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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912126/evaluation-of-the-inactivation-effect-of-triton-x-100-on-ebola-virus-infectivity
#1
Francesca Colavita, Serena Quartu, Eleonora Lalle, Licia Bordi, Daniele Lapa, Silvia Meschi, Antonella Vulcano, Antonietta Toffoletti, Eugenio Bordi, Maria Grazia Paglia, Antonino Di Caro, Giuseppe Ippolito, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Concetta Castilletti
BACKGROUND: The recent Ebola virus disease outbreak occurred in West Africa since December 2013 highlighted the need of appropriate virus inactivation procedures to be set up to allow the necessary processing of specimens outside BSL-4 facilities and to perform laboratory tests without affecting clinical decisions. For this purpose, international guidelines suggest the pre-treatment of the samples with Triton X-100. OBJECTIVES: Due to the limited scientific evidence about the efficacy of Triton X-100 on enveloped-viruses, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of Triton X-100 on the virus infectivity and to establish the optimal conditions for its use...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881079/detection-of-west-nile-virus-in-wild-birds-in-tana-river-and-garissa-counties-kenya
#2
Doris Nyamwaya, Virginia Wang'ondu, Joshua Amimo, George Michuki, Moses Ogugo, Enoch Ontiri, Rosemary Sang, Johanna Lindahl, Delia Grace, Bernard Bett
BACKGROUND: West Nile fever virus is a zoonotic arboviral infection maintained in a sylvatic cycle involving mosquito vectors and birds. It is one the arboviruses whose geographical range is expanding because of climate and land use changes that enhance the densities of mosquitoes and promote mosquito-bird-human interactions. We carried out a survey to determine the reservoirs of WNV among wild birds in Tana River and Garissa counties, Kenya. METHODS: Blood samples were obtained from 361 randomly trapped wild birds...
November 23, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879463/a-tale-of-two-flaviviruses-a-seroepidemiological-study-of-dengue-virus-and-west-nile-virus-transmission-in-the-ouest-and-sud-est-departments-of-haiti
#3
Thomas A Weppelmann, Alexandra Burne, Michael E von Fricken, Maha A Elbadry, Madsen Beau De Rochars, Jacques Boncy, Bernard A Okech
Though plans to eliminate malaria from the island of Hispaniola have recently received much attention, arbovirus surveillance continues to be largely neglected in Haiti. To support surveillance efforts and encourage vector-control strategies, a cross-sectional study of dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) transmission was conducted using standard seroepidemiological methods. Blood samples (N = 673) were collected from 278 males and 395 females from three locations in the Ouest and Sud-Est Departments of Haiti...
November 22, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872814/transcriptional-profiles-of-wnv-neurovirulence-in-a-genetically-diverse-collaborative-cross-population
#4
Richard Green, Courtney Wilkins, Sunil Thomas, Aimee Sekine, Renee C Ireton, Martin T Ferris, Duncan M Hendrick, Kathleen Voss, Fernando Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Ralph S Baric, Mark T Heise, Michael Gale
West Nile Virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus from the Flaviviridae family that causes fever in 1 in 5 infected people. WNV can also become neuro-invasive and cross the blood-brain barrier leading to severe neurological symptoms in a subset of WNV infected individuals [1]. WNV neuro-invasion is believed to be influenced by a number of factors including host genetics. In order to explore these effects and recapitulate the complex immune genetic differences among individuals, we studied gene expression following WNV infection in the Collaborative Cross (CC) model...
