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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345964/immune-response-to-dengue-and-zika
#1
Annie Elong Ngono, Sujan Shresta
Flaviviruses such as dengue (DENV), yellow fever (YFV), West Nile (WNV), and Zika (ZIKV) are human pathogens of global significance. In particular, DENV causes the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral diseases in humans, and ZIKV emerged from obscurity into the spotlight in 2016 as the etiologic agent of congenital Zika syndrome. Owing to the recent emergence of ZIKV as a global pandemic threat, the roles of the immune system during ZIKV infections are as yet unclear. In contrast, decades of DENV research implicate a dual role for the immune system in protection against and pathogenesis of DENV infection...
January 18, 2018: Annual Review of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343583/structural-study-of-the-c-terminal-domain-of-non-structural-protein-1-from-japanese-encephalitis-virus
#2
Thanalai Poonsiri, Gareth S A Wright, Michael S Diamond, Lance Turtle, Tom Solomon, Svetlana V Antonyuk
Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus that is closely related to other emerging viral pathogens including dengue, West Nile (WNV) and Zika viruses. JEV infection can result in meningitis and encephalitis, which in severe cases cause permanent brain damage and death. JEV occurs predominantly in rural areas throughout Southeast Asia, the Pacific islands and the Far East, causing around 68,000 cases worldwide each year. In this study, we present a 2.1 Å resolution crystal structure of the C-terminal β-ladder domain of JEV non-structural protein 1 (NS1-C)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336697/understanding-knowledge-attitudes-and-behaviors-toward-west-nile-virus-prevention-a-survey-of-high-risk-adults-in-maryland
#3
Kimberly C Mitchell, Patricia Ryan, Donna E Howard, Katherine A Feldman
OBJECTIVE: To assess knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors toward West Nile virus (WNV) prevention among Maryland adults ≥60 years old who are at increased risk of severe WNV disease utilizing the health belief model. METHODS: Using a stratified random sample of households from zip codes with ≥2 human WNV cases, we conducted a telephone survey of 211 Maryland adults ≥60 years old between October and December 2012. RESULTS: Participants expressing worry about WNV were over thrice more likely to use insect repellent in the prior 90 days (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 3...
January 16, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330974/nucleic-acid-amplification-test-for-detection-of-west-nile-virus-infection-in-pakistani-blood-donors
#4
Saifullah Khan Niazi, Maqbool Alam, Muhammad Sajid Yazdani, Eijaz Ghani, Muhammad Ali Rathore
BACKGROUND: The study was planned to determine the presence of West Nile Virus (WNV) infection in Pakistani blood donors, using Nucleic Acid Amplification Test (NAT). METHODS: The blood donors for study were selected on the basis of the standard questionnaire and routine screening results. Six donors were pooled using an automated pipettor and NAT for WNV was performed on Roche Cobas s 201 NAT system. The reactive pools were resolved in Individual Donation-NAT (ID-NAT) format and a sample from FFP bags of reactive donations was retrieved...
October 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330423/t-cell-immunity-to-zika-virus-targets-immunodominant-epitopes-that-show-cross-reactivity-with-other-flaviviruses
#5
C J Reynolds, O M Suleyman, A M Ortega-Prieto, J K Skelton, P Bonnesoeur, A Blohm, V Carregaro, J S Silva, E A James, B Maillère, M Dorner, R J Boyton, D M Altmann
Zika virus (ZIKV) Infection has several outcomes from asymptomatic exposure to rash, conjunctivitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome or congenital Zika syndrome. Analysis of ZIKV immunity is confounded by the fact that several related Flaviviruses infect humans, including Dengue virus 1-4, West Nile virus and Yellow Fever virus. HLA class II restricted T cell cross-reactivity between ZIKV and other Flaviviruses infection(s) or vaccination may contribute to protection or to enhanced immunopathology. We mapped immunodominant, HLA class II restricted, CD4 epitopes from ZIKV Envelope (Env), and Non-structural (NS) NS1, NS3 and NS5 antigens in HLA class II transgenic mice...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324834/experimental-transmission-of-west-nile-virus-and-rift-valley-fever-virus-by-culex-pipiens-from-lebanon
#6
Renée Zakhia, Laurence Mousson, Marie Vazeille, Nabil Haddad, Anna-Bella Failloux
West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) are two emerging arboviruses transmitted by Culex pipiens species that includes two biotypes: pipiens and molestus. In Lebanon, human cases caused by WNV and RVFV have never been reported. However, the introduction of these viruses in the country is likely to occur through the migratory birds and animal trades. In this study, we evaluated the ability of Cx. pipiens, a predominant mosquito species in urban and rural regions in Lebanon, to transmit WNV and RVFV...
January 11, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324725/west-nile-virus-and-other-nationally-notifiable-arboviral-diseases-united-states-2016
#7
Alexis Burakoff, Jennifer Lehman, Marc Fischer, J Erin Staples, Nicole P Lindsey
Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) are transmitted to humans primarily through the bites of infected mosquitoes and ticks. West Nile virus (WNV) is the leading cause of domestically acquired arboviral disease in the continental United States (1,2). Other arboviruses, including La Crosse, Powassan, Jamestown Canyon, St. Louis encephalitis, and eastern equine encephalitis viruses, cause sporadic cases of disease and occasional outbreaks. This report summarizes surveillance data reported to CDC for 2016 for nationally notifiable arboviruses...
