heart-failure-and-left-ventricular-systolic-dysfunction-in-emergency-department
#7
Cinzia Moret Iurilli, Natale Daniele Brunetti, Paola Rita Di Corato, Giuseppe Salvemini, Matteo Di Biase, Marco Matteo Ciccone, Vito Procacci
BACKGROUND: Acute heart failure (AHF) is one of the leading causes of admission to emergency department (ED); severe hypoxemic AHF may be treated with noninvasive ventilation (NIV). Despite the demonstrated clinical efficacy of NIV in relieving symptoms of AHF, less is known about the hyperacute effects of bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) ventilation on hemodynamics of patients admitted to ED for AHF. We therefore aimed to assess the effect of BiPAP ventilation on principal hemodynamic, respiratory, pulse oximetry, and microcirculation indexes in patients admitted to ED for AHF, needing NIV...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137182/current-and-prospective-protein-biomarkers-of-lung-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Tatiana N Zamay, Galina S Zamay, Olga S Kolovskaya, Ruslan A Zukov, Marina M Petrova, Ana Gargaun, Maxim V Berezovski, Anna S Kichkailo
Lung cancer is a malignant lung tumor with various histological variants that arise from different cell types, such as bronchial epithelium, bronchioles, alveoli, or bronchial mucous glands. The clinical course and treatment efficacy of lung cancer depends on the histological variant of the tumor. Therefore, accurate identification of the histological type of cancer and respective protein biomarkers is crucial for adequate therapy. Due to the great diversity in the molecular-biological features of lung cancer histological types, detection is impossible without knowledge of the nature and origin of malignant cells, which release certain protein biomarkers into the bloodstream...
November 13, 2017: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120326/the-liquid-structure-of-elastin
#9
Sarah Rauscher, Régis Pomès
The protein elastin imparts extensibility, elastic recoil, and resilience to tissues including arterial walls, skin, lung alveoli, and the uterus. Elastin and elastin-like peptides are hydrophobic, disordered, and undergo liquid-liquid phase separation upon self-assembly. Despite extensive study, the structure of elastin remains controversial. We use molecular dynamics simulations on a massive scale to elucidate the structural ensemble of aggregated elastin-like peptides. Consistent with the entropic nature of elastic recoil, the aggregated state is stabilized by the hydrophobic effect...
November 9, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115600/messenger-rna-sequencing-reveals-similar-mechanisms-between-neonatal-and-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#10
Hua Mei, Yuheng Zhang, Chunzhi Liu, Yayu Zhang, Chunli Liu, Dan Song, Chun Xin, Jing Wang, Jonathan Josephs-Spaulding, Yan Zhu, Feng Tang
Hypoxemia and hypercarbia resulting from a lack of surfactant is considered to be the primary mechanism underlying neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS). Surfactant replacement therapy may mitigate the symptoms of the disease by decreasing the surface tension of alveoli and facilitating inflation. However, surfactant serves an additional role in immunological processes. Therefore, it may be hypothesized that mechanisms of NRDS involving surfactant exert additional functions to promoting alveolar inflation...
October 26, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109947/acute-exacerbation-in-interstitial-lung-disease
#11
REVIEW
Gabriela Leuschner, Jürgen Behr
Acute exacerbation of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (AE-IPF) has been defined as an acute, clinically significant deterioration that develops within less than 1 month without obvious clinical cause like fluid overload, left heart failure, or pulmonary embolism. Pathophysiologically, damage of the alveoli is the predominant feature of AE-IPF which manifests histopathologically as diffuse alveolar damage and radiologically as diffuse, bilateral ground-glass opacification on high-resolution computed tomography...
2017: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109332/hydrogen-enriched-water-eliminates-fine-particles-from-the-lungs-and-blood-by-enhancing-phagocytic-activity
#12
Jieun Choi, Eun Suk An, Young-Hwan Ban, Da Woom Seo, Tae-Su Kim, Sung-Pyo Lee, You Lin, Ehn-Kyoung Choi, Yun-Bae Kim
Particulate matters (PM) are one of the major body burdens leading to diseases. We investigated the capacities of a hydrogen-enriched water (HW) eliminating carbon nanoparticles (CNP) and carbon microparticles (CMP) from the lungs and blood, respectively. In CNP-elimination test, rats were orally administered with purified water (PW) or HW (10 or 30 mL/kg/day) for 10 weeks. At the time point of 4 weeks, the rats were challenged with intratracheal instillation of CNP (4 mg). CNP accumulated in the airways and alveoli, and induced inflammatory lesions...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107995/the-intratracheal-administration-of-locked-nucleic-acid-containing-antisense-oligonucleotides-induced-gene-silencing-and-an-immune-stimulatory-effect-in-the-murine-lung
#13
Yasunori Uemura, Kenji Hagiwara, Katsuya Kobayashi
Locked nucleic acid containing antisense oligonucleotides (LNA-ASOs) have the potential to modulate the disease-related gene expression by the RNaseH-dependent degradation of mRNAs. Pulmonary drug delivery has been widely used for the treatment of lung disease. Thus, the inhalation of LNA-ASOs is expected to be an efficient therapy that can be applied to several types of lung disease. Because the lung has a distinct immune system against pathogens, the immune-stimulatory effect of LNA-ASOs should be considered for the development of novel inhaled LNA-ASOs therapies...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106405/isolation-and-3d-expansion-of-multipotent-sox9-mouse-lung-progenitors
#14
Massimo Nichane, Asif Javed, V Sivakamasundari, Monisha Ganesan, Lay Teng Ang, Petra Kraus, Thomas Lufkin, Kyle M Loh, Bing Lim
Multiple adult tissues are maintained by stem cells of restricted developmental potential which can only form a subset of lineages within the tissue. For instance, the two adult lung epithelial compartments (airways and alveoli) are separately maintained by distinct lineage-restricted stem cells. A challenge has been to obtain multipotent stem cells and/or progenitors that can generate all epithelial cell types of a given tissue. Here we show that mouse Sox9(+) multipotent embryonic lung progenitors can be isolated and expanded long term in 3D culture...