December 2016: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870890/latitudinal-diversity-of-culex-pipiens-biotypes-and-hybrids-in-farm-peri-urban-and-wetland-habitats-in-europe
#5
Chantal B F Vogels, Tim W R Möhlmann, Diede Melsen, Guido Favia, Uno Wennergren, Constantianus J M Koenraadt
Despite the presence of Culex (Cx.) pipiens mosquitoes and circulation of West Nile virus (WNV), WNV outbreaks have so far not occurred in northern Europe. The species Cx. pipiens consists of two morphologically identical biotypes, pipiens and molestus, which can form hybrids. Until now, population dynamic studies of Cx. pipiens have not differentiated between biotypes and hybrids at the European scale, nor have they used comparative surveillance approaches. We therefore aimed to elucidate the relative abundance of Cx...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865748/a-novel-reverse-genetics-system-for-production-of-infectious-west-nile-virus-using-homologous-recombination-in-mammalian-cells
#6
Shintaro Kobayashi, Kentaro Yoshii, Minato Hirano, Memi Muto, Hiroaki Kariwa
Reverse genetics systems facilitate investigation of many aspects of the life cycle and pathogenesis of viruses. However, genetic instability in Escherichia coli has hampered development of a reverse genetics system for West Nile virus (WNV). In this study, we developed a novel reverse genetics system for WNV based on homologous recombination in mammalian cells. Introduction of the DNA fragment coding for the WNV structural protein together with a DNA-based replicon resulted in the release of infectious WNV...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865265/monitoring-of-west-nile-virus-usutu-virus-and-meaban-virus-in-waterfowl-used-as-decoys-and-wild-raptors-in-southern-spain
#7
E Jurado-Tarifa, S Napp, S Lecollinet, A Arenas, C Beck, M Cerdà-Cuéllar, M Fernández-Morente, I García-Bocanegra
In the last decade, the number of emerging flaviviruses described worldwide has increased considerably, with wild birds acting as the main reservoir hosts of these viruses. We carried out an epidemiological survey to determine the seroprevalence of antigenically related flaviviruses, particularly West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV) and Meaban virus (MBV), in waterfowl used as decoys and wild raptors in Andalusia (southern Spain), the region considered to have the highest risk of flaviviruses circulation in Spain...
December 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862705/screening-of-living-organ-donors-for-endemic-infections-understanding-the-challenges-and-benefits-of-enhanced-screening
#8
REVIEW
Amanda Rosen, Michael G Ison
Living organ donor candidates are screened for medical and psychosocial contraindications to donation. One important goal of this process is to prevent donor-derived infectious diseases transmissions. These transmissions are exceptionally rare, but have the potential to cause significant morbidity and mortality. The Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network now requires each recovery hospital to develop a protocol for evaluating living donors for tuberculosis and other geographically-defined endemic pathogens, including Trypanosoma cruzi (the causative pathogen of Chagas' disease), Strongyloides stercoralis, and West Nile Virus (WNV), in addition to universal screening for blood-borne pathogens...
November 14, 2016: Transplant Infectious Disease: An Official Journal of the Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860011/climatic-ecological-and-socioeconomic-factors-associated-with-west-nile-virus-incidence-in-atlanta-georgia-u-s-a
#9
Graeme Lockaby, Navideh Noori, Wayde Morse, Wayne Zipperer, Latif Kalin, Robin Governo, Rajesh Sawant, Matthew Ricker
The integrated effects of the many risk factors associated with West Nile virus (WNV) incidence are complex and not well understood. We studied an array of risk factors in and around Atlanta, GA, that have been shown to be linked with WNV in other locations. This array was comprehensive and included climate and meteorological metrics, vegetation characteristics, land use / land cover analyses, and socioeconomic factors. Data on mosquito abundance and WNV mosquito infection rates were obtained for 58 sites and covered 2009-2011, a period following the combined storm water - sewer overflow remediation in that city...
December 2016: Journal of Vector Ecology: Journal of the Society for Vector Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849599/yellow-fever-virus-capsid-protein-is-a-potent-suppressor-of-rna-silencing-that-binds-double-stranded-rna
#10
Glady Hazitha Samuel, Michael R Wiley, Atif Badawi, Zach N Adelman, Kevin M Myles
Mosquito-borne flaviviruses, including yellow fever virus (YFV), Zika virus (ZIKV), and West Nile virus (WNV), profoundly affect human health. The successful transmission of these viruses to a human host depends on the pathogen's ability to overcome a potentially sterilizing immune response in the vector mosquito. Similar to other invertebrate animals and plants, the mosquito's RNA silencing pathway comprises its primary antiviral defense. Although a diverse range of plant and insect viruses has been found to encode suppressors of RNA silencing, the mechanisms by which flaviviruses antagonize antiviral small RNA pathways in disease vectors are unknown...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849515/review-of-west-nile-virus-circulation-and-outbreak-risk-in-madagascar-entomological-and-ornithological-perspectives
#11
Michaël Luciano Tantely, Steven M Goodman, Tsirinaina Rakotondranaivo, Sébastien Boyer
West Nile fever (WNF) is a zoonotic disease, occurring nearly globally. In Madagascar, West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in 1978 from wild birds and the virus is currently distributed across the island, but no epidemic or epizootic period has been recorded. One fatal human case of WNV infection was reported in 2011, suggesting a "tip of the iceberg" phenomenon of a possible WNF epidemic/epizootic on the island. The main objective of this literature-based survey is to review patterns of WNV circulation in Madagascar from the entomological and ornithological points of view...
