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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047087/effects-of-hyperoxia-on-the-developing-airway-and-pulmonary-vasculature
#1
Christina M Pabelick, Michael A Thompson, Rodney D Britt
Although it is necessary and part of standard practice, supplemental oxygen (40-90% O2) or hyperoxia is a significant contributing factor to development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, persistent pulmonary hypertension, recurrent wheezing, and asthma in preterm infants. This chapter discusses hyperoxia and the role of redox signaling in the context of neonatal lung growth and disease. Here, we discuss how hyperoxia promotes dysfunction in the airway and the known redox-mediated mechanisms that are important for postnatal vascular and alveolar development...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045593/a-teleost-androgen-promotes-development-of-primary-ovarian-follicles-in-coho-salmon-and-rapidly-alters-the-ovarian-transcriptome
#2
Christopher Monson, Kristy Forsgren, Giles Goetz, Louisa Harding, Penny Swanson, Graham Young
Recent studies using several teleost models have revealed that androgens increase the size of previtellogenic (primary and/or early secondary) ovarian follicles. To explore our hypothesis that androgens drive the development of primary follicles into early secondary follicles, and to determine the mechanisms underlying these androgenic effects, we exposed juvenile coho salmon to near-physiological and relatively sustained levels of the non-aromatizable androgen 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). This resulted in significant growth of primary ovarian follicles after 10 and 20 days, with follicles after 20 days displaying a morphological phenotype characteristic of early secondary follicles (presence of cortical alveoli)...
October 13, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042768/systemic-toxicity-induced-by-aggregated-layered-double-hydroxide-nanoparticles
#3
Mina Yan, Chanzhen Yang, Binyao Huang, Zeqian Huang, Liangfeng Huang, Xuefei Zhang, Chunshun Zhao
Layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles are emerging as one of the promising nanomaterials for biomedical applications, but their systemic toxicity in vivo has received little attention. In the present study, the effects of inorganic nanoparticle aggregation on their systemic toxicity were examined. Remarkably, aggregation was observed after the mixing of naked LDH nanoparticles with saline or erythrocytes. Significant accumulation of the naked LDH nanoparticles in the lungs of mice was detected 1 h after intravenous administration, and the survival rate of mice was 0% after 6 repeated injections...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039447/paralemmin-3-contributes-to-lipopolysaccharide-induced-inflammatory-response-and-is-involved-in-lipopolysaccharide-toll-like-receptor-4-signaling-in-alveolar-macrophages
#4
Xu-Xin Chen, Lu Tang, Yu-Mei Fu, Yi Wang, Zhi-Hai Han, Ji-Guang Meng
Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are the first line of defense against foreign stimulation in alveoli, and they participate in inflammatory responses during acute lung injury (ALI). Previous studies indicated that paralemmin-3 (PALM3) expression is induced by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and may be involved in LPS-Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in alveolar epithelial cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of PALM3 on LPS-induced inflammation and its underlying mechanisms in rat AMs...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035425/inhaled-versus-systemic-corticosteroids-for-the-treatment-of-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia-in-ventilated-very-low-birth-weight-preterm-infants
#5
REVIEW
Sachin S Shah, Arne Ohlsson, Henry L Halliday, Vibhuti S Shah
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a review published in 2012. A related review "Inhaled versus systemic corticosteroids for preventing bronchopulmonary dysplasia in ventilated very low birth weight preterm neonates" has been updated as well. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a serious and common problem among very low birth weight infants, despite the use of antenatal steroids and postnatal surfactant therapy to decrease the incidence and severity of respiratory distress syndrome. Due to their anti-inflammatory properties, corticosteroids have been widely used to treat or prevent BPD...
October 16, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028158/effects-of-intratracheal-budesonide-during-early-postnatal-life-on-lung-maturity-of-premature-fetal-rabbits
#6
Ling Li, Chen Yang, Xiuliang Feng, Yongping Du, Zhihong Zhang, Yueping Zhang
AIM: This study aimed to study the effects of intratracheal instillation of budesonide on lung maturity of premature fetal rabbits. The developmental pattern of pulmonary alveoli in rabbits is similar to that in humans. METHOD: Fetal rabbits were taken out from female rabbits on the 28th day of pregnancy (full term = 31 days) by cesarean section (c-section). The fetal rabbits were divided into four groups: control (normal saline, NS), budesonide (budesonide, BUD), calf pulmonary surfactant for injection (pulmonary surfactant, PS), and calf pulmonary surfactant + budesonide for injection (pulmonary surfactant + budesonide, PS + BUD)...
