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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768182/enhanced-production-and-immunological-characterization-of-recombinant-west-nile-virus-envelope-domain-iii-protein
#1
Nagesh K Tripathi, Divyanshi Karothia, Ambuj Shrivastava, Swati Banger, Jyoti S Kumar
West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus which is responsible for severe and fatal encephalitis in humans and for which there is no licensed vaccine or therapeutic available to prevent infection. The envelope domain III protein (EDIII) of WNV was over-expressed in Escherichia coli and purified using a two-step chromatography process which included immobilized metal affinity chromatography and ion exchange chromatography. E. coli cells were grown in a bioreactor to high density using batch and fed-batch cultivation...
May 13, 2018: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764954/survey-of-uk-horse-owners-knowledge-of-equine-arboviruses-and-disease-vectors
#2
Gail Elaine Chapman, Matthew Baylis, Debra C Archer
Increased globalisation and climate change have led to concern about the increasing risk of arthropod-borne virus (arbovirus) outbreaks globally. An outbreak of equine arboviral disease in northern Europe could impact significantly on equine welfare, and result in economic losses. Early identification of arboviral disease by horse owners may help limit disease spread. In order to determine what horse owners understand about arboviral diseases of horses and their vectors, the authors undertook an open, cross-sectional online survey of UK horse owners...
May 15, 2018: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737271/human-and-equine-infection-with-alphaviruses-and-flaviviruses-in-panam%C3%A3-during-2010-a-cross-sectional-study-of-household-contacts-during-an-encephalitis-outbreak
#3
Jean-Paul Carrera, Karoun H Bagamian, Amelia P Travassos da Rosa, Eryu Wang, Davis Beltran, Nathan D Gundaker, Blas Armien, Gianfranco Arroyo, Néstor Sosa, Juan Miguel Pascale, Anayansi Valderrama, Robert B Tesh, Amy Y Vittor, Scott C Weaver
Members of the genera Alphavirus (family Togaviridae ) and Flavivirus (family Flaviridae ) are important zoonotic human and equine etiologic agents of neurologic diseases in the New World. In 2010, an outbreak of Madariaga virus (MADV; formerly eastern equine encephalitis virus) and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) infections was reported in eastern Panamá. We further characterized the epidemiology of the outbreak by studying household contacts of confirmed human cases and equine cases with neurological disease signs...
May 7, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727611/improving-the-prediction-of-arbovirus-outbreaks-a-comparison-of-climate-driven-models-for-west-nile-virus-in-an-endemic-region-of-the-united-states
#4
Justin K Davis, Geoffrey P Vincent, Michael B Hildreth, Lon Kightlinger, Michael C Wimberly
Models that forecast the timing and location of human arboviral disease have the potential to make mosquito control and disease prevention more effective. A common approach is to use statistical time series models that predict disease cases as a lagged function of environmental variables. However, the simplifying assumptions required for standard modeling approaches may not capture important aspects of complex, non-linear transmission cycles. Here, we compared a set of alternative models of human West Nile virus (WNV) in 2004-2017 in South Dakota, USA...
May 1, 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722174/first-isolation-of-west-nile-virus-in-zambia-from-mosquitoes
#5
Y Orba, B M Hang'ombe, A S Mweene, Y Wada, P D Anindita, W Phongphaew, Y Qiu, M Kajihara, A Mori-Kajihara, Y Eto, M Sasaki, W W Hall, Y Eshita, H Sawa
Mosquito surveillance studies to identify mosquito-borne flaviviruses have identified West Nile Virus (WNV) for the first time in Zambia. The Zambian WNV isolate from Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes collected in the Western Province was closely related genetically to WNV lineage 2 South African strains which have been previously shown to be highly neuroinvasive. These data provide the first evidence of the circulation of WNV in Zambia and suggest there should be an increased awareness of possible associated human and animal diseases in that country...