January 12, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323278/structural-biology-of-zika-virus-and-other-flaviviruses
#8
REVIEW
S Saif Hasan, Madhumati Sevvana, Richard J Kuhn, Michael G Rossmann
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an enveloped, icosahedral flavivirus that has structural and functional similarities to other human flavivirus pathogens such as dengue (DENV), West Nile (WNV) and Japanese encephalitis (JEV) viruses. ZIKV infections have been linked to fetal microcephaly and the paralytic Guillain-Barré syndrome. This review provides a comparative structural analysis of the assembly, maturation and host-cell entry of ZIKV with other flaviviruses, especially DENV. We also discuss the mechanisms of neutralization by antibodies...
January 2018: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322674/exposure-to-west-nile-virus-and-tick-borne-encephalitis-virus-in-dogs-in-spain
#9
I García-Bocanegra, E Jurado-Tarifa, D Cano-Terriza, R Martínez, J E Pérez-Marín, S Lecollinet
In the past decade, the spread of emerging zoonotic flaviviruses (genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) has been reported in many regions worldwide, representing a threat to both human and animal health. A serosurvey was carried out to assess exposure and risk factors associated with antigenically related flaviviruses, particularly West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), in dogs in Spain. Flavivirus antibodies were detected in 39 of 815 dogs (4.8%; 95% CI: 3.3-6...
January 11, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301567/population-genetic-structure-of-the-culex-pipiens-diptera-culicidae-complex-vectors-of-west-nile-virus-in-five-habitats
#10
Andrea L Joyce, Etienne Melese, Phuong-Thao Ha, Allan Inman
BACKGROUND: The Culex pipiens complex consists of several morphologically similar, closely related species. In the United States, Cx. pipiens L. is distributed North of 39° latitude, while Cx. quinquefasciatus Say occurs South of 36° latitude; a hybrid zone occurs between these two latitudes including in the Central Valley of California. Members of the Cx. pipiens complex and their hybrids are vectors for West Nile virus (WNv). Hybrid offspring of Cx. pipiens and Cx. quinquefasciatus have been found to have enhanced transmission rates of WNv over those of pure populations of each species...
January 4, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297801/low-prevalence-of-west-nile-virus-antibodies-in-select-northern-california-owl-species-2007-2014
#11
Nicole Captanian, Michelle G Hawkins, Christine Fiorello, Mary Thurber, William K Reisen
The objective of this study was to determine evidence of previous West Nile virus (WNV) infection in northern California owls. Owl serum samples were collected from birds presenting to a veterinary medical teaching hospital between 2007 and 2014 and were screened for the presence of WNV antibodies by an indirect enzyme immunoassay (EIA). Only one of 71 samples (1.41%) tested was positive by EIA and confirmed by a plaque reduction neutralization test; it was the most recent sample collected. The reason for the low prevalence of WNV in these California owls despite a high prevalence in sympatric avian species in the same region is unknown and should be a topic for further research...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297305/pharmacophore-anchor-models-of-flaviviral-ns3-proteases-lead-to-drug-repurposing-for-denv-infection
#12
Nikhil Pathak, Mei-Ling Lai, Wen-Yu Chen, Betty-Wu Hsieh, Guann-Yi Yu, Jinn-Moon Yang
BACKGROUND: Viruses of the flaviviridae family are responsible for some of the major infectious viral diseases around the world and there is an urgent need for drug development for these diseases. Most of the virtual screening methods in flaviviral drug discovery suffer from a low hit rate, strain-specific efficacy differences, and susceptibility to resistance. It is because they often fail to capture the key pharmacological features of the target active site critical for protein function inhibition...
December 28, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295568/development-of-antibody-therapeutics-against-flaviviruses
#13
REVIEW
Haiyan Sun, Qiang Chen, Huafang Lai
Recent outbreaks of Zika virus (ZIKV) highlight the urgent need to develop efficacious interventions against flaviviruses, many of which cause devastating epidemics around the world. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have been at the forefront of treatment for cancer and a wide array of other diseases due to their specificity and potency. While mammalian cell-produced mAbs have shown promise as therapeutic candidates against several flaviviruses, their eventual approval for human application still faces several challenges including their potential risk of predisposing treated patients to more severe secondary infection by a heterologous flavivirus through antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE)...
December 25, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288700/erythrosin-b-is-a-potent-and-broad-spectrum-orthosteric-inhibitor-of-the-flavivirus-ns2b-ns3-protease
#14
Zhong Li, Srilatha Sakamuru, Ruili Huang, Matthew Brecher, Cheri A Koetzner, Jing Zhang, Haiying Chen, Cheng-Feng Qin, Qing-Yu Zhang, Jia Zhou, Laura D Kramer, Menghang Xia, Hongmin Li
Many flaviviruses, such as Zika virus (ZIKV), Dengue virus (DENV1-4) and yellow fever virus (YFV), are significant human pathogens. Infection with ZIKV, an emerging mosquito-borne flavivirus, is associated with increased risk of microcephaly in newborns and Guillain-Barré syndrome and other complications in adults. Currently, specific therapy does not exist for any flavivirus infections. In this study, we found that erythrosin B, an FDA-approved food additive, is a potent inhibitor for flaviviruses, including ZIKV and DENV2...
