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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446321/pulmonary-il-1%C3%AE-expression-in-early-life-causes-permanent-changes-in-lung-structure-and-function-in-adulthood
#1
Anna Hogmalm, Maija Bry, Kristina Bry
Chorioamnionitis, mechanical ventilation, oxygen therapy, and postnatal infection promote inflammation in the newborn lung. The long-term consequences of pulmonary inflammation during infancy have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of inflammation during the late saccular to alveolar stages of lung development on lung structure and function in adulthood. To induce IL-1β expression in the pulmonary epithelium of mice with a tetracycline-inducible human IL-1β transgene, doxycycline was administered via intraperitoneal injections to bitransgenic pups and their littermate controls on postnatal days (PN) 0, 0...
February 15, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434686/pulmonary-alveolar-microlithiasis-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Xu-Dong Zhang, Jin-Ming Gao, Jin-Mei Luo, Yu Zhao
Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis (PAM) is a rare autosomal recessive disease characterized by the formation of calcium phosphate microliths in the alveoli. Mutations in the gene encoding the solute carrier family 34 member 2 gene are considered to be involved in the pathogenesis of PAM. Although PAM can develop in children, the majority of patients with PAM are diagnosed in adulthood due to the slow progressive nature of the disease within the lungs. In childhood, the majority of patients with PAM are asymptomatic and changes in the lung parenchyma are usually identified incidentally...
January 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431734/disruption-of-staphylococcal-aggregation-protects-against-lethal-lung-injury
#3
Jaime L Hook, Mohammad N Islam, Dane Parker, Alice S Prince, Sunita Bhattacharya, Jahar Bhattacharya
Infection by Staphylococcus aureus strain USA300 causes tissue injury, multiorgan failure, and high mortality. However, the mechanisms by which the bacteria adhere to, then stabilize on, mucosal surfaces before causing injury remain unclear. We addressed these issues through the first real-time determinations of USA300-alveolar interactions in live lungs. We found that within minutes, inhaled USA300 established stable, self-associated microaggregates in niches at curved, but not at flat, regions of the alveolar wall...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431219/morphological-comparison-of-the-ampullae-of-lorenzini-of-three-sympatric-benthic-rays
#4
A R G Gauthier, D L Whitehead, I R Tibbetts, B W Cribb, M B Bennett
This study investigated and compared the morphology of the electrosensory system of three species of benthic rays. Neotrygon trigonoides, Hemitrygon fluviorum and Maculabatis toshi inhabit similar habitats within Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Like all elasmobranchs, they possess the ability to detect weak electrical fields using their ampullae of Lorenzini. Macroscopically, the ampullary organs of all three species are aggregated in three bilaterally paired clusters: the mandibular, hyoid and superficial ophthalmic clusters...
February 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430449/new-insights-into-the-mechanisms-of-pulmonary-edema-in-acute-lung-injury
#5
REVIEW
Raquel Herrero, Gema Sanchez, Jose Angel Lorente
Appearance of alveolar protein-rich edema is an early event in the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Alveolar edema in ARDS results from a significant increase in the permeability of the alveolar epithelial barrier, and represents one of the main factors that contribute to the hypoxemia in these patients. Damage of the alveolar epithelium is considered a major mechanism responsible for the increased pulmonary permeability, which results in edema fluid containing high concentrations of extravasated macromolecules in the alveoli...
January 2018: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427710/pathophysiology-of-peste-des-petits-ruminants-in-sheep-dorper-kajli-and-goats-boer-beetal
#6
Ahrar Khan, M Kashif Saleemi, Farah Ali, Muhammad Abubakar, Riaz Hussain, Rao Zahid Abbas, Imtiaz Ahmad Khan
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR), an economically important viral transboundary disease of small ruminants is not only prevalent in Pakistan but also in other countries where people rely on agriculture and animal products. The present study was aimed at describing the pathology and antigen localization in natural PPR infections in local (Kajli sheep; Beetal goats) as well as imported small ruminant breeds (Dorper sheep; Australian Boer goat). Morbidity and mortality rates were significantly (P < 0.001) higher in indigenous Kajli sheep (75...
