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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821088/microparticles-prepared-with-50-190kda-chitosan-as-promising-non-toxic-carriers-for-pulmonary-delivery-of-isoniazid
#1
Paula M Oliveira, Breno N Matos, Priscilla A T Pereira, Taís Gratieri, Lucia H Faccioli, Marcílio S S Cunha-Filho, Guilherme M Gelfuso
Chitosan biocompatibility and mucoadhesiveness make it an ideal polymer for antituberculotic drugs microcapsulation for pulmonary delivery. Yet, previous study indicated toxicity problems to J-774.1-cells treated with some medium molecular weight (190-310kDa) chitosan microparticles. As polymer molecular weight is a crucial factor to be considered, this paper describes the preparation and characterization of chitosan (50-190kDa) microparticles containing isoniazid (INH). Cytotoxicity assays were also performed on murine peritoneal (J-774...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819007/effects-of-antenatal-melatonin-therapy-on-lung-structure-in-growth-restricted-newborn-lambs
#2
Graeme R Polglase, Jade Barbuto, Beth J Allison, Tamara Yawno, Amy Elizabeth Sutherland, Atul Malhotra, Keith E Schulze, Euan M Wallace, Graham Jenkin, Sharon D Ricardo, Suzanne L Miller
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress arising from suboptimal placental function contributes to a multitude of pathologies in infants compromised by fetal growth restriction (FGR). FGR infants are at high risk for respiratory dysfunction after birth and poor long-term lung function. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the contribution of oxidative stress to adverse lung development and the effects of melatonin administration, a powerful anti-oxidant, on lung structure in FGR lambs...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818870/fra-2-negatively-regulates-postnatal-alveolar-septation-by-modulating-myofibroblast-function
#3
Kazuyuki Tsujino, John T Li, Tatsuya Tsukui, Xin Ren, Latifa Bakiri, Erwin F Wagner, Dean Sheppard
Mice that globally over-express the transcription factor, Fos-related antigen-2 (Fra-2), develop extensive pulmonary fibrosis and pulmonary vascular remodeling. To determine if these phenotypes are a consequence of ectopic Fra-2 expression in vascular smooth muscle cells and myofibroblasts, we generated mice that over-express Fra-2 specifically in these cells types (α-SMA-rtTA; tetO-Fra-2). Surprisingly, these mice did not develop vascular remodeling or pulmonary fibrosis, but developed a spontaneous emphysema-like phenotype characterized by alveolar enlargement...
August 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814498/both-ways-at-once-keeping-small-airways-clean
#4
REVIEW
Paul M Quinton
The small airways of the lungs are under constant assault from the pathogens and debris in the air that they must conduct to alveoli. Although hygiene is of paramount importance for respiratory health, the underlying principles of airway clearance have not been well integrated or established. Newly emerging concepts of simultaneous absorption and secretion of airway surface liquid (ASL) and the role of [Formula: see text] in the maturation of mucins have advanced from experimental evidence as well as observations from the congenital disease cystic fibrosis (CF) to present a novel model that integrates microanatomy with organ physiology to meet the constant challenge of cleaning small airways...
September 2017: Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806967/microrna-181c-inhibits-cigarette-smoke-induced-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-by-regulating-ccn1-expression
#5
Yong Du, Yi Ding, Xuru Chen, Zhoufang Mei, Heyuan Ding, Yi Wu, Zhijun Jie
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an obstinate pulmonary disease, causing irreversible alveoli collapse and increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease. Accumulating evidence has shown that the dysregulation of miRNAs is crucially involved in the pathogenesis and development of COPD. However, the effects and role of microRNA-181c (miR-181c) have not been investigated in a murine model of COPD. METHODS: miR-181c expression was detected in human lung tissue samples of 34 patients, an in vivo murine model of CS exposure, and primary human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) by qRT-PCR...
August 15, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804941/proteomic-analysis-to-unravel-the-effect-of-heat-stress-on-gene-expression-and-milk-synthesis-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#6
Lian Li, Yiru Wang, Chengmin Li, Genlin Wang
Heat stress can play a negative effect on milk yield and composition of dairy cattle, leading to immeasurable economic loss. The basic components of the mammary gland are the alveoli; these alveolar mammary epithelial cells reflect the milk producing ability of dairy cows. In this study, we exposed bovine mammary epithelial cells to heat stress and compared them to a control group using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation combined with liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry...
August 14, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800439/a-simplified-parametrised-model-for-lung-microstructures-capable-of-mimicking-realistic-geometrical-and-mechanical-properties
#7
Christian J Roth, Lena Yoshihara, Wolfgang A Wall
The respiratory zone of mammalian lungs contains several millions of so-called alveoli. The geometrical and mechanical properties of this microstructure are crucial for respiration and influence the macroscopic behaviour of the entire organ in health and disease. Hence, if computational models are sought to gain more insight into lung behaviour, predict lung states in certain scenarios or suggest better treatment options in early stages of respiratory dysfunction, an adequate representation of this microstructure is essential...