May 2, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718284/scented-sugar-baits-enhance-detection-of-st-louis-encephalitis-and-west-nile-viruses-in-mosquitoes-in-suburban-california
#6
Cody D Steiner, Kasen K Riemersma, Jackson B Stuart, Anil Singapuri, Hugh D Lothrop, Lark L Coffey
Scented sugar baits deployed in California deserts detected early West Nile virus (WNV) transmission by mosquitoes, representing a potential improvement to conventional arbovirus surveillance that relies heavily on infection rates in mosquito pools. In this study, we expanded deployment of scented sugar baits into suburban Sacramento and Yolo (2015, 2016) and Riverside Counties (2016), California. The goal of the study was to determine whether scented sugar baits detect WNV and St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) concurrent with mosquito infections in trapped pools in areas of high human density...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715528/functional-analysis-of-duck-goose-and-ostrich-2-5-oligoadenylate-synthetase
#7
Hassan T Tag-El-Din-Hassan, Masami Morimatsu, Takashi Agui
Up-to-date the flavivirus infection in avian taxa is not clearly defined. Several reports have demonstrated that many viruses belonging to Flaviviridae may cause diseases in poultry species; however, the susceptibility of other avian species is variable and still unclear. In human and mice, the 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) proteins are associated with resistance to the flavivirus infection as well as other virus infections. However, the avian OAS proteins are rarely studied. In our previous studies, we confirmed that the chicken OAS-like protein (chOASL) expressed OAS-enzymatic activity (the classical OAS/RNase L-dependent pathway) as well as the anti-flavivirus activity (the putative OAS/RNase L-independent pathway)...
April 28, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714160/increased-human-incidence-of-west-nile-virus-disease-near-rice-fields-in-california-but-not-in-southern-united-states
#8
Tony J Kovach, A Marm Kilpatrick
Anthropogenic land use change, including agriculture, can alter mosquito larval habitat quality, increase mosquito abundance, and increase incidence of vector-borne disease. Rice is a staple food crop for more than half of the world's population, with ∼1% of global production occurring within the United States (US). Flooded rice fields provide enormous areas of larval habitat for mosquito species and may be hotspots for mosquito-borne pathogens, including West Nile virus (WNV). West Nile virus was introduced into the Americas in 1999 and causes yearly epidemics in the US with an average of approximately 1,400 neuroinvasive cases and 130 deaths per year...
April 30, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29712653/direct-activation-of-adenosine-monophosphate-activated-protein-kinase-ampk-by-pf-06409577-inhibits-flavivirus-infection-through-modification-of-host-cell-lipid-metabolism
#9
Nereida Jiménez de Oya, Ana-Belén Blázquez, Josefina Casas, Juan-Carlos Saiz, Miguel A Martín Acebes
Mosquito-borne flaviviruses are a group of RNA viruses that constitute global threats for human and animal health. Replication of these pathogens is strictly dependent on cellular lipid metabolism. We have evaluated the effect of the pharmacological activation of Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK), a master regulator of lipid metabolism, on the infection of three medically relevant flaviviruses: West Nile virus (WNV), Zika virus (ZIKV) and dengue virus (DENV). WNV is responsible for recurrent outbreaks of meningitis and encephalitis affecting humans and horses worldwide...
