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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716770/data-preparation-for-west-nile-virus-agent-based-modelling-protocol-for-processing-bird-population-estimates-and-incorporating-arcmap-in-anylogic
#1
Hamid Reza Nasrinpour, Alexander A Reimer, Marcia R Friesen, Robert D McLeod
BACKGROUND: West Nile Virus (WNV) was first isolated in 1937. Since the 1950s, many outbreaks have occurred in various countries. The first appearance of infected birds in Manitoba, Canada was in 2002. OBJECTIVE: This paper describes the data preparation phase of setting up a geographic information system (GIS) simulation environment for WNV Agent-Based Modelling in Manitoba. METHODS: The main technology used in this protocol is based on AnyLogic and ArcGIS software...
July 17, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694450/modelling-west-nile-virus-transmission-risk-in-europe-effect-of-temperature-and-mosquito-biotypes-on-the-basic-reproduction-number
#2
Chantal B F Vogels, Nienke Hartemink, Constantianus J M Koenraadt
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus which has caused repeated outbreaks in humans in southern and central Europe, but thus far not in northern Europe. The main mosquito vector for WNV, Culex pipiens, consists of two behaviourally distinct biotypes, pipiens and molestus, which can form hybrids. Differences between biotypes, such as vector competence and host preference, could be important in determining the risk of WNV outbreaks. Risks for WNV establishment can be modelled with basic reproduction number (R 0) models...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688117/serologic-evidence-of-west-nile-virus-and-usutu-virus-infections-in-eurasian-coots-in-the-netherlands
#3
S M Lim, M Geervliet, J H Verhagen, G J D M Müskens, F A Majoor, A D M E Osterhaus, B E E Martina
West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are arboviruses that are maintained in enzootic transmission cycles between mosquitoes and birds and are occasionally transmitted to mammals. As arboviruses are currently expanding their geographic range and emerging in often unpredictable locations, surveillance is considered an important element of preparedness. To determine whether sera collected from resident and migratory birds in the Netherlands as part of avian influenza surveillance would also represent an effective source for proactive arbovirus surveillance, a random selection of such sera was screened for WNV antibodies using a commercial ELISA...
July 7, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681706/a-theoretical-model-of-the-west-nile-virus-survival-data
#4
James K Peterson, Alison M Kesson, Nicholas J C King
BACKGROUND: In this work, we develop a theoretical model that explains the survival data in West Nile Virus infection. RESULTS: We build a model based on three cell populations in an infected host; the collateral damage cells, the infected dividing cell, and the infected non-dividing cells. T cell-mediated lysis of each of these populations is dependent on the level of MHC-1 upregulation, which is different in the two infected cell populations, interferon-gamma and free virus levels...
June 21, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680856/sertoli-cells-are-susceptible-to-zikv-infection-in-mouse-testis
#5
Zi-Yang Sheng, Na Gao, Zhao-Yang Wang, Xiao-Yun Cui, De-Shan Zhou, Dong-Ying Fan, Hui Chen, Pei-Gang Wang, Jing An
Flaviviruses including Dengue virus (DENV), Yellow fever virus (YFV), West Nile virus (WNV), and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are global health problems that caused several serious diseases such as fever, hemorrhagic fever, and encephalitis in the past century. Recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) which spreads from Asia to American and causes millions of infections emerges as a new dangerous member of the genus of Flavivirus. Unlike other well-known flaviviruses, ZIKV can be transmitted sexually and infect testes in murine models...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680683/transcriptional-response-to-west-nile-virus-infection-in-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#6
Daniel J Newhouse, Erik K Hofmeister, Christopher N Balakrishnan
West Nile virus (WNV) is a widespread arbovirus that imposes a significant cost to both human and wildlife health. WNV exists in a bird-mosquito transmission cycle in which passerine birds act as the primary reservoir host. As a public health concern, the mammalian immune response to WNV has been studied in detail. Little, however, is known about the avian immune response to WNV. Avian taxa show variable susceptibility to WNV and what drives this variation is unknown. Thus, to study the immune response to WNV in birds, we experimentally infected captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata)...
