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Natalia M Pukhovskaya, Olga V Morozova, Nelya P Vysochina, Nadejda B Belozerova, Svetlana V Bakhmetyeva, Nina I Zdanovskaya, Stephen J Seligman, Leonid I Ivanov
Isolates of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) from arthropod vectors (ticks and mosquitoes) in the Amur, the Jewish Autonomous and the Sakhalin regions as well as on the Khabarovsk territory of the Far East of Russia were studied. Different proportions of four main tick species of the family Ixodidae: Ixodes persulcatus P. Schulze, 1930; Haemaphysalis concinna Koch, 1844; Haemaphysalis japonica douglasi Nuttall et Warburton, 1915 and Dermacentor silvarum Olenev, 1932 were found in forests and near settlements...
February 8, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Memi Muto, Wataru Kamitani, Mizuki Sakai, Minato Hirano, Shintaro Kobayashi, Hiroaki Kariwa, Kentaro Yoshii
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes severe neurological disease, but the pathogenetic mechanism is unclear. The conformational structure of the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of TBEV is associated with its virulence. We tried to identify host proteins interacting with the 3'-UTR of TBEV. Cellular proteins of HEK293T cells were co-precipitated with biotinylated RNAs of the 3'-UTR of low- and high-virulence TBEV strains and subjected to mass spectrometry analysis. Fifteen host proteins were found to bind to the 3'-UTR of TBEV, four of which- cold shock domain containing-E1 (CSDE1), spermatid perinuclear RNA binding protein (STRBP), fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP), and interleukin enhancer binding factor 3 (ILF3)-bound specifically to that of the low-virulence strain...
March 12, 2018: Virus Research
Richard Lindqvist, Chaitanya Kurhade, Jonathan D Gilthorpe, Anna K Överby
BACKGROUND: Flaviviruses are a group of diverse and emerging arboviruses and an immense global health problem. A number of flaviviruses are neurotropic, causing severe encephalitis and even death. Type I interferons (IFNs) are the first line of defense of the innate immune system against flavivirus infection. IFNs elicit the concerted action of numerous interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) to restrict both virus infection and replication. Viperin (virus-inhibitory protein, endoplasmic reticulum-associated, IFN-inducible) is an ISG with broad-spectrum antiviral activity against multiple flaviviruses in vitro...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Tomáš Csank, Petra Drzewnioková, Ľuboš Korytár, Peter Major, Miklós Gyuranecz, Juraj Pistl, Tamás Bakonyi
In central Europe, at least three flaviviruses circulate among vectors and vertebrate hosts. West Nile virus (WNV) and Usutu virus (USUV) are mosquito-borne viruses maintained in the nature by enzootic cycle between mosquitoes and birds. Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is a flavivirus causing annual human cases in Slovakia. The aim of this study is the prevalence assessment of flavivirus infections in horses (n = 145) and birds (n = 109) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmation by neutralization test (VNT)...
February 13, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
James Duehr, Silviana Lee, Gursewak Singh, Gregory A Foster, David Krysztof, Susan L Stramer, Maria C Bermúdez González, Eva Menichetti, Robert Geretschläger, Christian Gabriel, Viviana Simon, Jean K Lim, Florian Krammer
Recent reports in the scientific literature have suggested that anti-dengue virus (DENV) and anti-West Nile virus (WNV) immunity exacerbates Zika virus (ZIKV) pathogenesis in vitro and in vivo in mouse models. Large populations of immune individuals exist for a related flavivirus (tick-borne encephalitis virus [TBEV]), due to large-scale vaccination campaigns and endemic circulation throughout most of northern Europe and the southern Russian Federation. As a result, the question of whether anti-TBEV immunity can affect Zika virus pathogenesis is a pertinent one...
January 2018: MSphere
Jiri Beran, Maria Lattanzi, Fang Xie, Luca Moraschini, Ilaria Galgani
BACKGROUND: Tick borne encephalitis (TBE) endemic zones are expanding. We previously evaluated long term persistence of antibody 5 years after the first booster immunization following different primary immunization schedules with the polygeline-free inactivated TBE vaccine (TBEvac) in adults and adolescents. Here, we report anti-TBE virus (TBEV) antibody persistence from 6 to 10 years post-booster administration. METHODS: This was a phase IV, open-label, single-center, second extension study (NCT01562444), conducted in Czechia...
