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Ronan N Rouxel, Emilie Mérour, Stéphane Biacchesi, Michel Brémont
Novirhabdoviruses like Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) and Infectious Hematopoietic Necrosis Virus (IHNV) are fish-infecting Rhabdoviruses belonging to the Mononegavirales order. By reverse genetics, we previously showed that a recombinant VHSV expressing the West Nile Virus (WNV) E glycoprotein could serve as a vaccine platform against WNV. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the potential of the Novirhabdovirus platform as a vaccine against influenza virus. Recombinant Novirhabdoviruses, rVHSV-HA and rIHNV-HA, expressing at the viral surface the hemagglutinin HA ectodomain were generated and used to immunized mice...
2016: PloS One
Gamou Fall, Martin Faye, Manfred Weidmann, Marco Kaiser, Anne Dupressoir, El Hadj Ndiaye, Yamar Ba, Mawlouth Diallo, Ousmane Faye, Amadou Alpha Sall
West Nile virus (WNV) is an emerging arbovirus, circulating worldwide between birds and mosquitoes, which impacts human and animal health. Since the mid-1990s, WNV outbreaks have emerged in Europe and America and represent currently the primary cause of encephalitis in the United States. WNV exhibits a great genetic diversity with at least eight different lineages circulating in the world, and four (1, 2, Koutango, and putative new) are present in Africa. These different WNV lineages are not readily differentiated by serology, and thus, rapid molecular tools are required for diagnostic...
October 6, 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Ani Ioana Cotar, Elena Falcuta, Liviu Florian Prioteasa, Sorin Dinu, Cornelia Svetlana Ceianu, Shlomit Paz
Mosquitoes were collected in the Danube Delta during the active seasons of 2011-2013. For Culex spp. mosquitoes, the abundance was calculated. Culex pipiens (sensu lato), (s.l.) and Culex modestus pools were tested for the presence of West Nile virus (WNV) genome, and the maximum likelihood of the infection rate was established. Mean daily temperatures and precipitation were obtained for the closest meteorological station. A negative binominal model was used to evaluate linkages between the temperature/precipitation and mosquito population size...
October 5, 2016: EcoHealth
A Wünschmann, A G Armién, M Khatri, L C Martinez, M Willette, A Glaser, J Alvarez, P Redig
Ocular lesions are common in red-tailed hawks with West Nile (WN) disease. These lesions consist of pectenitis, choroidal or retinal inflammation, or retinal necrosis, but detailed investigation of the ocular lesions is lacking. Postmortem examination of the eyes of 16 red-tailed hawks with naturally acquired WN disease and 3 red-tailed hawks without WN disease was performed using histopathology, immunohistochemistry for West Nile virus (WNV) antigen, glial fibrillary acid protein, cleaved caspase-3, and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling method...
September 30, 2016: Veterinary Pathology
Caterina Rizzo, Christian Napoli, Giulietta Venturi, Simonetta Pupella, Letizia Lombardini, Paolo Calistri, Federica Monaco, Roberto Cagarelli, Paola Angelini, Romeo Bellini, Marco Tamba, Alessandra Piatti, Francesca Russo, Giorgio Palù, Mario Chiari, Antonio Lavazza, Antonino Bella
In Italy a national Plan for the surveillance of imported and autochthonous human vector-borne diseases (chikungunya, dengue, Zika virus disease and West Nile virus (WNV) disease) that integrates human and veterinary (animals and vectors) surveillance, is issued and revised annually according with the observed epidemiological changes. Here we describe results of the WNV integrated veterinary and human surveillance systems in Italy from 2008 to 2015. A real time data exchange protocol is in place between the surveillance systems to rapidly identify occurrence of human and animal cases and to define and update the map of affected areas i...
September 15, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Antonella Grottola, Maurilia Marcacci, Sara Tagliazucchi, William Gennari, Annapia Di Gennaro, Massimiliano Orsini, Federica Monaco, Patrizia Marchegiano, Valeria Marini, Marisa Meacci, Fabio Rumpianesi, Alessio Lorusso, Monica Pecorari, Giovanni Savini
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to monitor the spread and to evaluate the role for public health of Usutu virus (USUV) in an endemic area of Italy. METHODS: The survey was retrospectively conducted by detecting USUV-RNA and USUV-antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples collected between 2008 and 2011 from 915 patients with or without neurological impairments in the area of the municipality of Modena, Italy. Real time RT-PCR was performed on CSF and serum specimens while serum-neutralization was used to detect antibodies...