June 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680095/osteopontin-facilitates-west-nile-virus-neuroinvasion-via-neutrophil-trojan-horse-transport
#7
Amber M Paul, Dhiraj Acharya, Laurel Duty, E Ashley Thompson, Linda Le, Dobrivoje S Stokic, A Arturo Leis, Fengwei Bai
West Nile virus (WNV) can cause severe human neurological diseases including encephalitis and meningitis. The mechanisms by which WNV enters the central nervous system (CNS) and host-factors that are involved in WNV neuroinvasion are not completely understood. The proinflammatory chemokine osteopontin (OPN) is induced in multiple neuroinflammatory diseases and is responsible for leukocyte recruitment to sites of its expression. In this study, we found that WNV infection induced OPN expression in both human and mouse cells...
July 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678837/reconstructing-the-recent-west-nile-virus-lineage-2-epidemic-in-europe-and-italy-using-discrete-and-continuous-phylogeography
#8
Gianguglielmo Zehender, Carla Veo, Erika Ebranati, Valentina Carta, Francesca Rovida, Elena Percivalle, Ana Moreno, Davide Lelli, Mattia Calzolari, Antonio Lavazza, Chiara Chiapponi, Laura Baioni, Gioia Capelli, Silvia Ravagnan, Graziana Da Rold, Enrico Lavezzo, Giorgio Palù, Fausto Baldanti, Luisa Barzon, Massimo Galli
West Nile virus lineage 2 (WNV-2) was mainly confined to sub-Saharan Africa until the early 2000s, when it was identified for the first time in Central Europe causing outbreaks of human and animal infection. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the origin and dispersion of WNV-2 in Central Europe and Italy on a phylodynamic and phylogeographical basis. To this aim, discrete and continuous space phylogeographical models were applied to a total of 33 newly characterised full-length viral genomes obtained from mosquitoes, birds and humans in Northern Italy in the years 2013-2015 aligned with 64 complete sequences isolated mainly in Europe...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675249/mosquito-species-involved-in-the-circulation-of-west-nile-and-usutu-viruses-in-italy
#9
Giuseppe Mancini, Fabrizio Montarsi, Mattia Calzolari, Gioia Capelli, Michele Dottori, Silvia Ravagnan, Davide Lelli, Mario Chiari, Adriana Santilli, Michela Quaglia, Michela Quaglia, Valentina Federici, Federica Monaco, Maria Goffredo, Giovanni Savini
Usutu (USUV) and West Nile (WNV) are mosquito-borne Flavivirus emerged in Italy in 1996 and 1998, respectively, and reappeared 10 years later. The aim of this work is to review the Italian mosquito species found positive for WNV and USUV between 2008 and 2014. Moreover, the role of mosquitoes in promoting the overwintering of these viruses is discussed, as a result of the mosquito collections performed in Molise region between September 2010 and April 2011. Overall 99,000 mosquitoes were collected: 337 and 457 mosquito pools tested positive by real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (real time RT-PCR) for WNV and USUV, respectively...
June 30, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675106/west-nile-virus-infection-in-ruffed-grouse-bonasa-umbellus-experimental-infection-and-protective-effects-of-vaccination
#10
Nicole M Nemeth, Angela M Bosco-Lauth, Lisa M Williams, Richard A Bowen, Justin D Brown
Ruffed grouse ( Bonasa umbellus) population numbers in Pennsylvania dramatically declined during the early 2000s and have subsequently remained depressed throughout much of the state. While this decline has been temporally associated with the presence of West Nile virus (WNV), lack of information on the WNV susceptibility of this popular game bird species has limited the ability to interpret the potential impacts of WNV. To address this knowledge gap, virologic, immunologic, pathologic, and clinical responses as well as protective effects of vaccination following experimental WNV inoculation in ruffed grouse were assessed...