October 13, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026061/from-specific-humidifier-disinfectants-disease-to-humidifier-disinfectants-syndrome
#7
Jong-Han Leem, Jong-Hyeon Lee
Humidifier disinfectant damage was terrible chemical damage caused by household goods that happened in only South Korea, but it is still very little known in humidifier disinfectant damage. Up to now, previous research tried to focus on interstitial fibrosis on terminal bronchiole and alveoli because it is specific finding, compared with other diseases. To figure out overall effects from HDs, many epidemiologic and toxicologic research is underway. Humidifier disinfectants showed to give rise to typical toxicologic effects on various target organs, such as skin, conjunctiva, naval mucosa, bronchial mucosa, alveoli and so on, which were sharing common toxicological responses...
October 7, 2017: Environmental Health and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020030/the-first-hyaenodont-from-the-late-oligocene-nsungwe-formation-of-tanzania-paleoecological-insights-into-the-paleogene-neogene-carnivore-transition
#8
Matthew R Borths, Nancy J Stevens
Throughout the Paleogene, most terrestrial carnivore niches in Afro-Arabia were occupied by Hyaenodonta, an extinct lineage of placental mammals. By the end of the Miocene, terrestrial carnivore niches had shifted to members of Carnivora, a clade with Eurasian origins. The transition from a hyaenodont-carnivore fauna to a carnivoran-carnivore fauna coincides with other ecological changes in Afro-Arabia as tectonic conditions in the African Rift System altered climatic conditions and facilitated faunal exchange with Eurasia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993573/measurement-of-nanoparticle-exposure-in-crematoriums-and-estimation-of-respiratory-deposition-of-the-nanoparticles-by-number-and-size-distribution
#9
Nobuhuki Kato, Yasuto Mastui, Masaki Takaoka, Minoru Yoneda
OBJECTIVES: Nanoparticles (NPs), including hazardous substances, are generated in crematoriums due to the high temperatures during the combustion process. NPs are reported to greatly impact animals' health by reaching the alveoli and being carried to the entire body through the blood stream. However, studies in crematoriums have yet to assess workers' exposure to the generated NPs. The purpose of this study is to assess workers' exposure to NPs released in crematoriums. METHODS: Field surveys were conducted in three crematoriums with an emphasis on cremation, bone rearrangement and cleaning processes...
October 7, 2017: Journal of Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987320/lung-development-regeneration-and-plasticity-from-disease-physiopathology-to-drug-design-using-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells
#10
REVIEW
Engi Ahmed, Caroline Sansac, Said Assou, Delphine Gras, Aurélie Petit, Isabelle Vachier, Pascal Chanez, John De Vos, Arnaud Bourdin
Lungs have a complex structure composed of different cell types that form approximately 17 million airway branches of gas-delivering bronchioles connected to 500 million gas-exchanging alveoli. Airways and alveoli are lined by epithelial cells that display a low rate of turnover at steady-state, but can regenerate the epithelium in response to injuries. Here, we review the key points of lung development, homeostasis and epithelial cell plasticity in response to injury and disease, because this knowledge is required to develop new lung disease treatments...
October 4, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973883/heterochronic-truncation-of-odontogenesis-in-theropod-dinosaurs-provides-insight-into-the-macroevolution-of-avian-beaks
#11
Shuo Wang, Josef Stiegler, Ping Wu, Cheng-Ming Chuong, Dongyu Hu, Amy Balanoff, Yachun Zhou, Xing Xu
Beaks are innovative structures characterizing numerous tetrapod lineages, including birds, but little is known about how developmental processes influenced the macroevolution of these important structures. Here we provide evidence of ontogenetic vestigialization of alveoli in two lineages of theropod dinosaurs and show that these are transitional phenotypes in the evolution of beaks. One of the smallest known caenagnathid oviraptorosaurs and a small specimen of the Early Cretaceous bird Sapeornis both possess shallow, empty vestiges of dentary alveoli...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971976/recent-advances-in-our-understanding-of-the-mechanisms-of-late-lung-development-and-bronchopulmonary-dysplasia
#12
David Emanuel Surate Solaligue, José Alberto Rodríguez-Castillo, Katrin Ahlbrecht, Rory E Morty
The objective of lung development is to generate an organ of gas exchange that provides both a thin gas diffusion barrier and a large gas diffusion surface area, which concomitantly generates a steep gas-diffusion concentration gradient. As such, the lung is perfectly structured to undertake the function of gas exchange: a large number of small alveoli provide extensive surface area within the limited volume of the lung, and a delicate alveolo-capillary barrier brings circulating blood into close proximity to the inspired air...
