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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322715/west-nile-virus-seroprevalence-connecticut-usa-2000-2014
#1
Megan E Cahill, Yi Yao, David Nock, Philip M Armstrong, Theodore G Andreadis, Maria A Diuk-Wasser, Ruth R Montgomery
West Nile virus (WNV) infection is mainly asymptomatic but can be severe in elderly persons. As part of studies on immunity and aging in Connecticut, USA, we detected WNV seroconversion in 8.5% of nonimmunosuppressed and 16.8% of immunosuppressed persons. Age was not a significant seroconversion factor. Our findings suggest that immune factors affect seroconversion.
April 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320443/co-circulation-of-west-nile-virus-and-distinct-insect-specific-flaviviruses-in-turkey
#2
Koray Ergünay, Nadine Litzba, Annika Brinkmann, Filiz Günay, Yasemen Sarıkaya, Sırrı Kar, Serra Örsten, Kerem Öter, Cristina Domingo, Özge Erisoz Kasap, Aykut Özkul, Luke Mitchell, Andreas Nitsche, Bülent Alten, Yvonne-Marie Linton
BACKGROUND: Active vector surveillance provides an efficient tool for monitoring the presence or spread of emerging or re-emerging vector-borne viruses. This study was undertaken to investigate the circulation of flaviviruses. Mosquitoes were collected from 58 locations in 10 provinces across the Aegean, Thrace and Mediterranean Anatolian regions of Turkey in 2014 and 2015. Following morphological identification, mosquitoes were pooled and screened by nested and real-time PCR assays. Detected viruses were further characterised by sequencing...
March 20, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317911/chimeric-viruses-between-rocio-and-west-nile-the-role-for-rocio-prm-e-proteins-in-virulence-and-inhibition-of-interferon-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-signaling
#3
Alberto A Amarilla, Yin X Setoh, Parthiban Periasamy, Nias Y Peng, Gabor Pali, Luiz T Figueiredo, Alexander A Khromykh, Victor H Aquino
Mosquito-transmitted flavivirus Rocio (ROCV) was responsible for an outbreak of encephalitis in the Ribeira Valley, located in the south coast of Sao Paulo State, Brazil, in 1975-1976. ROCV also causes fatal encephalitis in adult mice. Seroprevalence studies in humans, horses and water buffaloes in different regions of Brazil have suggested that ROCV is still circulating in the country, indicating the risk of re-emergence of this virus. West Nile virus (WNV) is also a mosquito-transmitted encephalitic flavivirus, however, WNV strains circulating in Australia have not been associated with outbreaks of disease in humans and exhibit low virulence in adult mice...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301049/determining-the-rate-of-underrecognition-of-west-nile-virus-neurologic-disease-in-the-province-of-quebec-in-2012
#4
Gilles Delage, Sophie Dubuc, Yves Grégoire, Anne-Marie Lowe, France Bernier, Marc Germain
BACKGROUND: During a major outbreak of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in the province of Quebec in 2012, public health authorities (PHAs) suspected underrecognition of West Nile neurologic disease (WNND). With data on acute infections detected in blood donors, an estimate of the degree of underrecognition was produced. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: All 2012 donors were tested for WNV infection with the use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
March 16, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291542/molecular-mechanisms-of-neuroinflammation-and-injury-during-acute-viral-encephalitis
#5
REVIEW
Katherine D Shives, Kenneth L Tyler, J David Beckham
Viral infections in the central nervous system are a major cause of encephalitis. West Nile virus (WNV) and Herpes simplex virus (HSV) are the most common causes of viral encephalitis in the United States. We review the role of neuroinflammation in the pathogenesis of WNV and HSV infections in the central nervous system (CNS). We discuss the role of the innate and cell-mediated immune responses in peripheral control of viral infection, viral invasion of the CNS, and in inflammatory-mediated neuronal injury...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270191/isolation-and-molecular-characterisation-of-halicephalobus-gingivalis-in-the-brain-of-a-horse-in-piedmont-italy
#6
Maria Domenica Pintore, Francesco Cerutti, Antonio D'Angelo, Cristiano Corona, Paola Gazzuola, Loretta Masoero, Corrado Colombo, Roberto Bona, Carlo Cantile, Simone Peletto, Cristina Casalone, Barbara Iulini
BACKGROUND: A fatal case of meningoencephalitis was reported in a 13-year-old Koninklijk Warmbloed Paard Nederland stallion, suspected of West Nile virus (WNV) infection, in the Piedmont region of Italy. Clinical signs included right head tilt and circling, depression alternated with excitability, fever and lateral strabismus. Combined treatment consisting of dimethylsulfoxide, dexamethasone, sulphonamides and sedative was administered, but because of the poor conditions the horse was euthanatized and submitted for necropsy...