September 24, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Bradley J Blitvich, Tian Wang, Vandana Saxena, Shemin Zeng, Karen M Harmon, Matthew D Raymond, Kenneth M Goins, Cynthia Reed, Robert F Mullins, Mark A Greiner
The purpose of this study was to determine the in vitro and ex vivo susceptibility of human corneal cells to West Nile virus (WNV) infection and evaluate the ability of the virus to disseminate to the corneas of infected mice. Human corneal epithelial cells were challenged with WNV, incubated for 1-6 days, and tested for evidence of WNV infection. Viral RNA and antigen were detected at every time point, and the virus reached a peak titer of 2.5 × 10(7) plaque-forming units (pfu)/mL at 3 days postinoculation (PI)...
September 26, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Michael R Wilson, Lara L Zimmermann, Emily D Crawford, Hannah A Sample, Priya Soni, Amira Baker, Lillian M Khan, Joseph L DeRisi
Solid organ transplant patients are vulnerable to suffering neurologic complications from a wide array of viral infections and can be sentinels in the population who are first to get serious complications from emerging infections like the recent waves of arboviruses, including West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus, Zika virus, and Dengue virus. The diverse and rapidly changing landscape of possible causes of viral encephalitis poses great challenges for traditional candidate-based infectious disease diagnostics that already fail to identify a causative pathogen in approximately 50% of encephalitis cases...
September 20, 2016: American Journal of Transplantation
Semmannan Kalaiyarasu, Niranjan Mishra, Rohit Kumar Khetan, Vijendra Pal Singh
Birds can act as reservoirs of West Nile virus (WNV) with a key role in its epidemiology. WNV lineage 1 associated fatal cases of human encephalitis in 2011 and acute flaccid paralysis in 2013 were reported in Alappuzha district, Kerala, India. But no information is available on WNV circulation in domestic ducks, which are abundant, cohabit with humans and occupy wetlands and water bodies in the region. To determine the extent of WNV infection, we investigated 209 sera, 250 oral and 350 cloacal swab samples from local Chara and Chemballi domestic ducks (Anas platyrhynchos var domesticus) in the districts of Alappuzha, Kottayam, Kollam and Pathanamthitta collected during January and March 2015...
October 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Terza Brostoff, Patricia A Pesavento, Christopher M Barker, Joan L Kenney, Elizabeth A Dietrich, Nisha K Duggal, Angela M Bosco-Lauth, Aaron C Brault
West Nile virus (WNV) is an important agent of human encephalitis that has quickly become endemic across much of the United States since its identification in North America in 1999. While the majority (∼75%) of infections are subclinical, neurologic disease can occur in a subset of cases, with outcomes including permanent neurologic damage and death. Currently, there are no WNV vaccines approved for use in humans. This study introduces a novel vaccine platform for WNV to reduce viral replication in the central nervous system while maintaining peripheral replication to elicit strong neutralizing antibody titers...
October 17, 2016: Vaccine
N B Cleton, K van Maanen, S A Bergervoet, N Bon, C Beck, G-J Godeke, S Lecollinet, R Bowen, D Lelli, N Nowotny, M P G Koopmans, C B E M Reusken
The genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae includes some of the most important examples of emerging zoonotic arboviruses that are rapidly spreading across the globe. Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), West Nile virus (WNV), St. Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are mosquito-borne members of the JEV serological group. Although most infections in humans are asymptomatic or present with mild flu-like symptoms, clinical manifestations of JEV, WNV, SLEV, USUV and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) can include severe neurological disease and death...
September 15, 2016: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Nikolaos I Stilianakis, Vasileios Syrris, Thomas Petroliagkis, Peeter Pärt, Sandra Gewehr, Stella Kalaitzopoulou, Spiros Mourelatos, Agoritsa Baka, Danai Pervanidou, John Vontas, Christos Hadjichristodoulou
Climate can affect the geographic and seasonal patterns of vector-borne disease incidence such as West Nile Virus (WNV) infections. We explore the association between climatic factors and the occurrence of West Nile fever (WNF) or West Nile neuro-invasive disease (WNND) in humans in Northern Greece over the years 2010-2014. Time series over a period of 30 years (1979-2008) of climatic data of air temperature, relative humidity, soil temperature, volumetric soil water content, wind speed, and precipitation representing average climate were obtained utilising the ECMWF's (European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts) Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) system allowing for a homogeneous set of data in time and space...
2016: PloS One
Matthew C I Medeiros, Robert E Ricklefs, Jeffrey D Brawn, Marilyn O Ruiz, Tony L Goldberg, Gabriel L Hamer
Multiple vector-borne pathogens often circulate in the same vector and host communities, and seasonal infection dynamics influence the potential for pathogen interactions. Here, we explore the seasonal infection patterns of avian malaria (Haemosporida) parasites (genera: Plasmodium and Parahaemoproteus) and West Nile virus (WNV) in birds and mosquitoes in suburban Chicago. We show that both pathogens vary seasonally in Culex mosquitoes and avian hosts, but that patterns of covariation are complex. Different putative Plasmodium species varied asynchronously across the season in mosquitoes and birds, suggesting that different forces may govern their transmission...