September 28, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971000/successful-treatment-of-suspected-organizing-pneumonia-in-a-patient-without-typical-imaging-and-pathological-characteristic-a-case-report
#13
Liu Ailing, Xu Ning, Qu Tao, Li Aijun
INTRODUCTION: Organizing pneumonia (OP) is a clinicopathological entity characterized by granulation tissue plugs in the lumen of small airways, alveolar ducts, and alveoli. Diagnosis of OP needs the combination of clinical features, imaging and pathology. But it occurs often that there are no typical pathological features to support the diagnosis, which poses a challenge for clinicians' diagnosis and treatment. We diagnosed a case of OP without typical imaging and pathological characteristic and treated successfully...
2017: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967890/long-term-expansion-of-alveolar-stem-cells-derived-from-human-ips-cells-in-organoids
#14
Yuki Yamamoto, Shimpei Gotoh, Yohei Korogi, Masahide Seki, Satoshi Konishi, Satoshi Ikeo, Naoyuki Sone, Tadao Nagasaki, Hisako Matsumoto, Shigeo Muro, Isao Ito, Toyohiro Hirai, Takashi Kohno, Yutaka Suzuki, Michiaki Mishima
The stable expansion of tissue-specific stem cells in vitro has contributed to research on several organs. Alveolar epithelial type II (AT2) cells function as tissue stem cells in the lung, but robust models for studying human AT2 cells are lacking. Here we report a method for the efficient generation and long-term expansion of alveolar organoids (AOs) harboring SFTPC(+) alveolar stem cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). hiPSC-derived SFTPC(+) cells self-renewed, with transcriptomes and morphology consistent with those of AT2 cells, and were able to differentiate into alveolar epithelial type I (AT1)-like cells...
October 2, 2017: Nature Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965766/differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-into-functional-lung-alveolar-epithelial-cells
#15
Anjali Jacob, Michael Morley, Finn Hawkins, Katherine B McCauley, J C Jean, Hillary Heins, Cheng-Lun Na, Timothy E Weaver, Marall Vedaie, Killian Hurley, Anne Hinds, Scott J Russo, Seunghyi Kook, William Zacharias, Matthias Ochs, Katrina Traber, Lee J Quinton, Ana Crane, Brian R Davis, Frances V White, Jennifer Wambach, Jeffrey A Whitsett, F Sessions Cole, Edward E Morrisey, Susan H Guttentag, Michael F Beers, Darrell N Kotton
Lung alveoli, which are unique to air-breathing organisms, have been challenging to generate from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) in part because there are limited model systems available to provide the necessary developmental roadmaps for in vitro differentiation. Here we report the generation of alveolar epithelial type 2 cells (AEC2s), the facultative progenitors of lung alveoli, from human PSCs. Using multicolored fluorescent reporter lines, we track and purify human SFTPC+ alveolar progenitors as they emerge from endodermal precursors in response to stimulation of Wnt and FGF signaling...
October 5, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965583/the-copper-dependent-lysyl-oxidases-contribute-to-the-pathogenesis-of-pulmonary-emphysema-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients
#16
Neziha Besiktepe, Ozgecan Kayalar, Ezel Ersen, Fusun Oztay
Abnormalities in the elastic fiber biology are seen in pulmonary emphysema (PE). The copper-dependent lysyl oxidases regulate the production and accumulation of elastic fibers in the connective tissue. This study focused on the relationship between lysyl oxidase (LOX), LOX-like protein 1 (LOXL1), and LOXL2 and PE pathogenesis. Lung samples with or without PE from patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (n=35) were used. Protein levels of elastin, LOX, LOXL1, LOXL2, hypoxia inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), copper metabolism domain containing-1 (COMMD1), and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) were assayed using microscopic and biochemical methods The emphysematous areas were characterized by enlargement of the alveoli, destruction of the alveolar structure, accumulation of macrophages in the alveolar lumens, and showed increased HIF-1α immunoreactivity...