April 30, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29708542/a-simple-flow-cytometry-based-assay-to-determine-in-vitro-antibody-dependent-enhancement-of-dengue-virus-using-zika-virus-convalescent-serum
#10
William G Valiant, Joseph J Mattapallil
Antibody dependent enhancement of infection has been shown to play a major role in Dengue viral pathogenesis. Traditional assays that measure the capacity of antibodies or serum to enhance infection in impermissible cell lines have relied on using viral output in the media followed by plaque assays to quantify infection. More recently, these assays have examined Dengue virus (DENV) infection in the cell lines using fluorescently labeled antibodies. Both these approaches have limitations that restrict the widespread use of these techniques...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705877/experimental-evaluation-of-infection-dissemination-and-transmission-rates-for-two-west-nile-virus-strains-in-european-aedes-japonicus-under-a-fluctuating-temperature-regime
#11
Eva Veronesi, Anca Paslaru, Cornelia Silaghi, Kurt Tobler, Uros Glavinic, Paul Torgerson, Alexander Mathis
West Nile virus (WNV) is continuously spreading in Eastern and Southern Europe. However, the extent of vector competence of Aedes japonicus (Theobald, 1901) is controversial. In this work, we elucidated the dynamics of virus growth in this invasive mosquito species. Females of Ae. japonicus were reared from eggs collected in the field in Switzerland and fed on bovine blood spiked with two WNV lineage 1 strains (FIN, Italy; NY99, USA). Fully engorged females were incubated for 14 days under a fluctuating temperature regime of 24 ± 7 °C (average 24 °C), 45-90% relative humidity, which is realistic for a Central European mid-summer day...
April 28, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696579/does-intra-individual-neurocognitive-variability-relate-to-neuroinvasive-disease-and-quality-of-life-in-west-nile-virus
#12
David P Sheppard, Steven Paul Woods, Rodrigo Hasbun, Lucrecia Salazar, Melissa S Nolan, Kristy O Murray
West Nile Virus (WNV) can be a neuroinvasive pathogen that may produce persistent mild-to-moderate neurocognitive impairments in some infected persons. Intra-individual variability (IIV) is an index of a person's performance across a neuropsychological test or battery, which is an indicator of neurocognitive control and integrity of prefrontal systems. The present study examined possible associations of IIV to neurological health and well-being in WNV infection. Participants included 84 adults with a range of clinical WNV disease (31 West Nile Encephalitis, 16 West Nile Meningitis, 37 West Nile Fever) who completed the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS)...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692243/isatin-derivatives-and-their-antiviral-properties-against-arboviruses-a-review
#13
Paulo Andre Teixeira De Moraes Gomes, Lindomar Jose Pena, Ana Cristina Lima Leite
Arboviruses have been spreading rapidly throughout the Western Hemisphere in recent decades. Among the arboviruses with high morbidity and mortality are members of the Alphavirus and Flavivirus genera. Within the first genus, Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is considered one of the most challenging human arboviral infections with global significance and without any specific antiviral agent. Flaviviruses are some of the most important causes of encephalitis, haemorrhagic disease, and developmental defects. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) are examples of flaviviruses without clinically approved antiviral agents...
April 23, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683399/seroprevalence-of-dengue-virus-west-nile-virus-chikungunya-virus-and-zika-virus-in-international-travelers-attending-a-travel-and-migration-center-in-2015-2017-southern-italy
#14
Daniela Loconsole, Angela Metallo, Anna Lisa De Robertis, Anna Morea, Michele Quarto, Maria Chironna
International travelers to areas endemic for vector-borne diseases (VBDs) may be at risk of contracting and spreading these diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies that are specific for Dengue Virus (DV), West Nile Virus (WNV), Chikungunya Virus (CHIKV), or Zika Virus (ZV) in a cohort of international travelers. The study enrolled travelers who attended the Travel Medicine and Migration outpatient service of Local Health Unit of Bari, Italy, in March 2015-June 2017 for counseling and vaccine prophylaxis before travel...
April 23, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678952/subverting-the-mechanisms-of-cell-death-flavivirus-manipulation-of-host-cell-responses-to-infection
#15
REVIEW
Elisa Vicenzi, Isabel Pagani, Silvia Ghezzi, Sarah L Taylor, Timothy R Rudd, Marcelo A Lima, Mark A Skidmore, Edwin A Yates
Viruses exploit host metabolic and defence machinery for their own replication. The flaviviruses, which include Dengue (DENV), Yellow Fever (YFV), Japanese Encephalitis (JEV), West Nile (WNV) and Zika (ZIKV) viruses, infect a broad range of hosts, cells and tissues. Flaviviruses are largely transmitted by mosquito bites and humans are usually incidental, dead-end hosts, with the notable exceptions of YFV, DENV and ZIKV. Infection by flaviviruses elicits cellular responses including cell death via necrosis, pyroptosis (involving inflammation) or apoptosis (which avoids inflammation)...