March 7, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241074/arsenite-induced-stress-granule-formation-is-inhibited-by-elevated-levels-of-reduced-glutathione-in-west-nile-virus-infected-cells
#7
Mausumi Basu, Sean C Courtney, Margo A Brinton
Oxidative stress activates the cellular kinase HRI, which then phosphorylates eIF2α, resulting in stalled translation initiation and the formation of stress granules (SGs). SG assembly redirects cellular translation to stress response mRNAs and inhibits cap-dependent viral RNA translation. Flavivirus infections were previously reported to induce oxidative stress in infected cells but flavivirus-infected cells paradoxically develop resistance to arsenite (Ars)-induced SG formation with time after infection...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228395/antibody-responses-to-zika-virus-infections-in-flavivirus-endemic-environments
#8
Sarah L Keasey, Christine L Pugh, Stig M R Jensen, Jessica L Smith, Robert D Hontz, Anna P Durbin, Dawn M Dudley, David H O'Connor, Robert G Ulrich
Zika virus (ZIKV) infections occur in areas where dengue (DENV), West Nile (WNV), yellow fever (YFV), and other viruses of the genus Flavivirus co-circulate. The envelope protein (E) of these closely related flaviviruses induces specific long-term immunity, yet subsequent infections are associated with cross-reactive antibody responses that may enhance disease susceptibility and severity. To gain a better understanding of ZIKV infections against a background of similar viral diseases, we examined serological immune responses to ZIKV, WNV, DENV and YFV infections of humans and non-human primates (NHP)...
February 22, 2017: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology: CVI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220657/a-geographic-study-of-west-nile-virus-in-humans-dead-corvids-and-mosquitoes-in-ontario-using-spatial-scan-statistics-with-a-survival-time-application
#9
A L Thomas-Bachli, D L Pearl, O Berke, E J Parmley, I K Barker
Surveillance of West Nile virus (WNv) in Ontario has included passive reporting of human cases and testing of trapped mosquitoes and dead birds found by the public. The dead bird surveillance programme was limited to testing within a public health unit (PHU) until a small number of birds test positive. These dead corvid and mosquito surveillance programmes have not been compared for their ability to provide early warning in geographic areas where human cases occur each year. Spatial scan statistics were applied to time-to-event survival data based on first cases of WNv in found dead corvids, mosquitoes and humans...
February 20, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216236/elimination-of-falsely-reactive-results-in-a-commercially-available-west-nile-virus-igm-capture-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-by-heterophilic-antibody-blocking-reagents
#10
Harry E Prince, Mary Lapé-Nixon, Tara S Givens, Tiffany Bradshaw, Marek J Nowicki
All sera initially reactive in the Focus Diagnostics West Nile virus IgM capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (WNV IgM ELISA) must be retested with background subtraction to identify falsely-reactive (FR) samples due to antibodies that bind to immunoglobulins of other animal species (heterophilic antibodies). In some settings, such as pre-transplant testing of organ donors, the reporting delay associated with retesting can have an adverse impact on donor procurement and organ placement. We sought to determine if inclusion of heterophilic antibody blockers in assay conjugate could eliminate the nonspecific reactivity of FR samples...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212847/risk-mapping-of-west-nile-virus-circulation-in-spain-2015
#11
Amaya Sánchez-Gómez, Carmen Amela, Eduardo Fernández-Carrión, Marta Martínez-Avilés, José Manuel Sánchez-Vizcaíno, María José Sierra-Moros
West Nile fever is an emergent disease in Europe. The objective of this study was to conduct a predictive risk mapping of West Nile Virus (WNV) circulation in Spain based on historical data of WNV circulation. Areas of Spain with evidence of WNV circulation were mapped based on data from notifications to the surveillance systems and a literature review. A logistic regression-based spatial model was used to assess the probability of WNV circulation. Data were analyzed at municipality level. Mean temperatures of the period from June to October, presence of wetlands and presence of Special Protection Areas for birds were considered as potential predictors...