February 7, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422314/dental-pathology-of-the-grey-fox-urocyon-cinereoargenteus
#7
J V Evenhuis, I Zisman, P H Kass, F J M Verstraete
Museum specimens from 637 grey foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) were examined macroscopically according to predefined criteria. Of the 637 specimens, 569 were included for further examination. The study population included more males (n = 261, 45.9%) than females (n = 196, 34.4%) and animals of unknown sex (n = 112, 19.7%). Additionally, 481 (84.5%) adults, 67 (11.8%) young adults and 21 (3.7%) individuals of unknown age comprised the study population, with juveniles and neonates excluded. The number of teeth present for examination was 23,066 (96...
January 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420258/single-cell-wnt-signaling-niches-maintain-stemness-of-alveolar-type-2-cells
#8
Ahmad Nabhan, Douglas G Brownfield, Pehr B Harbury, Mark A Krasnow, Tushar J Desai
Alveoli, the lung's respiratory units, are tiny sacs where oxygen enters the bloodstream. They are lined by flat AT1 cells, which mediate gas exchange, and AT2 cells, which secret surfactant. Rare AT2s also function as alveolar stem cells. We show that AT2 lung stem cells display active Wnt signaling and many of them are near single, Wnt-expressing fibroblasts. Blocking Wnt secretion depletes these stem cells. Daughter cells leaving the Wnt niche transdifferentiate into AT1s: maintaining Wnt signaling prevents transdifferentiation whereas abrogating Wnt signaling promotes it...
February 1, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415641/comparison-of-the-in-vitro-toxicological-activity-of-various-particulate-matter
#9
Hyun-Ki Cho, Chang-Gyun Park, Han-Jae Shin, Ki-Hong Park, Heung-Bin Lim
Ultrafine particles (UFPs, < 2.5 µm) in air pollutants have been identified as a major cause of respiratory diseases, since they can affect the lung alveoli through the bronchus. In particular, if toxicants such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in UFPs, they can cause diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and lung cancer. This study compared in vitro toxicity of various particulate matter including UFPs from combustion particles of diesel (diesel exhaust particles (DEP)), rice straw (RS), pine stem (PS) and coal (CC), and road dust particles from tunnel (TD) and roadside (RD)...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409619/lung-function-and-pulmonary-artery-blood-flow-following-prenatal-maternal-retinoic-acid-and-imatinib-in-the-nitrofen-model-of-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#10
Carmen Mesas Burgos, Marcus G Davey, John S Riley, Huimin Jia, Alan W Flake, William H Peranteau
BACKGROUND: Lung and pulmonary vascular maldevelopment in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) results in significant morbidity and mortality. Retinoic acid (RA) and imatinib have been shown to improve pulmonary morphology following prenatal administration in the rat nitrofen-induced CDH model. It remains unclear if these changes translate into improved function. We evaluated the effect of prenatal RA and imatinib on postnatal lung function, structure, and pulmonary artery (PA) blood flow in the rat CDH model...
December 19, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406422/equilibration-time-required-for-respiratory-system-compliance-and-oxygenation-response-following-changes-in-positive-end-expiratory-pressure-in-mechanically-ventilated-children
#11
Craig D Smallwood, Brian K Walsh, John H Arnold, Andrew Gouldstone
OBJECTIVES: Increases in positive end-expiratory pressure are implemented to improve oxygenation through the recruitment and stabilization of collapsed alveoli. However, the time it takes for a positive end-expiratory pressure change to have maximum effect upon oxygenation and pulmonary compliance has not been adequately described in children. Therefore, we sought to quantify the time required for oxygenation and pulmonary system compliance changes in children requiring mechanical ventilation...
