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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102736/dengue-and-zika-viruses-subvert-reticulophagy-by-ns2b3-mediated-cleavage-of-fam134b
#1
Nicholas J Lennemann, Carolyn B Coyne
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is exploited by a number of diverse viruses during their infectious life cycles. Flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), utilize the ER as a source of membranes to establish their replication organelles and to facilitate their assembly and eventual maturation along the secretory pathway. In order to maintain normal homeostasis, host cells have evolved highly efficient processes to dynamically regulate the ER, such as through reticulophagy, a selective form of autophagy that leads to ER degradation...
January 19, 2017: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097419/modelling-wolbachia-infection-in-a-sex-structured-mosquito-population-carrying-west-nile-virus
#2
József Z Farkas, Stephen A Gourley, Rongsong Liu, Abdul-Aziz Yakubu
Wolbachia is possibly the most studied reproductive parasite of arthropod species. It appears to be a promising candidate for biocontrol of some mosquito borne diseases. We begin by developing a sex-structured model for a Wolbachia infected mosquito population. Our model incorporates the key effects of Wolbachia infection including cytoplasmic incompatibility and male killing. We also allow the possibility of reduced reproductive output, incomplete maternal transmission, and different mortality rates for uninfected/infected male/female individuals...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094802/extrinsic-mavs-signaling-is-critical-for-treg-maintenance-of-foxp3-expression-following-acute-flavivirus-infection
#3
Andreia Da Costa, Esteban Garza, Jessica B Graham, Jessica L Swarts, Andrew G Soerens, Michael Gale, Jennifer M Lund
Given the rapid spread of flaviviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV) and Zika virus, it is critical that we develop a complete understanding of the key mediators of an effective anti-viral response. We previously demonstrated that WNV infection of mice deficient in mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), the signaling adaptor for RNA helicases such as RIG-I, resulted in increased death and dysregulated immunity, which correlated with a failure of Treg expansion following infection. Thus, we sought to determine if intrinsic MAVS signaling is required for participation of Tregs in anti-WNV immunity...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077630/mavs-is-essential-for-primary-cd4-t-cell-immunity-but-not-for-recall-t-cell-responses-following-an-attenuated-west-nile-virus-infection
#4
Huanle Luo, Evandro Winkelmann, Guorui Xie, Rong Fang, Bi-Hung Peng, Li Li, Helen M Lazear, Slobodan Paessler, Michael S Diamond, Michael Gale, Alan D Barrett, Tian Wang
: The use of pathogen recognition receptor (PRR) agonists and the molecular mechanisms involved have been the major focus of research in individual vaccine development. West Nile virus (WNV) nonstructural (NS) 4B-P38G mutant has several features for an ideal vaccine candidate, including significantly reduced neuroinvasiveness, induction of strong adaptive immunity, and protection of mice from wild-type (WT) WNV infection. Here, we determined the role of mitochondrial antiviral-signaling (MAVS), the adaptor protein for RIG-I like receptor in regulating host immunity against the NS4B-P38G vaccine...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077583/a-live-attenuated-chimeric-west-nile-virus-vaccine-rwn-den4%C3%AE-30-is-well-tolerated-and-immunogenic-in-flavivirus-naive-older-adult-volunteers
#5
Kristen K Pierce, Stephen S Whitehead, Beth D Kirkpatrick, Palmtama L Grier, Adrienne Jarvis, Heather Kenney, Marya P Carmolli, Cynthia Reynolds, Cecilia M Tibery, Janece Lovchik, Anna Janiak, Catherine J Luke, Anna P Durbin, Alexander G Pletnev
West Nile virus (WNV) is a major cause of mosquito-borne illness in the United States. Human disease ranges from mild febrile illness to severe fatal neurologic infection. Adults aged >60 years are more susceptible to neuroinvasive disease accompanied by a high mortality rate or long-lasting neurologic sequelae. A chimeric live attenuated West Nile virus vaccine, rWN/DEN4Δ30, was shown to be safe and immunogenic in healthy adults aged 18-50 years. This study evaluated rWN/DEN4Δ30 in flavivirus-naive adults aged 50-65 years and found it to be safe and immunogenic...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075236/first-serological-evidence-of-west-nile-virus-in-horses-and-dogs-from-corsica-island-france
#6
Marianne Maquart, Mustapha Dahmani, Jean-Lou Marié, Patrick Gravier, Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Bernard Davoust
West Nile virus (WNV) is widely distributed over the world, including Europe, Africa, and Asia and spread over the past two decades to North and South America. In the south of France, sporadic cases are frequently described and the virus is endemic in Italy with frequent cases and outbreaks. The aim of this study was to identify a possible WNV circulation in Corsica (French island in the Mediterranean Sea) in sheep, horses, and dogs as sentinel animals for the virus surveillance. In 2014, 386 blood samples were collected from 219 sheep, 96 horses, and 71 dogs, in 12 localities in Corsica, in the oriental coast of Corsica...