2016: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849431/analysis-of-the-relationship-between-enzymatic-and-antiviral-activities-of-the-chicken-oligoadenylate-synthetase-like
#12
Hassan T Tag-El-Din-Hassan, Nobuya Sasaki, Daisuke Torigoe, Masami Morimatsu, Takashi Agui
The oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) is well known as an antiviral factor against the flavivirus infection in mammals. It is known that the oligoadenylate synthetase-like (ChOAS-L) gene is only present in the chicken genome. It has been shown in the previous report that the ChOAS-L possesses enzymatic activity to convert ATP into 2'-5'-linked oligoadenylates and antiviral activity against West Nile virus (WNV) replicon. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between enzymatic and antiviral activities of ChOAS-L...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843766/identifying-protective-host-gene-expression-signatures-within-the-spleen-during-west-nile-virus-infection-in-the-collaborative-cross-model
#13
Richard Green, Courtney Wilkins, Sunil Thomas, Aimee Sekine, Renee C Ireton, Martin T Ferris, Duncan M Hendrick, Kathleen Voss, Fernando Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Ralph Baric, Mark Heise, Michael Gale
Flaviviruses are hematophagous arthropod-viruses that pose global challenges to human health. Like Zika virus, West Nile Virus (WNV) is a flavivirus for which no approved vaccine exists [1]. The role host genetics play in early detection and response to WNV still remains largely unexplained. In order to capture the impact of genetic variation on innate immune responses, we studied gene expression following WNV infection using the collaborative cross (CC). The CC is a mouse genetics resource composed of hundreds of independently bred, octo-parental recombinant inbred mouse lines [2]...
December 2016: Genomics Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834908/epitope-identification-and-application-for-diagnosis-of-duck-tembusu-virus-infections-in-ducks
#14
Chenxi Li, Junyan Liu, Wulin Shaozhou, Xiaofei Bai, Qingshan Zhang, Ronghong Hua, Jyung-Hurng Liu, Ming Liu, Yun Zhang
Duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV) causes substantial egg drop disease. DTMUV was first identified in China and rapidly spread to Malaysia and Thailand. The antigenicity of the DTMUV E protein has not yet been characterized. Here, we investigated antigenic sites on the E protein using the non-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) 1F3 and 1A5. Two minimal epitopes were mapped to (221)LD/NLPW(225) and (87)YAEYI(91) by using phage display and mutagenesis. DTMUV-positive duck sera reacted with the epitopes, thus indicating the importance of the minimal amino acids of the epitopes for antibody-epitope binding...
November 10, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834337/a-novel-indirect-elisa-for-diagnosis-of-dengue-fever
#15
Rohan Narayan, Senthil Raja, Senthil Kumar, Mohana Sambasivam, Raja Jagadeesan, Kavita Arunagiri, Kaveri Krishnasamy, Gunasekaran Palani
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Dengue fever (DF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in the tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. Since there are no effective antiviral drugs for treatment, clinicians often rely on the accurate diagnosis of dengue fever to begin supportive therapy at early stages of the illness. The objective of this study was to develop an in-house dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV-2) non-structural protein- 5 (NS5) based indirect ELISA. METHODS: DENV-2 was raised in Vero cells and the viral proteins were separated and subsequently the NS5 protein was eluted...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829427/spatio-temporal-trends-and-risk-factors-affecting-west-nile-virus-and-related-flavivirus-exposure-in-spanish-wild-ruminants
#16
Ignacio García-Bocanegra, Jorge Paniagua, Ana V Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Sylvie Lecollinet, Mariana Boadella, Antonio Arenas-Montes, David Cano-Terriza, Steeve Lowenski, Christian Gortázar, Ursula Höfle
BACKGROUND: During the last decade, the spread of many flaviviruses (Genus Flavivirus) has been reported, representing an emerging threat for both animal and human health. To further study utility of wild ruminant samples in West Nile virus (WNV) surveillance, we assessed spatio-temporal trends and factors associated with WNV and cross-reacting flaviviruses exposure, particularly Usutu virus (USUV) and Meaban virus (MBV), in wild ruminants in Spain. Serum samples from 4693 wild ruminants, including 3073 free-living red deer (Cervus elaphus), 201 fallow deer (Dama dama), 125 mouflon (Ovis aries musimon), 32 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and 1262 farmed red deer collected in 2003-2014, were screened for WNV and antigenically-related flavivirus antibodies using a blocking ELISA (bELISA)...