September 12, 2016: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Olga A Maximova, John G Bernbaum, Alexander G Pletnev
BACKGROUND: During recent West Nile virus (WNV) outbreaks in the US, half of the reported cases were classified as neuroinvasive disease. WNV neuroinvasion is proposed to follow two major routes: hematogenous and/or axonal transport along the peripheral nerves. How virus spreads once within the central nervous system (CNS) remains unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using immunohistochemistry, we examined the expression of viral antigens in the CNS of rhesus monkeys that were intrathalamically inoculated with a wild-type WNV...
September 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Yvonne H Randle, Cheryl Battle Freeman, Monique Jackson, Martin Reyna, Mustapha Debboun
In the 14 years since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in Harris County and the city of Houston, Texas, the number of mosquitoes infected with the virus has fluctuated with several high and low count years. During this 14-year period, mosquito surveillance operational areas in Harris County were expanded from 248 to 268 and the distribution of the virus activity in mosquitoes varied from year to year. Operational areas with WNV infected mosquitoes increased from 137 in 2002 to 197 in 2006, decreased to 71 areas in 2007, and to an all-time low of 18 in 2008...
October 2016: U.S. Army Medical Department Journal
R R Montgomery
West Nile virus (WNV) is the most important causative agent of viral encephalitis worldwide and an important public health concern in the United States due to its high prevalence, severe disease, and the absence of effective treatments. Infection with WNV is mainly asymptomatic, but some individuals develop severe, possibly fatal, neurological disease. Individual host factors play a role in susceptibility to WNV infection, including genetic polymorphisms in key anti-viral immune genes, but age is the most well-defined risk factor for susceptibility to severe disease...
September 10, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Agnes Agunos, F William Pierson, Bwalya Lungu, Patricia A Dunn, Nathaniel Tablante
Emerging and re-emerging diseases are continuously diagnosed in poultry species. A few of these diseases are known to cross the species barrier, thus posing a public health risk and an economic burden. We identified and synthesized global evidence for poultry nonfoodborne zoonoses to better understand these diseases in people who were exposed to different poultry-related characteristics (e.g., occupational or nonoccupational, operational types, poultry species, outbreak conditions, health status of flocks)...
September 2016: Avian Diseases
Soha R Youssef, Doaa G Eissa, Rania A Abo-Shady, N T Fouad, Dina K Kattab, Hanaa Fathey, A A Elewa, Doaa M Reda
BACKGROUND: Transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) from asymptomatic donors has been reported during blood transfusions and organ transplants in humans. In this work, we aimed to investigate the presence of WNV antibody and WNV RNA in blood donors to evaluate the sero-prevalence of WNV and risk for WNV transmission. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Hundred and sixty blood donors were tested for the presence of anti-WNV IgG by ELISA and for WNV 1 and 2 RNA by RT-PCR. RESULTS: 55% of blood donors were seropositive for WNV IgG antibodies, with significantly higher percentage of positive donors coming from rural areas and Nile Delta region compared to other donors...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Medical Virology
Leslie Goo, Kimberly A Dowd, Alexander R Y Smith, Rebecca S Pelc, Christina R DeMaso, Theodore C Pierson
UNLABELLED: Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus that has emerged as a global health threat due in part to its association with congenital abnormalities. Other globally relevant flaviviruses include dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV). High-resolution structures of ZIKV reveal many similarities to DENV and suggest some differences, including an extended glycan loop (D. Sirohi, Z. Chen, L. Sun, T. Klose, T. C. Pierson, et al., 352:467-470, 2016,
2016: MBio
Alexandra Chaskopoulou, Gregory L'Ambert, Dusan Petric, Romeo Bellini, Marija Zgomba, Thomas A Groen, Laurence Marrama, Dominique J Bicout
West Nile virus (WNV) represents a serious burden to human and animal health because of its capacity to cause unforeseen and large epidemics. Until 2004, only lineage 1 and 3 WNV strains had been found in Europe. Lineage 2 strains were initially isolated in 2004 (Hungary) and in 2008 (Austria) and for the first time caused a major WNV epidemic in 2010 in Greece with 262 clinical human cases and 35 fatalities. Since then, WNV lineage 2 outbreaks have been reported in several European countries including Italy, Serbia and Greece...
2016: Parasites & Vectors
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