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Arpit Bhargava, Dinesh K Mishra, Subodh K Jain, Rupesh K Srivastava, Nirmal K Lohiya, Pradyumna K Mishra
We aimed to identify an optimum nano-carrier system to deliver tumor antigen to dendritic cells (DCs) for efficient targeting of tumor reinitiating cells (TRICs) in gynecological malignancies. Different lipid based nano-carrier systems i.e. liposomes, ethosomes and solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNPs) were examined for their ability to activate DCs in allogeneic settings. Out of these three, the most optimized formulation was subjected for cationic and mannosylated surface modification and pulsed with DCs for specific targeting of tumor cells...
October 17, 2016: Molecular Immunology
Kun Taek Park, Mahmoud M ElNaggar, Gaber S Abdellrazeq, John P Bannantine, Victoria Mack, Lindsay M Fry, William C Davis
Phylogenic comparisons of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) of humans and mice demonstrate phenotypic divergence of dendritic cell (DC) subsets that play similar roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Although differing in phenotype, DC can be classified into four groups according to ontogeny and function: conventional DC (cDC1 and cDC2), plasmacytoid DC (pDC), and monocyte derived DC (MoDC). DC of Artiodactyla (pigs and ruminants) can also be sub-classified using this system, allowing direct functional and phenotypic comparison of MoDC and other DC subsets trafficking in blood (bDC)...
2016: PloS One
Jacinto Santodomingo-Rubido, César Villa-Collar, Bernard Gilmartin, Ramón Gutiérrez-Ortega
PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between short-term and long-term changes in power at different corneal locations relative to the change in central corneal power and the 2-year change in axial elongation relative to baseline in children fitted with orthokeratology contact lenses (OK). METHODS: Thirty-one white European subjects 6 to 12 years of age and with myopia -0.75 to -4.00 DS and astigmatism ≤1.00 DC were fitted with OK. Differences in refractive power 3 and 24 months post-OK in comparison with baseline and relative to the change in central corneal power were determined from corneal topography data in eight different corneal regions (i...
October 19, 2016: Eye & Contact Lens
Jeanne Durendale Chiadak, Tatjana Arsenijevic, Francoise Gregoire, Nargis Bolaky, Valerie Delforge, Jason Perret, Christine Delporte
Aquaglyceroporins, belonging to the family of aquaporins (AQPs), are integral plasma membrane proteins permeable to water and glycerol that have emerged as key players in obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression profile of AQPs in undifferentiated and differentiated 3T3-L1 cells and to investigate the changes in expression of aquaglyceroporins in 3T3-L1 cells differentiated into adipocytes and subjected to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) mimicking inflammation occurring during obesity. Furthermore, the study aimed at identifying the signaling cascade involved in the regulation of aquaglyceroporins expression upon LPS stimulation...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Angad P Mehta, Han Li, Sean A Reed, Lubica Supekova, Tsotne Javahishvili, Peter G Schultz
Several modified bases have been observed in the genomic DNA of bacteriophages, prokaryotes, and eukaryotes that play a role in restriction systems and/or epigenetic regulation. In our efforts to understand the consequences of replacing a large fraction of a canonical nucleoside with a modified nucleoside, we previously replaced around 75% of thymidine (T) with 5'-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxyuridine (5hmU) in the Escherichia coli genome. In this study, we engineered the pyrimidine nucleotide biosynthetic pathway using T4 bacteriophage genes to achieve approximately 63% replacement of 2'-deoxycytidine (dC) with 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine (5hmC) in the E...
October 20, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Yoichi Kato
We assessed the efficacy of WT1 class I peptide and WT1 class II peptide pulsed dendritic cell(DC)therapy for a wide range of advanced cancers. This retrospective study included 60 advanced cancer patients who were vaccinated 5times or more in this clinic between September 2013 and December 2015. The clinical response was examined. This treatment was approved by the ethics panel at this institution. Sixty patients were injected an average of 6.15times with dendritic cells(DCs) (2.6×10 / 7 cells/injection)...
October 2016: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Nathan D Crosby, John J Janik, Warren M Grill
Kilohertz-frequency spinal cord stimulation (KHF-SCS) is a potential paresthesia-free treatment for chronic pain. However, the effects of KHF-SCS on spinal dorsal column (DC) axons and its mechanisms of action remain unknown. The objectives of this study were to quantify activation and conduction block of DC axons by KHF-SCS across a range of kHz frequencies (1, 5, 10, or 20 kHz) and waveforms (biphasic pulses or sinusoids). Custom platinum electrodes delivered SCS to the T10/T11 DCs of anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Karina Quevedo, Rowena Ng, Hannah Scott, Garry Smyda, Jennifer H Pfeifer, Sandra Malone
Maltreatment is associated with chronic depression, high negative self-attributions, and lifetime psychopathology. Adolescence is a sensitive period for the formation of self-concept. Identifying neurobiomarkers of self-processing in depressed adolescents with and without maltreatment may parse the effects of trauma and depression on self-development and chronic psychopathology. Depressed adolescents (n = 86) maltreated due to omission (DO, n = 13) or commission (DCM, n = 28) or without maltreatment (DC, n = 45), and HCs (HC, n = 37) appraised positive and negative self-descriptors in the scanner...