August 1, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794966/synthetic-cannabinoid-induced-acute-respiratory-depression-case-series-and-literature-review
#8
Mark Henry Alon, Margaret Olibrice Saint-Fleur
Synthetic Cannabinoids are a street drug that is widely attainable and cheap compared to natural cannabis, and has variable potency and unpredictable effects with no commercially available diagnostic test to confirm its presence. Similar to natural cannabis, Synthetic Cannabinoid intoxication can present in several ways with the most common emergency room presentations to be of neurologic and psychiatric manifestation. The respiratory depressive effect of Synthetic Cannabinoids has not been well documented in medical literature...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791006/regulation-of-lung-epithelial-sodium-channels-by-cytokines-and-chemokines
#9
REVIEW
Brandi M Wynne, Li Zou, Valerie Linck, Robert S Hoover, He-Ping Ma, Douglas C Eaton
Acute lung injury leading to acute respiratory distress (ARDS) is a global health concern. ARDS patients have significant pulmonary inflammation leading to flooding of the pulmonary alveoli. This prevents normal gas exchange with consequent hypoxemia and causes mortality. A thin fluid layer in the alveoli is normal. The maintenance of this thin layer results from fluid movement out of the pulmonary capillaries into the alveolar interstitium driven by vascular hydrostatic pressure and then through alveolar tight junctions...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769592/drug-induced-dyspnea-versus-cystic-fibrosis-exacerbation-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#10
Saqib Walayat, Nooreen Hussain, Jaymon Patel, Faiz Hussain, Preeti Patel, Sonu Dhillon, Bhagat Aulakh, Subramanyam Chittivelu
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a disease caused by a mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein in the epithelial membrane, and affects at least 30,000 people in the USA. There are between 900 and 1000 new cases diagnosed every year. Traditionally, CF has been treated symptomatically with pancreatic enzymes, bronchodilators, hypertonic saline, and pulmozyme. In July 2015, the US Food and Drug Administration approved Orkambi (lumacaftor/ivacaftor), a combination drug that works on reversing the effects of the defective cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein...
2017: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751894/transient-depletion-of-cd169-cells-contributes-to-impaired-early-protection-and-effector-cd8-t-cell-recruitment-against-mucosal-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#11
Dong Sun Oh, Ji Eun Oh, Hi Eun Jung, Heung Kyu Lee
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of respiratory viral infections in infants and children. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) play a crucial role in combatting airborne pathogens, strongly express CD169, and are localized in the lung alveoli. Therefore, we used CD169-diphtheria toxin receptor (DTR) transgenic mice to explore the roles of CD169(+) cells in immune responses to mucosal RSV infection. The administration of diphtheria toxin to CD169-DTR mice induced specific AM depletion and reduced the recruitment of Ly6C(hi) monocytes...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750789/acute-hypoxemic-respiratory-failure-with-hemoptysis-in-a-dog-exposed-to-copper-sulfate-powder
#12
Elisabetta Giudice, Chiara Crinò, Paola Lanzafame, Fabio Viganò, Francesco Macrì, Simona Di Pietro
A 2-year-old male mongrel dog was presented because of the onset of dry cough. About 16 hours before, the dog had been exposed to the pesticide that the owner was spraying in the vineyard. Approximately 3 hours later an acute respiratory failure, with a rapid evolution, began. Hemoptysis and regenerative normocytic normochromic anemia arose within hours, and a pulmonary hemorrhage was diagnosed. Pulmonary hemorrhage fast led to pneumonia, as evidenced by the serial CXR findings and the developing of leukocytosis...