January 11, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063471/comparison-of-assays-for-the-detection-of-west-nile-virus-antibodies-in-equine-serum-after-natural-infection-or-vaccination
#7
REVIEW
Kinga Joó, Tamás Bakonyi, Ottó Szenci, Sára Sárdi, Emőke Ferenczi, Mónika Barna, Péter Malik, Zdenek Hubalek, Orsolya Fehér, Orsolya Kutasi
West Nile virus (WNV) mainly infects birds, horses and humans. Outcomes of the infection range from mild uncharacteristic signs to fatal neurologic disease. The main objectives of the present study were to measure serum IgG and IgM antibodies in naturally exposed and vaccinated horses and to compare results of haemagglutination inhibition test (HIT), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and plaque reduction neutralisation test (PRNT). Altogether 224 animals were tested by HIT for WNV antibodies and 41 horses were simultaneously examined by ELISA and PRNT...
January 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062007/a-recombinant-fusion-protein-consisting-of-west-nile-virus-envelope-domain-iii-fused-in-frame-with-equine-cd40-ligand-induces-antiviral-immune-responses-in-horses
#8
Shiliang A Liu, Muzammel Haque, Brent Stanfield, Frank M Andrews, Alma A Roy, Konstantin G Kousoulas
West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in the US and causes severe neurologic disease in horses since its introduction in 1999. There is no effective pharmaceutical treatment for WNV infection rendering vaccination as the only approach to prevention and control of disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a recombinant vaccine containing domain III (DIII) of the WNV envelope glycoprotein with and without a natural adjuvant equine (CD40L) in producing virus neutralizing antibodies in horses. Serum IgG1 concentration in the groups of horses vaccinated with the DIII-CD40L+TiterMax and DIII-CD40L proteins were significantly increased (p<0...
January 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061903/detection-of-west-nile-virus-in-six-mosquito-species-in-synchrony-with-seroconversion-among-sentinel-chickens-in-india
#9
Siraj A Khan, Purvita Chowdhury, Parveena Choudhury, Prafulla Dutta
BACKGROUND: West Nile virus (WNV) is a zoonotic flavivirus maintained in mosquito-bird transmission cycle. Although humans are accidental hosts, fatal outcomes following WNV infection have been reported from India. Studies have identified WNV as an important etiological agent causing acute encephalitis syndrome in Assam, Northeast India. While circulation of WNV is evident, the role of vectors and avian hosts involved in the transmission remains unclear. In this study we identified local mosquito species for evidence of WNV infection along with seroconversion among sentinel chickens...
January 7, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052065/comparison-of-stable-and-transient-wolbachia-infection-models-in-aedes-aegypti-to-block-dengue-and-west-nile-viruses
#10
Dirk Albert Joubert, Scott L O'Neill
Pathogen replication and transmission in Wolbachia infected insects are currently studied using three Wolbachia infection systems: naturally infected Wolbachia hosts, hosts transinfected with Wolbachia (stably maintained and inherited infections) and hosts transiently infected with Wolbachia. All three systems have been used to test the effect of Wolbachia on mosquito transmitted pathogens such as dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV) and Plasmodium. From these studies it is becoming increasingly clear that the interaction between a particular pathogen and Wolbachia is heavily influenced by the host-Wolbachia interaction and the model of infection...