February 5, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29404167/organizing-pneumonia-as-a-histopathological-term
#12
Fatma Tokgöz Akyıl, Meltem Ağca, Aysun Mısırlıoğlu, Ayşe Alp Arsev, Mustafa Akyıl, Tülin Sevim
OBJECTIVES: Organizing pneumonia (OP) is an interstitial lung disease characterized by granulation tissue buds in alveoli and alveolar ductus, possibly accompanied by bronchiolar involvement. Histopathologically, OP may signify a primary disease and be observed as a contiguous disease or as a minor component of other diseases. In this study, the clinical significance of histopathological OP lesions and clinical and radiological features of patients with primary OP were examined. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between January 2011 and January 2015, of 6,346 lung pathology reports, 138 patients with OP lesions were retrospectively evaluated...
July 2017: Turkish Thoracic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397349/pulmonary-alveolar-proteinosis-in-adults-pathophysiology-and-clinical-approach
#13
REVIEW
Anupam Kumar, Basem Abdelmalak, Yoshikazu Inoue, Daniel A Culver
Pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) is a diffuse lung disease that results from the accumulation of lipoproteinaceous material in the alveoli and alveolar macrophages due to abnormal surfactant homoeostasis. Identification of the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) as an indispensable mediator of macrophage maturation and surfactant catabolism was the key discovery leading to the current understanding of the pathogenesis of most forms of PAP. Impaired GM-CSF bioavailability due to anti-GM-CSF autoimmunity is the cause of approximately 90% of adult PAP cases...
January 31, 2018: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396267/a-new-role-for-the-mitochondrial-pro-apoptotic-protein-smac-diablo-in-phospholipid-synthesis-associated-with-tumorigenesis
#14
Avijit Paul, Yakov Krelin, Tasleem Arif, Rina Jeger, Varda Shoshan-Barmatz
The mitochondrial pro-apoptotic protein SMAC/Diablo participates in apoptosis by negatively regulating IAPs and activating caspases, thus encouraging apoptosis. Unexpectedly, we found that SMAC/Diablo is overexpressed in cancer. This paradox was addressed here by silencing SMAC/Diablo expression using specific siRNA (si-hSMAC). In cancer cell lines and subcutaneous lung cancer xenografts in mice, such silencing reduced cell and tumor growth. Immunohistochemistry and electron microscopy of the si-hSMAC-treated residual tumor demonstrated morphological changes, including cell differentiation and reorganization into glandular/alveoli-like structures and elimination of lamellar bodies, surfactant-producing organs...
December 24, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377967/-replacing-heavily-damaged-molars-with-the-use-of-3d-techniques
#15
J P Verweij, D Anssari Moin, G Mensink, D Wismeijer, J P R van Merkesteyn
Seriously damaged molars can be replaced by autotransplantation with the help of 3D techniques. In the present case, involving an 18-year old patient, 18, 38 and 48 were used to replace, respectively, 14, 36 and 37. Preoperatively, the width of the crowns and the root development of 18, 38 and 48 were analysed using 3D imaging. During the autotransplantation procedure, the new alveoli are formed with the help of replicas of the donor molars printed in 3D, in order to prevent iatrogenic damage to the actual donor molars...