October 20, 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Vivek Durai, Kenneth M Murphy
Dendritic cells (DCs) play critical roles in activating innate immune cells and initiating adaptive immune responses. The functions of DCs were originally obscured by their overlap with other mononuclear phagocytes, but new mouse models have allowed for the selective ablation of subsets of DCs and have helped to identify their non-redundant roles in the immune system. These tools have elucidated the functions of DCs in host defense against pathogens, autoimmunity, and cancer. This review will describe the mouse models generated to interrogate the role of DCs and will discuss how their use has progressively clarified our understanding of the unique functions of DC subsets...
October 18, 2016: Immunity
Franz Puttur, Marcela Francozo, Gülhas Solmaz, Carlos Bueno, Marc Lindenberg, Melanie Gohmert, Maxine Swallow, Dejene Tufa, Roland Jacobs, Stefan Lienenklaus, Anja A Kühl, Lisa Borkner, Luka Cicin-Sain, Bernard Holzmann, Hermann Wagner, Luciana Berod, Tim Sparwasser
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an opportunistic virus severely infecting immunocompromised individuals. In mice, endosomal Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and downstream myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) are central to activating innate immune responses against mouse CMV (MCMV). In this respect, the cell-specific contribution of these pathways in initiating anti-MCMV immunity remains unclear. Using transgenic mice, we demonstrate that TLR9/MyD88 signaling selectively in CD11c(+) dendritic cells (DCs) strongly enhances MCMV clearance by boosting natural killer (NK) cell CD69 expression and IFN-γ production...
October 18, 2016: Cell Reports
Josseanne Maria Teixeira, Maria do Carmo De Carvalho Martins, Luanne Fortes Monte Soares, Ana Lina De Carvalho Cunha Sales, Daiane Cristina Ferreira Damasceno, Francisco Valmor Macedo Cunha, Regina Célia De Assis, José Carlos Santos Júnior, Nivea Maria Da Costa Sousa
INTRODUCTION: Food and dietetic components have received considerable attention as auxiliary feeding resources on controlling of chronic non-transmissible diseases, among them diabetes. This study evaluated the effect of supplementary diet with multimixture based on linseed, sesame, oats and sunflower seeds on the hepatic function and antioxidant activity of diabetic rats. METHODS: Male rats were distributed on groups of seven animals: diabetic control (DC), diabetics subject to multimixture diet (DM), diabetic with insulin (DI), and normal control (NC)...
September 20, 2016: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
Vanaja Konduri, Dali Li, Matthew M Halpert, Dan Liang, Zhengdong Liang, Yunyu Chen, William E Fisher, Silke Paust, Jonathan M Levitt, Qizhi Cathy Yao, William K Decker
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States, exhibiting a five-year overall survival (OS) of only 7% despite aggressive standard of care. Recent advances in immunotherapy suggest potential application of immune-based treatment approaches to PDAC. To explore this concept further, we treated orthotopically established K-ras(G12D)/p53(-/-) PDAC tumors with gemcitabine and a cell-based vaccine previously shown to generate durable cell-mediated (TH1) immunity...
2016: Oncoimmunology
Qiong Liu, Wen Wen, Liang Tang, Chen-Jie Qin, Yan Lin, Hui-Lu Zhang, Han Wu, Charles Ashton, Hong-Ping Wu, Jin Ding, Wei Dong, Le-Xing Yu, Wen Yang, Dan-Dan Huang, Meng-Chao Wu, Hong-Yang Wang, He-Xin Yan
Despite their central function in tumor immunity, dendritic cells (DCs) can respond to inhibitory signals and become tolerogenic, curtailing T cell responses in vivo. Here, we provide the evidence for an inhibitory function of signal regulatory protein (SIRP) α in DC survival and activation. In tumors from human liver cancer patients, infiltrative DCs expressed elevated levels of SIRPα, which is correlated with the induction of immune tolerance within the tumors. Silencing of SIRPα resulted in a significant increase in the longevity of antigen-pulsed DCs in the draining lymph nodes...