January 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045891/susceptibility-and-antibody-response-of-the-laboratory-model-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata-to-west-nile-virus
#11
Erik K Hofmeister, Melissa Lund, Valerie Shearn-Bochsler, Christopher N Balakrishnan
Since the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) into North America in 1999 a number of passerine bird species have been found to play a role in the amplification of the virus. Arbovirus surveillance, observational studies and experimental studies have implicated passerine birds (songbirds, e.g., crows, American robins, house sparrows, and house finches) as significant reservoirs of WNV in North America, yet we lack a tractable passerine animal model for controlled studies of the virus. The zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata) serves as a model system across a diversity of fields, and here we develop the zebra finch a songbird model for WNV...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012987/characterization-of-non-lethal-west-nile-virus-wnv-infection-in-horses-subclinical-pathology-and-innate-immune-response
#12
Helle Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Angela Bosco-Lauth, Airn-Elizabeth Hartwig, M Jasim Uddin, Jean Barcelon, Willy W Suen, Wenqi Wang, Roy A Hall, Richard A Bowen
Most natural West Nile virus (WNV) infections in humans and horses are subclinical or sub-lethal and non-encephalitic. Yet, the main focus of WNV research remains on the pathogenesis of encephalitic disease, mainly conducted in mouse models. We characterized host responses during subclinical WNV infection in horses and compared outcomes with those obtained in a novel rabbit model of subclinical WNV infection (Suen et al. 2015. Pathogens, 4: 529). Experimental infection of 10 horses with the newly emerging WNV-strain, WNVNSW2011, did not result in neurological disease in any animal but transcriptional upregulation of both type I and II interferon (IFN) was seen in peripheral blood leukocytes prior to or at the time of viremia...
December 21, 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999340/equine-immunoglobulin-and-equine-neutralizing-f-ab-%C3%A2-protect-mice-from-west-nile-virus-infection
#13
Jiannan Cui, Yongkun Zhao, Hualei Wang, Boning Qiu, Zengguo Cao, Qian Li, Yanbo Zhang, Feihu Yan, Hongli Jin, Tiecheng Wang, Weiyang Sun, Na Feng, Yuwei Gao, Jing Sun, Yanqun Wang, Stanley Perlman, Jincun Zhao, Songtao Yang, Xianzhu Xia
West Nile virus (WNV) is prevalent in Africa, Europe, the Middle East, West Asia, and North America, and causes epidemic encephalitis. To date, no effective therapy for WNV infection has been developed; therefore, there is urgent need to find an efficient method to prevent WNV disease. In this study, we prepared and evaluated the protective efficacy of immune serum IgG and pepsin-digested F(ab')₂ fragments from horses immunized with the WNV virus-like particles (VLP) expressing the WNV M and E proteins. Immune equine F(ab')₂ fragments and immune horse sera efficiently neutralized WNV infection in tissue culture...
December 18, 2016: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999244/the-effect-of-west-nile-virus-infection-on-the-midgut-gene-expression-of-culex-pipiens-quinquefasciatus-say-diptera-culicidae
#14
Chelsea T Smartt, Dongyoung Shin, Sheri L Anderson
The interaction of the mosquito and the invading virus is complex and can result in physiological and gene expression alterations in the insect. The association of West Nile virus (WNV) and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus mosquitoes results in measurable changes in gene expression; 22 gene products were shown previously to have altered expression. Sequence analysis of one product, CQ G1A1, revealed 100% amino acid identity to gram negative bacteria binding proteins (CPQGBP) in Cx. p. quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti (70%) and Anopheles gambiae (63%) that function in pathogen recognition...
December 19, 2016: Insects
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993003/nanoarchitecture-based-sers-for-biomolecular-fingerprinting-and-label-free-disease-markers-diagnosis
#15
Sudarson Sekhar Sinha, Stacy Jones, Avijit Pramanik, Paresh Chandra Ray
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) fingerprinting is highly promising for identifying disease markers from complex mixtures of clinical sample, which has the capability to take medical diagnoses to the next level. Although vibrational frequency in Raman spectra is unique for each biomolecule, which can be used as fingerprint identification, it has not been considered to be used routinely for biosensing due to the fact that the Raman signal is very weak. Contemporary SERS has been demonstrated to be an excellent analytical tool for practical label-free sensing applications due its ability to enhance Raman signals by factors of up to 10(8)-10(14) orders of magnitude...