January 2018: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Tandheelkunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373591/a-trivalent-apx-fusion-protein-delivered-by-e-coli-outer-membrane-vesicles-induce-protection-against-actinobacillus-pleuropneumoniae-of-serotype-1-and-7-challenge-in-a-murine-model
#16
Kui Xu, Qin Zhao, Xintian Wen, Rui Wu, Yiping Wen, Xiaobo Huang, Yong Huang, Qigui Yan, Xinfeng Han, Xiaoping Ma, Yung-Fu Chang, Sanjie Cao
Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) causes serious economic losses in the swine industry, and is the etiologic agent of porcine pleuropneumonia. In this study we have engineered a trivalent Apx fusion protein enclosed in outer membrane vesicles (Apxr-OMV) and studied its immunoprotective efficacy against APP serotypes 1 and 7 challenge in mice. The results showed that the IgG levels in the Apxr-OMVs immune group were significantly higher than those of the negative control (P < 0.05). Up-regulation of both Th1 (IFN-γ, IL-2) and Th2 (IL-4) cytokines were detected in splenocytes of Apxr-OMVs immune group...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371496/role-of-hydrophobins-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#17
Isabel Valsecchi, Vincent Dupres, Emmanuel Stephen-Victor, J Iñaki Guijarro, John Gibbons, Rémi Beau, Jagadeesh Bayry, Jean-Yves Coppee, Frank Lafont, Jean-Paul Latgé, Anne Beauvais
Resistance of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia to desiccation and their capacity to reach the alveoli are partly due to the presence of a hydrophobic layer composed of a protein from the hydrophobin family, called RodA, which covers the conidial surface. In A. fumigatus there are seven hydrophobins (RodA-RodG) belonging to class I and III. Most of them have never been studied. We constructed single and multiple hydrophobin-deletion mutants until the generation of a hydrophobin-free mutant. The phenotype, immunogenicity, and virulence of the mutants were studied...
December 24, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371331/hsd17b1-expression-induces-inflammation-aided-rupture-of-mammary-gland-myoepithelium
#18
Päivi Järvensivu, Taija Heinosalo, Janne Hakkarainen, Pauliina Kronqvist, Niina Saarinen, Matti Poutanen
Hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase type 1 (HSD17B1) converts low active estrogen estrone to highly active estradiol. Estradiol is necessary for normal postpubertal mammary gland development; however, elevated estradiol levels increase mammary tumorigenesis. To investigate the significance of the human HSD17B1 enzyme in the mammary gland, transgenic mice universally overexpressing human HSD17B1 were used (HSD17B1TG mice). Mammary glands obtained from HSD17B1TG females at different ages were investigated for morphology and histology, and HSD17B1 activity and estrogen receptor activation in mammary gland tissue were assessed...
January 25, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370949/heterogeneous-structure-and-surface-tension-effects-on-mechanical-response-in-pulmonary-acinus-a-finite-element-analysis
#19
REVIEW
Kenichiro Koshiyama, Keisuke Nishimoto, Satoshi Ii, Toshihiro Sera, Shigeo Wada
BACKGROUND: The pulmonary acinus is a dead-end microstructure that consists of ducts and alveoli. High-resolution micro-CT imaging has recently provided detailed anatomical information of a complete in vivo acinus, but relating its mechanical response with its detailed acinar structure remains challenging. This study aimed to investigate the mechanical response of acinar tissue in a whole acinus for static inflation using computational approaches. METHODS: We performed finite element analysis of a whole acinus for static inflation...
January 20, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365277/interferon-%C3%AE-improves-sepsis-related-alveolar-macrophage-dysfunction-and-post-septic-ards-related-mortality
#20
Takahiro Hiruma, Hitoshi Tsuyuzaki, Kanji Uchida, Bruce C Trapnell, Yoshiro Yamamura, Yoshiomi Kusakabe, Tokie Totsu, Takuji Suzuki, Shigeki Morita, Kent Doi, Eisei Noiri, Kensuke Nakamura, Susumu Nakajima, Naoki Yahagi, Naoto Morimura, Kyungho Chang, Yoshitsugu Yamada
Interferon-β (IFNβ) is reported to improve survival in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), possibly by preventing sepsis-induced immunosuppression, but its therapeutic nature in ARDS pathogenesis is poorly understood. We investigated the therapeutic effects of IFNβ for post-septic ARDS to better understand its pathogenesis in mice. Post-septic ARDS was reproduced in mice by cecal ligation and puncture to induce sepsis followed 4 days later by intratracheal instillation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to cause pneumonia with or without subcutaneous administration of IFNβ 1 day earlier...
January 24, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
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