November 6, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103275/new-record-of-aspidogaster-ijimai-kawamura-1913-trematoda-aspidogastridae-from-cyprinus-carpio-in-korea
#15
Dongmin Lee, Hansol Park, Seongjun Choe, Yeseul Kang, Hyeong-Kyu Jeon, Keeseon S Eom
Aspidogastrid trematodes (Subclass Aspidogastrea) are a relatively small group with a characteristic adhesive disc and parasitize in a variety of cold-blooded hosts. Until now, only 2 species in the genus Cotylaspis, i.e., C. coreensis and C. sinensis, have been reported as the aspidogastrid trematode in the Republic of Korea (=Korea). In the present study, we intended to describe a species of aspidogastrids collected from the small intestine of the common carp, Cypri-nus carpio, in a faunistic point of view...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102675/rna-seq-revealed-atf3-regulated-inflammation-induced-by-silica
#16
Judy Y W Chan, Joseph C C Tsui, Patrick T W Law, Winnie K W So, Doris Y P Leung, Michael M K Sham, Stephen K W Tsui, Carmen W H Chan
BACKGROUND: Millions of workers are exposed to dust containing silica. Chronic and over-exposure to silica will lead to silicosis, which is an irreversible and sometimes fatal lung disease. The disordered physiological processes of silicosis consist of accumulation of silica particles in the alveoli of the lung. Then, the ingestion of the silica particles by macrophages was followed by an inflammatory response. Up till now, the chest radiographs remain the key tool in diagnosing and assessing the extent of silicosis...
November 2, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096634/prediction-of-high-airway-pressure-using-a-non-linear-autoregressive-model-of-pulmonary-mechanics
#17
Ruby Langdon, Paul D Docherty, Christoph Schranz, J Geoffrey Chase
BACKGROUND: For mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), suboptimal PEEP levels can cause ventilator induced lung injury (VILI). In particular, high PEEP and high peak inspiratory pressures (PIP) can cause over distension of alveoli that is associated with VILI. However, PEEP must also be sufficient to maintain recruitment in ARDS lungs. A lung model that accurately and precisely predicts the outcome of an increase in PEEP may allow dangerous high PIP to be avoided, and reduce the incidence of VILI...
November 2, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093391/a-case-of-daptomycin-induced-eosinophilic-pneumonia-and-a-review-of-the-published-literature
#18
Yoshitsugu Higashi, Shigeki Nakamura, Yasuhiro Tsuji, Chika Ogami, Kaoru Matsumoto, Koyomi Kawago, Kotaro Tokui, Ryuji Hayashi, Ippei Sakamaki, Yoshihiro Yamamoto
A 53-year-old man was admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of cellulitis and osteomyelitis. Twenty-four days after the initiation of daptomycin and sulbactam/ampicillin, he developed a fever and pulmonary infiltration. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed a high number of eosinophils, while an intracutaneous test revealed positivity for daptomycin. The patient improved after discontinuing antimicrobial therapy. The plasma daptomycin minimum concentration (Cmin) was elevated (27.4 μg/mL), but plasma protein binding of daptomycin was low (87...
November 1, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093385/a-case-of-pneumocystis-pneumonia-secondary-to-idiopathic-cd4-t-lymphocytopenia-a-comparison-of-aids-and-non-aids-patients
#19
Kazuki Sone, Hideki Muramatsu, Makoto Nakao, Yusuke Kagawa, Ryota Kurokawa, Hidefumi Sato, Akio Niimi
A 67-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of dry cough. Chest computed tomography showed diffuse infiltrates and ground-glass opacities in the bilateral lung fields. Transbronchial lung biopsy specimens showed alveoli filled with yeast-like fungi. With a diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), he was given oral sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, to which he responded well. However, seven months later, PCP relapsed. Analyses revealed a low bronchoalveolar lavage fluid CD4/CD8 ratio of 0.04 and CD4+ lymphocytopenia (250/μL)...
November 1, 2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089902/pulmonary-iron-homeostasis-in-hepcidin-knockout-mice
#20
Jean-Christophe Deschemin, Jacques R R Mathieu, Sara Zumerle, Carole Peyssonnaux, Sophie Vaulont
Pulmonary iron excess is deleterious and contributes to a range of chronic and acute inflammatory diseases. Optimal lung iron concentration is maintained through dynamic regulation of iron transport and storage proteins. The iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin is also expressed in the lung. In order to better understand the interactions between iron-associated molecules and the hepcidin-ferroportin axis in lung iron balance, we examined lung physiology and inflammatory responses in two murine models of systemic iron-loading, either hepcidin knock-out (Hepc KO) or liver-specific hepcidin KO mice (Hepc KOliv), which do (Hepc KOliv) or do not (Hepc KO) express lung hepcidin...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
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