November 9, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821697/dengue-and-west-nile-virus-transmission-in-children-and-adults-in-coastal-kenya
#17
David M Vu, Tamara Banda, Crystal Y Teng, Chelsea Heimbaugh, Eric M Muchiri, Peter L Mungai, Francis M Mutuku, Julie Brichard, Ginny Gildengorin, Erin M Borland, Ann M Powers, Uriel Kitron, Charles H King, A Desiree LaBeaud
Dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are important reemerging arboviruses that are under-recognized in many parts of Africa due to lack of surveillance. As a part of a study on flavivirus, alphavirus, and parasite exposure in coastal Kenya, we measured neutralizing antibody against DENV and, to evaluate assay specificity, WNV in serum samples that tested positive for serum anti-DENV IgG by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Of 830 anti-DENV IgG-positive samples that were tested for neutralizing activity, 488 (58...
November 7, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821284/the-nucleolar-helicase-ddx56-redistributes-to-west-nile-virus-assembly-sites
#18
Colleen R Reid, Tom C Hobman
Flaviviruses, including the human pathogen, West Nile virus (WNV), are known to co-opt many host factors for their replication and propagation. To this end, we previously reported that the nucleolar DEAD-box RNA helicase, DDX56, is important for production of infectious WNV virions. In this study, we show that WNV infection results in relocalization of DDX56 from nucleoli to virus assembly sites on the endoplasmic reticululm (ER), an observation that is consistent with a role for DDX56 in WNV virion assembly...
November 4, 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819397/investigation-into-usutu-and-west-nile-viruses-in-ticks-from-wild-birds-in-northwestern-italy-2012-2014
#19
Isis Victoriano Llopis, Laura Tomassone, Elena Grego, Fabrizio Silvano, Luca Rossi
To assess the potential role of ticks as carriers of West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV), we tested 1721 ticks from 379 wild birds in Northwestern Italy between 2012 and 2014. Ticks were analyzed in pools using a pan-flavivirus real-time RT-PCR and positive pools were subjected to RT-PCR for USUV and WNV genome detection. All the tested samples resulted negative, suggesting that Ixodes spp. ticks, at least in our study area, are not competent vectors and not even exploitable sentinels for USUV and WNV...
November 7, 2016: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812212/genetic-contribution-of-mhc-class-ii-genes-in-susceptibility-to-west-nile-virus-infection
#20
Constantina A Sarri, Maria Markantoni, Costas Stamatis, Anna Papa, Athanasios Tsakris, Danai Pervanidou, Agoritsa Baka, Constantina Politis, Charalambos Billinis, Christos Hadjichristodoulou, Zissis Mamuris
WNV is a zoonotic neurotropic flavivirus that has recently emerged globally as a significant cause of viral encephalitis. The last five years, 624 incidents of WNV infection have been reported in Greece. The risk for severe WNV disease increases among immunosuppressed individuals implying thus the contribution of the MHC locus to the control of WNV infection. In order to investigate a possible association of MHC class II genes, especially HLA-DPA1, HLA-DQA1, HLA-DRB1, we examined 105 WNV patients, including 68 cases with neuroinvasive disease and 37 cases with mild clinical phenotype, collected during the period from 2010 to2013, and 100 control individuals selected form the Greek population...
2016: PloS One
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