December 20, 2016: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986090/first-report-of-l1014f-kdr-mutation-in-culex-pipiens-complex-from-morocco
#16
Meriem Bkhache, Fatim-Zohra Tmimi, Omar Charafeddine, Chafika Faraj, Anna-Bella Failloux, M'hammed Sarih
BACKGROUND: Mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex, competent vectors for West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) are widely targeted by insecticide treatments. The intensive application of chemical insecticides led to the development of resistance in many insects including Culex pipiens mosquitoes. The absence of data on resistance mechanisms in Morocco allow us to assess the levels of lambda-cyhalothrin resistance and the frequency of the mutated gene L1014F kdr in different forms of Cx...
December 16, 2016: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977670/serological-evidence-of-contrasted-exposure-to-arboviral-infections-between-islands-of-the-union-of-comoros-indian-ocean
#17
Koussay Dellagi, Nicolas Salez, Marianne Maquart, Sophie Larrieu, Amina Yssouf, Rahamatou Silaï, Isabelle Leparc-Goffart, Pablo Tortosa, Xavier de Lamballerie
A cross sectional serological survey of arboviral infections in humans was conducted on the three islands of the Union of Comoros, Indian Ocean, in order to test a previously suggested contrasted exposure of the three neighboring islands to arthropod-borne epidemics. Four hundred human sera were collected on Ngazidja (Grande Comore), Mwali (Mohéli) and Ndzouani (Anjouan), and were tested by ELISA for IgM and/or IgG antibodies to Dengue (DENV), Chikungunya (CHIKV), Rift Valley fever (RVFV), West Nile (WNV), Tick borne encephalitis (TBEV) and Yellow fever (YFV) viruses and for neutralizing antibodies to DENV serotypes 1-4...
December 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959789/mutagen-resistance-and-mutation-restriction-of-st-louis-encephalitis-virus
#18
Sara B Griesemer, Laura D Kramer, Greta A Van Slyke, Janice D Pata, David D Gohara, Craig E Cameron, Alexander T Ciota
The error rate of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of RNA viruses is important in maintaining genetic diversity for viral adaptation and fitness. Numerous studies have shown that mutagen-resistant RNA virus variants display amino acid mutations in the RdRp and other replicase subunits, which in turn exhibit an altered fidelity phenotype affecting viral fitness, adaptability, and pathogenicity. St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), like its close relative West Nile virus (WNV), is a mosquito-borne flavivirus which has the ability to cause neuroinvasive disease in humans...
December 12, 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938434/early-detection-of-west-nile-virus-in-france-quantitative-assessment-of-syndromic-surveillance-system-using-nervous-signs-in-horses
#19
C Faverjon, F Vial, M G Andersson, S Lecollinet, A Leblond
West Nile virus (WNV) is a growing public health concern in Europe and there is a need to develop more efficient early detection systems. Nervous signs in horses are considered to be an early indicator of WNV and, using them in a syndromic surveillance system, might be relevant. In our study, we assessed whether or not data collected by the passive French surveillance system for the surveillance of equine diseases can be used routinely for the detection of WNV. We tested several pre-processing methods and detection algorithms based on regression...
December 12, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935796/correlation-of-west-nile-virus-incidence-in-donated-blood-with-west-nile-neuroinvasive-disease-rates-united-states-2010-2012
#20
Edouard Betsem, Zhanna Kaidarova, Susan L Stramer, Beth Shaz, Merlyn Sayers, German LeParc, Brian Custer, Michael P Busch, Edward L Murphy
Over the past decade, West Nile virus (WNV) has spread across the United States. We aggregated blood donor data from 2010-2012 and then calculated the incidence of WNV RNA-positive donations and compared the incidence with neuroinvasive disease (NID) case data from the ArboNET surveillance system. Of 10,107,853 donations, 640 were confirmed positive. The seasonal WNV incidence rate per 100,000 persons was 33.4 (95% CI 22-45) in 2010, 25.7 (95% CI 15-34) in 2011, and 119.9 (95% CI 98-141) in 2012. NID to blood donor ratios were 1 in 164 (95% CI 152-178) in 2010, 1 in 158 (95% CI 145-174) in 2011, and 1 in 131 (95% CI 127-136) in 2012...
February 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
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