December 27, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261232/a-mouse-model-of-west-nile-virus-infection
#15
Jessica B Graham, Jessica L Swarts, Jennifer M Lund
The use of a mouse model to study the breadth of symptoms and disease severity seen in human West Nile virus (WNV) infection can provide insight into the kinetics of the immune response and the specific pathways responsible for control of WNV infection and viral clearance. Here, we provide protocols for performing WNV infection of mice, as well as complete immunophenotyping analysis of the cellular immune response to infection in both the periphery and the central nervous system in a mouse model of WNV infection...
December 20, 2017: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205199/seroprevalence-of-japanese-encephalitis-virus-west-nile-virus-in-alappuzha-district-kerala
#16
Anukumar Balakrishnan, Romy Jose Thekkekare, Gajanan Sapkal, Babasaheb V Tandale
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Several outbreaks of acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) have been reported in Alappuzha district, Kerala State, India, in the past. The aetiology of these outbreaks was either inconclusive or concluded as probable Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection based on clinical presentation. The role of West Nile virus (WNV) in AES outbreaks was also determined. However, the extent of WNV infection has not been studied in this region previously. A population-based cross-sectional serosurvey study was undertaken to determine the seroprevalence of JEV and WNV in Alappuzha district...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195094/increases-in-the-competitive-fitness-of-west-nile-virus-isolates-after-introduction-into-california
#17
Gabriella Worwa, Andra A Hutton, Michèle Frey, Nisha K Duggal, Aaron C Brault, William K Reisen
To investigate the phenotypic evolution of West Nile virus (WNV) in California, we competed sixteen isolates made during 2007-08 against COAV997-5nt, a genetically marked clone from the founding 2003 California isolate COAV997-2003. Using in vivo fitness competitions in House Finches (HOFI) and Culex tarsalis mosquitoes, we found that the majority of WNV WN02 and SW03 genotype isolates exhibited elevated replicative fitness in both hosts compared to COAV997-5nt. Increased replicative capacity in HOFIs was not associated with increased mortality, indicating that these isolates had not gained avian virulence...
November 28, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187187/syndromic-surveillance-for-west-nile-virus-using-raptors-in-rehabilitation
#18
Alba Ana, M Perez Andrés, Ponder Julia, Puig Pedro, Wünschmann Arno, Vander Waal Kimberly, Alvarez Julio, Willette Michelle
BACKGROUND: Wildlife rehabilitation centers routinely gather health-related data from diverse species. Their capability to signal the occurrence of emerging pathogens and improve traditional surveillance remains largely unexplored. This paper assessed the utility for syndromic surveillance of raptors admitted to The Raptor Center (TRC) to signal circulation of West Nile Virus (WNV) in Minnesota between 1990 and 2014. An exhaustive descriptive analysis using grouping time series structures and models of interrupted times series was conducted for indicator subsets...
November 29, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176851/economics-of-one-health-costs-and-benefits-of-integrated-west-nile-virus-surveillance-in-emilia-romagna
#19
Giulia Paternoster, Sara Babo Martins, Andrea Mattivi, Roberto Cagarelli, Paola Angelini, Romeo Bellini, Annalisa Santi, Giorgio Galletti, Simonetta Pupella, Giuseppe Marano, Francesco Copello, Jonathan Rushton, Katharina D C Stärk, Marco Tamba
Since 2013 in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, surveillance information generated in the public health and in the animal health sectors has been shared and used to guide public health interventions to mitigate the risk of West Nile virus (WNV) transmission via blood transfusion. The objective of the current study was to identify and estimate the costs and benefits associated with this One Health surveillance approach, and to compare it to an approach that does not integrate animal health information in blood donations safety policy (uni-sectoral scenario)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176765/protection-of-mice-deficient-in-mature-b-cells-from-west-nile-virus-infection-by-passive-and-active-immunization
#20
Daniela Giordano, Kevin E Draves, Lucy B Young, Kelsey Roe, Marianne A Bryan, Christiane Dresch, Justin M Richner, Michael S Diamond, Michael Gale, Edward A Clark
B cell activating factor receptor (BAFFR)-/- mice have a profound reduction in mature B cells, but unlike μMT mice, they have normal numbers of newly formed, immature B cells. Using a West Nile virus (WNV) challenge model that requires antibodies (Abs) for protection, we found that unlike wild-type (WT) mice, BAFFR-/- mice were highly susceptible to WNV and succumbed to infection within 8 to 12 days after subcutaneous virus challenge. Although mature B cell were required to protect against lethal infection, infected BAFFR-/- mice had reduced WNV E-specific IgG responses and neutralizing Abs...
November 27, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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