May 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207910/a-single-mutation-in-the-envelope-protein-modulates-flavivirus-antigenicity-stability-and-pathogenesis
#12
Leslie Goo, Laura A VanBlargan, Kimberly A Dowd, Michael S Diamond, Theodore C Pierson
The structural flexibility or 'breathing' of the envelope (E) protein of flaviviruses allows virions to sample an ensemble of conformations at equilibrium. The molecular basis and functional consequences of virus conformational dynamics are poorly understood. Here, we identified a single mutation at residue 198 (T198F) of the West Nile virus (WNV) E protein domain I-II hinge that regulates virus breathing. The T198F mutation resulted in a ~70-fold increase in sensitivity to neutralization by a monoclonal antibody targeting a cryptic epitope in the fusion loop...
February 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206859/evaluation-and-adaptation-of-attractive-toxic-sugar-baits-for-culex-tarsalis-and-culex-quinquefasciatus-control-in-the-coachella-valley-southern-california
#13
Whitney A Qualls, Jodi Scott-Fiorenzano, Gunter C Müller, Kristopher L Arheart, John C Beier, Rui-De Xue
The project goal was to determine how a new vector control strategy that targets the sugar-feeding behavior of mosquitoes, attractive toxic sugar baits (ATSBs), can be used to more effectively control West Nile virus (WNV) vectors in the Coachella Valley, California. Three laboratory studies were conducted to determine the utility of this method for control against Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tarsalis : 1) efficacy evaluations of 2 formulations of ATSB, microencapsulated garlic oil, and a combination of microencapsulated garlic oil and 1% boric acid; 2) choice assays to determine the attractiveness of ATSB with the microencapsulated garlic oil against attractive sugar baits (ASB; the attractant alone; without toxin) and a 10% sucrose solution; and 3) vegetation efficacy tests on 3 common plant species in the Coachella Valley, Atriplex lentiformis, Tamarix ramosissima , and Pluchea sericea...
December 2016: Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202375/generation-and-characterization-of-west-nile-pseudo-infectious-reporter-virus-for-antiviral-screening
#14
Hong-Lei Zhang, Han-Qing Ye, Cheng-Lin Deng, Si-Qing Liu, Pei-Yong Shi, Cheng-Feng Qin, Zhi-Ming Yuan, Bo Zhang
West Nile virus (WNV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus, is an important neurotropic human pathogen. As a biosafety level-3 (BSL-3) agent, WNV is strictly to BSL-3 laboratories for experimentations, thus greatly hindering the development of vaccine and antiviral drug. Here, we developed a novel pseudo-infectious WNV reporter virus expressing the Gaussia luciferase (Gluc). A stable 293TNS1 cell line expressing NS1 was selected for trans-supplying NS1 protein to support the replication of WNV-ΔNS1 virus and WNV-ΔNS1-Gluc reporter virus with large-fragment deletion of NS1...