December 2017: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958716/evaluation-of-alveolar-epithelial-cells-in-the-sheep-model-of-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia-type-1-alveolar-epithelial-cells-and-histopathological-image-analysis
#17
Juma Obayashi, Kohei Kawaguchi, Junki Koike, Kunihide Tanaka, Yasuji Seki, Hideki Nagae, Shutaro Manabe, Kei Ohyama, Masayuki Takagi, Hiroaki Kitagawa, Kevin C Pringle
BACKGROUND: There are few reports comparing type 1 alveolar epithelial cell development with histopathological image analysis. We investigated these as indicators of maturity in fetal lambs' lungs in a congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) model. METHODS: We created left CDH in 4 fetal lambs at 75 or 76days' gestation (Group A). Controls were 5 sham-operated lambs (Group B); both groups delivered at term. The right lower lung lobe (RLL) and left lower lobe (LLL) were sampled...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28957875/host-s-endogenous-caveolin-1-expression-is-downregulated-in-the-lung-during-sepsis-to-promote-cytoprotection
#18
Agapi Kataki, Ioannis Karagiannidis, Nikolaos Memos, Efthymios Koniaris, P Antonakis, Apostolos Papalois, George C Zografos, Manoussos M Konstadoulakis
The present study focuses on the profile of 'endogeneous' caveolin-1 protein in septic lung (CLP model).Caveolin-1, CD25, pP38, pAkt and 14-3-3b protein expression profiles were studied using flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, 36 h and 48 h following sepsis induction. Cell viability was determined by 7-AAD staining and fibrosis by Masson trichrome stain. The effect of protein C zymogen concentrate (PC) on caveolin-1 expression was also investigated given that PC, once dissociated from caveolin-1, elicits a PAR-1-mediated protective signaling by forming a complex with endothelial protein C receptor (EPCR)...
September 27, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951444/quantitative-analysis-of-proteome-modulations-in-alveolar-epithelial-type-ii-cells-in-response-to-pulmonary-aspergillus-fumigatus-infection
#19
Pegah Seddigh, Thilo Bracht, Valerie Molinier-Frenkel, Flavia Castellano, Olaf Kniemeyer, Marc Schuster, Juliane Weski, Anja Hasenberg, Andreas Kraus, Gernot Poschet, Thomas Hager, Dirk Theegarte, Christiane Opitz, Axel A Brakhage, Barbara Sitek, Mike Hasenberg, Matthias Gunzer
The ubiquitous mold Aspergillus fumigatus threatens immunosuppressed patients as inducer of lethal invasive aspergillosis. A. fumigatus conidia are airborne and reach the alveoli, where they encounter alveolar epithelial cells (AEC). Previous studies reported the importance of the surfactant-producing AEC II during A. fumigatus infection via in vitro experiments using cell lines. We established a negative isolation protocol yielding untouched primary murine AEC II with a purity >90 %, allowing ex vivo analyses of the cells, which encountered the mold in vivo...
September 26, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947744/therapeutic-effectiveness-of-anti-rage-antibody-administration-in-a-rat-model-of-crush-injury
#20
Hisatake Matsumoto, Naoya Matsumoto, Junya Shimazaki, Junichiro Nakagawa, Yukio Imamura, Kazuma Yamakawa, Tomoki Yamada, Mitsunori Ikeda, Hiroko Hiraike, Hiroshi Ogura, Takeshi Shimazu
Crush injury patients often have systemic inflammatory response syndrome that leads to multiple organ failure. Receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE) functions as a pattern recognition receptor that regulates inflammation. We evaluated the effects of anti-RAGE antibody in a crush injury model. Pressure was applied to both hindlimbs of rats for 6 h by 3.0-kg blocks and then released. Animals were randomly divided into the sham (RAGE-Sh) group, crush (RAGE-Ctrl) group or anti-RAGE antibody-treated crush (RAGE-Tx) group...
September 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
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