2016: Oncoimmunology
Andrew J Highton, Adam Girardin, Georgia M Bell, Sarah M Hook, Roslyn A Kemp
BACKGROUND: Vaccination generating a robust memory population of CD8(+) T cells may provide protection against cancer. However, immune therapies for cancer are influenced by the local tumour immune microenvironment. An infiltrate of T cells into tumours of people with colorectal cancer has proven to be a significant indicator of good prognosis. METHODS: We used an intracaecal mouse model of cancer to determine whether a protective immune response against a mucosal gut tumour could be generated using a systemic intervention...
October 18, 2016: BMC Immunology
Julie Barbeau, Loïc Lemiègre, Allan Quelen, Virginie Malard, Haifei Gao, Cristine Gonçalves, Mathieu Berchel, Paul-Alain Jaffrès, Chantal Pichon, Patrick Midoux, Thierry Benvegnu
An archaeal diether lipid possessing a tri-antenna of α-D-mannopyranoside linked via an oligoethylene spacer to a (2S)-2-(phytanyloxy)-3-(hexadecyloxy)propanoic acid backbone (TriMan-Diether) was designed and synthesized. This new mannosylated lipid inserted in liposomes would show both DC-targeting and adjuvant properties thanks to the TriMan structure and the diether tail part, respectively.
October 11, 2016: Carbohydrate Research
Andres Fuentes-Ramirez, Joseph W Veldman, Claus Holzapfel, Kirk A Moloney
Novel fire regimes are an important cause and consequence of global environmental change that involve interactions among biotic, climatic, and human components of ecosystems. Plant flammability is key to these interactions, yet few studies directly measure flammability or consider how multiple species with different flammabilities interact to produce novel fire regimes. Deserts of the southwestern United States are an ideal system for exploring how novel fire regimes can emerge when fire-promoting species invade ecosystems comprised of species that did not evolve with fire...
October 2016: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Do Young Kim, Ki Tae Yoon, Won Kim, Jung Il Lee, Sung Hwi Hong, Danbi Lee, Jeong Won Jang, Jong Won Choi, Ilsu Kim, Yong Han Paik
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to estimate the direct medical costs of managing chronic hepatitis C (CHC) and its complications based on health-care resources in South Korea. METHODS: The study design was multicenter, retrospective, non-interventional, and observational. Between September 2013 and April 2014, health-care resource data from patients chronically infected with hepatitis C virus, regardless of genotype, were collected from 8 institutions, including data related to outpatient management, emergency care, and hospitalization...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Yuanyuan Shi, Alexander Kamasah, Arthur G Suits
We report a crossed molecular beam study of the reaction dynamics of fluorine atom with 1-propanol, 1-butene and 1-hexene. The product alkoxy and alkenyl radicals were detected via dc slice imaging by 157nm single photon ionization at collision energies around 10 kcal.mol-1. The analyzed data is interpreted with the aid of theoretical investigation of the relevant potential energy surfaces. The translational energy distribution and center-of-mass angular distribution of F + 1-propanol is quite similar to our previous results for F + n-butane, albeit with an increased fraction of the available energy in translation...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Jack Drescher, Alan Schwartz, Flávio Casoy, Christopher A McIntosh, Brian Hurley, Kenneth Ashley, Mary Barber, David Goldenberg, Sarah E Herbert, Lorraine E Lothwell, Marlin R Mattson, Scot G McAfee, Jack Pula, Vernon Rosario, D Andrew Tompkins
Conversion therapies are any treatments, including individual talk therapy, behavioral (e.g. aversive stimuli), group therapy or milieu (e.g. "retreats or inpatient treatments" relying on all of the above methods) treatments, which attempt to change an individual's sexual orientation from homosexual to heterosexual. However these practices have been repudiated by major mental health organizations because of increasing evidence that they are ineffective and may cause harm to patients and their families who fail to change...
2016: J Med Regul
Igor Savukov, Malcolm G Boshier
Atomic magnetometers (AM) are finding many applications in biomagnetism, national security, industry, and science. Fiber-coupled (FC) designs promise to make them compact and flexible for operation. Most FC designs are based on a single-beam configuration or electrical heating. Here, we demonstrate a two-beam FC AM with laser heating that has 5 fT/Hz(1/2) sensitivity at low frequency (50 Hz), which is higher than that of other fiber-coupled magnetometers and can be improved to the sub-femtotesla level. This magnetometer is widely tunable from DC to very high frequencies (as high as 100 MHz; the only issue might be the application of a suitable uniform and stable bias field) with a sensitivity under 10 fT/Hz(1/2) and can be used for magneto-encephalography (MEG), magneto-cardiography (MCG), underground communication, ultra-low MRI/NMR, NQR detection, and other applications...
October 13, 2016: Sensors
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