March 2017: Topics in Companion Animal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749264/pulmonary-lesions-caused-by-the-lungworm-didelphostrongylus-hayesi-in-the-opossum-didelphis-virginiana-in-colima-mexico
#13
Rubén A López-Crespo, Alfonso López-Mayagoitia, Rafael Ramírez-Romero, Julio Martínez-Burnes, Omar F Prado-Rebolledo, Luis J García-Márquez
Didelphostrongylus hayesi is an important and prevalent pulmonary nematode in the opossum ( Didelphis virginiana ). An in-depth description of the pulmonary lesions caused by this nematode is lacking. The objective of this investigation was to make a detailed account of the gross, subgross, and microscopic changes that occur in the lungs of opossums naturally infected with D. hayesi. Forty-four opossums trapped in the state of Colima, Mexico, were euthanized by an overdose of barbiturates. Following a postmortem examination, the right lung was cut from the main bronchi and placed in a Petri dish containing a saline solution for the detection and identification of live parasites...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744861/gonadal-morphogenesis-and-sex-differentiation-in-cultured-ussuri-catfish-tachysurus-ussuriensis
#14
Z J Pan, C K Zhu, H Wang, F J Zhou, X G Qiang
The objective of this study was to investigate the optimal developmental time to perform sex reversal in Ussuri catfish Tachysurus ussuriensis, to develop monosex breeding in aquaculture. Systematic observations of gonadal sex differentiation of P. ussiriensis were conducted. The genital ridge formed at 9 days post fertilization (dpf) and germ cells begin to proliferate at 17 dpf. The ovarian cavity began forming on 21 dpf and completed by 25 dpf while presumptive testis remained quiescent. The primary oocytes were at the chromatin nucleolus stage by 30 dpf, the peri-nucleolus stage by 44 dpf and the cortical alveoli stage by 64 dpf...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28741229/inhaled-antimicrobials-for-ventilator-associated-pneumonia-practical-aspects
#15
Garyphallia Poulakou, Dimitrios K Matthaiou, David P Nicolau, Georgios Siakallis, George Dimopoulos
Positive experience with inhaled antibiotics in pulmonary infections of patients with cystic fibrosis has paved the way for their utilization in mechanically ventilated, critically ill patients with lower respiratory tract infections. A successful antibiotic delivery depends upon the size of the generated particle and the elimination of drug impaction in the large airways and the ventilator circuit. Generated droplet size is mainly affected by the type of the nebulizer employed. Currently, jet, ultrasonic, and vibrating mesh nebulizers are marketed; the latter can deliver optimal antibiotic particle size...
July 24, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739320/immediate-implant-placement-into-posterior-sockets-with-or-without-buccal-bone-dehiscence-defects-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#16
Chen Hu, Ting Gong, Weimin Lin, Quan Yuan, Yi Man
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate bone reconstruction and soft tissue reactions at immediate implants placed into intact sockets and those with buccal bone dehiscence defects. METHODS: Fifty-nine internal connection implants from four different manufacturers were immediately placed in intact sockets(non-dehiscence group, n=40), and in alveoli with buccal bone dehiscence defects: 1) Group 1(n= N10), the defect depth measured 3-5 mm from the gingival margin. 2) Group 2(n=9), the depth ranged from 5mm to 7mm...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738481/-progress-in-research-of-relationship-between-ambient-air-pm-2-5-and-lung-diseases
#17
Y Xia, L Fan, Y Guan, S Y Liu, Y Xiao
Fine Particulate Matter (PM(2.5)-particles with an aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm) can penetrate deeply into the lung, deposit in the alveoli, and consequently impair lung function. Both short term and long term exposures to PM(2.5) are associated with the incidence of respiratory diseases (e.g. asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, lung cancer). This paper summarizes the effects of ambient air PM(2.5) exposure on human respiratory system revealed by epidemiological studies.
July 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712737/pharmacists-can-help-prevent-lipoid-pneumonia
#18
Ann E Cabri, Afoma King, Lee Morrow, Mark A Malesker
OBJECTIVES: To report 2 cases of lipoid pneumonia. SUMMARY: Lipoid pneumonia is an inflammatory process in the lower airways due to the presence of lipid molecules in the alveoli. Exogenous lipoid pneumonia is due to the inhalation or aspiration of fat-containing substances. Historically, mineral oil is the most common medication cause but there have also been several reports of lipoid pneumonia associated with petroleum jelly, medicated vapor rub, and lip glosses...
July 14, 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711246/temporal-and-spatial-heterogeneity-in-milk-and-immune-related-gene-expression-during-mammary-gland-involution-in-dairy-cows
#19
K Singh, C V C Phyn, M Reinsch, J M Dobson, K Oden, S R Davis, K Stelwagen, H V Henderson, A J Molenaar
The aim of this study was to investigate heterogeneity in tissue morphology, milk protein and immune-related gene expression, and apoptosis of epithelial cells in the lactating and involuting mammary glands of the dairy cow. Mammary tissue from different regions of the gland (alveolar, cisternal, and peripheral) was collected postmortem from nonpregnant, pasture-fed, Holstein-Friesian primiparous cows in mid-lactation that were killed at different time points postmilking: 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, and 72 h (n = 6 per time point)...
September 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707162/pulmonary-surfactant-associated-proteins-and-inflammatory-factors-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#20
Dongmei Lu, Ayiniger Abulimiti, Ting Wu, Ailigen Abudureyim, Nanfang Li
PURPOSE: Pulmonary surfactant (PS) plays roles in promoting the removal of the liquid, host defense, and immune regulation in the tracheal, bronchial, and alveoli epithelium. PS protein expression level can be regulated by oxygen levels and related free radicals. Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is featured with oxygen free radical production for damaging epithelial tissues and thus may affect PS production. The study was to explore the relationship between PS protein and OSA severity. METHODS: We collected serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples from 35 OSA patients and 22 healthy subjects...
July 13, 2017: Sleep & Breathing, Schlaf & Atmung
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