February 13, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192043/serosurvey-for-west-nile-virus-antibodies-in-steller-s-jays-cyanocitta-stelleri-captured-in-coastal-california
#15
Elena West, Erik Hofmeister, M Zach Peery
West Nile virus (WNV) was first detected in New York in 1999 and, during its expansion across the continental US, southern Canada, and Mexico, members of the Corvidae (ravens, crows, magpies, and jays) were frequently infected and highly susceptible to the virus. As part of a behavioral study of Steller's Jays ( Cyanocitta stelleri ) conducted from 2011-2014 in the coastal California counties of San Mateo and Santa Cruz, 380 Steller's Jays were captured and tested for antibodies to WNV. Using the wild bird IgG enzyme linked immunoassay, we failed to detect antibodies to WNV, indicating either that there was no previous exposure to the virus or that exposed birds had died...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187130/detection-of-the-mosquito-borne-flaviviruses-west-nile-dengue-saint-louis-encephalitis-ilheus-bussuquara-and-yellow-fever-in-free-ranging-black-howlers-alouatta-caraya-of-northeastern-argentina
#16
María A Morales, Cintia M Fabbri, Gabriel E Zunino, Martín M Kowalewski, Victoria C Luppo, Delia A Enría, Silvana C Levis, Gladys E Calderón
Several medically important mosquito-borne flaviviruses have been detected in Argentina in recent years: Dengue (DENV), St. Louis encephalitis (SLEV), West Nile (WNV) and Yellow Fever (YFV) viruses. Evidence of Bussuquara virus (BSQV) and Ilheus virus (ILHV) activity were found, but they have not been associated with human disease. Non-human primates can act as important hosts in the natural cycle of flaviviruses and serological studies can lead to improved understanding of virus circulation dynamics and host susceptibility...
February 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167751/axl-dependent-infection-of-human-fetal-endothelial-cells-distinguishes-zika-virus-from-other-pathogenic-flaviviruses
#17
Audrey Stéphanie Richard, Byoung-Shik Shim, Young-Chan Kwon, Rong Zhang, Yuka Otsuka, Kimberly Schmitt, Fatma Berri, Michael S Diamond, Hyeryun Choe
Although a causal relationship between Zika virus (ZIKV) and microcephaly has been established, it remains unclear why ZIKV, but not other pathogenic flaviviruses, causes congenital defects. Here we show that when viruses are produced in mammalian cells, ZIKV, but not the closely related dengue virus (DENV) or West Nile virus (WNV), can efficiently infect key placental barrier cells that directly contact the fetal bloodstream. We show that AXL, a receptor tyrosine kinase, is the primary ZIKV entry cofactor on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and that ZIKV uses AXL with much greater efficiency than does DENV or WNV...
February 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164314/a-probable-case-of-west-nile-virus-transfusion-transmission
#18
Jamel A Groves, Hedyeh Shafi, Jim H Nomura, Ross M Herron, Devin Baez, Roger Y Dodd, Susan L Stramer
BACKGROUND: Transfusion-transmitted West Nile virus (WNV) infection is infrequent as a result of minipool (MP) and individual-donation (ID) nucleic acid testing (NAT) of blood donations. ID-NAT is triggered on the basis of local WNV activity identified by MP-NAT. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A 78-year-old male patient who was treated for cardiac disease received 14 blood components from 30 donors in August 2016. He was discharged 7 days after aortic valve replacement and coronary bypass surgery, but was re-admitted on Day 12 with symptoms of viral infection, and eventually was diagnosed with aseptic meningitis...
February 5, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159002/avian-species-diversity-and-transmission-of-west-nile-virus-in-atlanta-georgia
#19
Rebecca S Levine, David L Hedeen, Meghan W Hedeen, Gabriel L Hamer, Daniel G Mead, Uriel D Kitron
BACKGROUND: The dilution effect is the reduction in vector-borne pathogen transmission associated with the presence of diverse potential host species, some of which are incompetent. It is popularized as the notion that increased biodiversity leads to decreased rates of disease. West Nile virus (WNV) is an endemic mosquito-borne virus in the United States that is maintained in a zoonotic cycle involving various avian host species. In Atlanta, Georgia, substantial WNV presence in the vector and host species has not translated into a high number of human cases...
February 3, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148804/a-microrna-screen-identifies-the-wnt-signaling-pathway-as-a-regulator-of-the-interferon-response-during-flavivirus-infection
#20
Jessica L Smith, Sophia Jeng, Shannon K McWeeney, Alec J Hirsch
The impact of mosquito-borne flavivirus infections worldwide is significant, and many critical aspects of these viruses' biology, including virus-host interactions, host cell requirements for replication, and how virus-host interactions impact pathology, remain to be fully understood. The recent re-emergence and spread of flaviviruses, including dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV), and Zika virus (ZIKV), highlights the importance of performing basic research on this important group of pathogens. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs that modulate gene expression post-transcriptionally and have been demonstrated to regulate a broad range of cellular processes...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
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