January 1, 2017: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673021/emergence-of-west-nile-virus-in-west-bengal-india-a-new-report
#11
Tanuja Khatun, Shyamalendu Chatterjee
Background: The ICMR virus unit in Kolkata functions as an Appex Referral Laboratory for the detection of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) infections in the eastern part of India. In spite of efforts for confirmatory diagnosis, some samples remain undiagnosed every year. West Nile virus (WNV) infection may mimic either dengue (flavivirus) or chikungunya (alphavirus) like illness. WNV is endemic in the tropical region where its principal/potential vectors are Aedes and Culex. Methods: We explored the existence of WNV within undiagnosed samples to identify the emergence of a new public health problem...
April 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659477/west-nile-virus-ns1-antagonizes-interferon-%C3%AE-production-by-targeting-rig-i-and-mda5
#12
Hong-Lei Zhang, Han-Qing Ye, Si-Qing Liu, Cheng-Lin Deng, Xiao-Dan Li, Pei-Yong Shi, Bo Zhang
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that causes epidemics of encephalitis and viscerotropic disease worldwide. This virus has spread rapidly and has posed significant a public health threat since the outbreak in New York City in 1999. The interferon (IFN)-mediated antiviral response represents an important component of virus-host interactions and plays an essential role in regulating viral replication. Previous studies have suggested that multifunctional non-structural proteins encoded by flaviviruses antagonize the host IFN response via various means in order to establish efficient viral replication...
June 28, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28656018/zika-virus-and-sexual-transmission-a-new-route-of-transmission-for-mosquito-borne-flaviviruses%C3%A2
#13
REVIEW
Andrew K Hastings, Erol Fikrig
Beginning in 2015, concern over a new global epidemic has spread in the media, governmental agencies, legislative bodies and the public at large. This newly emerging threat has been reported to cause symptoms ranging from mild fever, rash, and body aches, to severe birth defects and acute onset paralysis. The causative agent of this disease, Zika virus, is closely related to two other important human pathogens, dengue and West Nile Virus (WNV), but has some distinguishing features that has raised alarms from the scientific community...
June 2017: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648789/detection-of-west-nile-virus-and-other-common-equine-viruses-in-three-locations-from-the-leeward-islands-west-indies
#14
Pompei Bolfa, Isaac Jeon, Amanda Loftis, Teresa Leslie, Silvia Marchi, Fortune Sithole, Cecile Beck, Sylvie Lecollinet, Stephan Zientara, Aymeric Hans, Charles J Issel
Equines in the West Indies are used for recreational purposes, tourism industry, racing and agriculture or can be found in feral populations. Little is known in the Caribbean basin about the prevalence of some major equine infectious diseases, some with zoonotic potential, listed as reportable by the OIE. Our objective was to study the prevalence of antibodies for West Nile Virus (WNV), Equine Herpes Virus-1 and 4 (EHV-1 and EHV-4), Equine Influenza (EI), Equine Viral Arteritis (EVA) and Equine Infectious Anemia Virus (EIAV) using a retrospective serological convenience study...
June 22, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628400/west-nile-virus-seroprevalence-in-animals-in-palestine-and-israel
#15
Kifaya Azmi, Sharon Tirosh-Levy, Mu'taz Manasrah, Rotem Mizrahi, Abed Nasereddin, Amer Al-Jawabreh, Suheir Ereqat, Ziad Abdeen, Yaniv Lustig, Boris Gelman, Gili Schvartz, Amir Steinman
West Nile virus (WNV) epidemiological situation in Israel and Palestine, due to their unique location, draws attention following to the global spread of West Nile fever (WNF). Although much information is available from Israel on clinical cases and prevalence of WNV, clinical cases are rarely reported in Palestine, and prevalence is not known. The objectives of this study were to determine WNV seroprevalence in various domestic animals in Palestine and to reevaluate current seroprevalence, force of infection, and risk factors for WNV exposure in horses in Israel...