April 20, 2018: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666784/the-immune-responses-of-the-animal-hosts-of-west-nile-virus-a-comparison-of-insects-birds-and-mammals
#16
REVIEW
Laura R H Ahlers, Alan G Goodman
Vector-borne diseases, including arboviruses, pose a serious threat to public health worldwide. Arboviruses of the flavivirus genus, such as Zika virus (ZIKV), dengue virus, yellow fever virus (YFV), and West Nile virus (WNV), are transmitted to humans from insect vectors and can cause serious disease. In 2017, over 2,000 reported cases of WNV virus infection occurred in the United States, with two-thirds of cases classified as neuroinvasive. WNV transmission cycles through two different animal populations: birds and mosquitoes...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666401/overwintering-of-west-nile-virus-in-a-bird-community-with-a-communal-crow-roost
#17
Diego Montecino-Latorre, Christopher M Barker
In temperate climates, transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) is detectable rarely during the coldest months (late fall through early spring), yet the virus has reappeared consistently during the next warm season. Several mechanisms may contribute to WNV persistence through winter, including bird-to-bird transmission among highly viremic species. Here we consider whether, under realistic scenarios supported by field and laboratory evidence, a winter bird community could sustain WNV through the winter in the absence of mosquitoes...
April 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665373/human-monoclonal-antibodies-against-west-nile-virus-from-japanese-encephalitis-vaccinated-volunteers
#18
Tatsuhiko Ozawa, Hideyuki Masaki, Tomohiko Takasaki, Ikuko Aoyama, Takahiro Yumisashi, Atsushi Yamanaka, Eiji Konishi, Yoh Ohnuki, Atsushi Muraguchi, Hiroyuki Kishi
West Nile virus (WNV) is a positive-sense single-stranded RNA flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) serocomplex of the Flaviviridae family and causes mosquito-borne infections. Although most human infection cases are asymptomatic, approximately one in 150 infected individuals develops meningoencephalitis, with a mortality rate of 4-14%. While the development of human neutralizing antibody therapeutics against WNV is strongly anticipated, WNV is difficult to study in conventional laboratories due to its high safety level requirement...
April 14, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659921/co-circulation-of-flanders-virus-and-west-nile-virus-in-culex-mosquitoes-diptera-culicidae-from-chicago-illinois
#19
Karen C Poh, Estelle Martin, Edward D Walker, Uriel Kitron, Marilyn O Ruiz, Tony L Goldberg, Gabriel L Hamer
West Nile virus (WNV) and Flanders virus (FLAV) co-occur in regions of North America. Because both viruses are maintained in a transmission cycle involving Culex mosquitoes and birds, screening mosquitoes for FLAV has been suggested as an enhancement to WNV surveillance and epidemic prediction. Using samples collected in 2010 and 2012 in Chicago, IL, USA, we demonstrate the presence of FLAV in four out of 287 (1.4%) Culex pools. We estimated minimum infection rates for WNV and FLAV to be 5.66 and 1.22 in 2010 and 8...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649226/assessing-the-efficacy-of-fathead-minnows-pimephales-promelas-for-mosquito-control
#20
Ryan T Watchorn, Thomas Maechtle, Bradley C Fedy
Mosquitoes function as important vectors for many diseases globally and can have substantial negative economic, environmental, and health impacts. Specifically, West Nile virus (WNv) is a significant and increasing threat to wildlife populations and human health throughout North America. Mosquito control is an important means of controlling the spread of WNv, as the virus is primarily spread between avian and mosquito vectors. This is of particular concern for avian host species such as the Greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus), in which WNv negatively impacts fitness parameters...
2018: PloS One
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