June 19, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628366/culex-flavivirus-during-west-nile-virus-epidemic-and-interepidemic-years-in-chicago-united-states
#16
Christina M Newman, Bethany L Krebs, Tavis K Anderson, Gabriel L Hamer, Marilyn O Ruiz, Jeffrey D Brawn, William M Brown, Uriel D Kitron, Tony L Goldberg
Culex flavivirus (CxFV) is an insect-specific flavivirus infecting Culex mosquitoes, which are important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV). CxFV and WNV cocirculate in nature and coinfect Culex mosquitoes, including in a WNV "hotspot" in suburban Chicago. We previously identified a positive association between CxFV and WNV in mosquito pools collected from suburban Chicago in 2006. To further investigate this phenomenon, we compared the spatial and temporal distribution of CxFV during an interepidemic year (2011) and an epidemic year (2012) for WNV...
June 19, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623344/an-essential-role-of-pi3k-in-the-control-of-west-nile-virus-infection
#17
Leilei Wang, Long Yang, Erol Fikrig, Penghua Wang
The phosphatidyl-inositol-3 kinases (PI3K) pathway regulates a variety of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, RNA processing, protein translation, autophagy, apoptosis and antiviral immunity. Many viruses depend on PI3K signaling for replication. However, its role in flaviviral infection has not been clearly defined. Here we report that PI3K signaling is critical for the control of West Nile virus (WNV) infection by regulating type I IFN (IFN-I) response. Inhibition of PI3K activity by 3-methyl adenine (3-MA), Wortmannin (WM) and LY294002 (LY) increased viral titers by 3-16 folds in primary mouse macrophages, embryonic fibroblasts and human cell lines...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622360/the-seroprevalence-of-west-nile-virus-in-israel-a-nationwide-cross-sectional-study
#18
Ravit Bassal, Tamy Shohat, Zalman Kaufman, Batya Mannasse, Eilat Shinar, Doron Amichay, Mira Barak, Anat Ben-Dor, Adina Bar Haim, Daniel Cohen, Ella Mendelson, Yaniv Lustig
West Nile Virus (WNV) is endemic in Israel, affecting yearly 40-160 individuals. Israel is located on a central migratory path between Africa and Eurasia and most West Nile Fever (WNF) cases reported in recent years were among residents of the coastal plain. The aim of the study was to evaluate the seroprevalence of WNV among the Israeli population and to assess correlates for WNV infection. A cross-sectional nationwide serologic survey was conducted using 3,145 serum samples collected by the national Israeli serum bank during 2011-2014, representing all age and population groups in Israel...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616487/wild-snakes-harbor-west-nile-virus
#19
C R Dahlin, D F Hughes, W E Meshaka, C Coleman, J D Henning
West Nile virus (WNV) has a complex eco-epidemiology with birds acting as reservoirs and hosts for the virus. Less well understood is the role of reptiles, especially in wild populations. The goal of our study was to determine whether a wild population of snakes in Pennsylvania harbored WNV. Six species of snakes were orally sampled in the summer of 2013 and were tested for the presence of WNV viral RNA using RT-PCR. Two Eastern Garter Snakes, Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis tested positive for viral RNA (2/123, 1...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616480/culex-pipiens-and-culex-torrentium-populations-from-central-europe-are-susceptible-to-west-nile-virus-infection
#20
Mayke Leggewie, Marlis Badusche, Martin Rudolf, Stephanie Jansen, Jessica Börstler, Ralf Krumkamp, Katrin Huber, Andreas Krüger, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Egbert Tannich, Stefanie C Becker
West Nile virus (WNV), a Flavivirus with an avian primary host, is already widespread in Europe and might also pose an infection risk to Germany, should competent mosquito vectors be present. Therefore, we analysed the ability of WNV to infect German Culex mosquitoes with special emphasis on field collected specimens of Culex torrentium and Culex pipiens biotype pipiens. We collected egg rafts of Culex mosquitoes over two subsequent seasons at two geographically distinct sampling areas in Germany and differentiated the samples by molecular methods...
December 2016: One Health
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