January 31, 2018: Vaccine
Alexander G Litov, Andrey A Deviatkin, Irina A Goptar, Vladimir G Dedkov, Anatoly P Gmyl, Mikhail L Markelov, German A Shipulin, Galina G Karganova
We studied minor variants within two tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) populations with a common ancestor: the mouse brain-adapted variant EK-328c and the tick-adapted variant M. High-throughput sequencing with custom amplicons from RT-PCR viral RNA was performed on Illumina MiSeq 2*250 paired-end v2 chemistry. Using the LowFreq program (default settings) and Sanger-sequenced consensus as a reference, variants with an abundance of 1 % and above within the studied populations were identified. Using the obtained data in the context of our previous studies, we concluded that TBEV variants, which are different from the major population phenotype and can become a major part of the viral population under favourable environmental conditions, can exist at abundances of less than 1 % in the long-term...
February 2018: Journal of General Virology
Bo Albinsson, Sirkka Vene, Lars Rombo, Jonas Blomberg, Åke Lundkvist, Bengt Rönnberg
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is an important European vaccine-preventable pathogen. Discrimination of vaccine-induced antibodies from those elicited by infection is important. We studied anti-TBEV IgM/IgG responses, including avidity and neutralisation, by multiplex serology in 50 TBEV patients and 50 TBEV vaccinees. Infection induced antibodies reactive to both whole virus (WV) and non-structural protein 1 (NS1) in 48 clinical cases, whereas 47 TBEV vaccinees had WV, but not NS1 antibodies, enabling efficient discrimination of infection/vaccination...
January 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Tibor Füzik, Petra Formanová, Daniel Růžek, Kentaro Yoshii, Matthias Niedrig, Pavel Plevka
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) causes 13,000 cases of human meningitis and encephalitis annually. However, the structure of the TBEV virion and its interactions with antibodies are unknown. Here, we present cryo-EM structures of the native TBEV virion and its complex with Fab fragments of neutralizing antibody 19/1786. Flavivirus genome delivery depends on membrane fusion that is triggered at low pH. The virion structure indicates that the repulsive interactions of histidine side chains, which become protonated at low pH, may contribute to the disruption of heterotetramers of the TBEV envelope and membrane proteins and induce detachment of the envelope protein ectodomains from the virus membrane...
January 30, 2018: Nature Communications
Anna Nagy, Orsolya Nagy, Katalin Tarcsai, Ágnes Farkas, Mária Takács
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is one of the endemic flaviviruses in Hungary, which is responsible for human infections every year. Neurological involvement in the disease is characterized by meningitis, encephalitis or meningoencephalitis which can result in long-term neurological and neuropsychiatric sequelae. Microbiological diagnosis of acute cases is predominantly based on serological tests due to the limited duration of viremia and long incubation period, however, the application of molecular methods can also supplement the serological diagnosis and provides epidemiological data...
January 10, 2018: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
Aurélie Velay, Morgane Solis, Heidi Barth, Véronique Sohn, Anne Moncollin, Amandine Neeb, Marie-Josée Wendling, Samira Fafi-Kremer
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) diagnosis is mainly based on the detection of viral-specific antibodies in serum. Several commercial assays are available, but published data on their performance remain unclear. We assessed six IgM and six IgG commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits (ELISA-1 through ELISA-6) using 94 samples, including precharacterized TBEV-positive samples (n=50) and -negative samples (n=44). The six manufacturers showed satisfactory sensitivity and specificity and high overall agreement for both IgM and IgG...
December 22, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
I García-Bocanegra, E Jurado-Tarifa, D Cano-Terriza, R Martínez, J E Pérez-Marín, S Lecollinet
In the past decade, the spread of emerging zoonotic flaviviruses (genus Flavivirus, family Flaviviridae) has been reported in many regions worldwide, representing a threat to both human and animal health. A serosurvey was carried out to assess exposure and risk factors associated with antigenically related flaviviruses, particularly West Nile virus (WNV), Usutu virus (USUV) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), in dogs in Spain. Flavivirus antibodies were detected in 39 of 815 dogs (4.8%; 95% CI: 3.3-6...
January 11, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Christakis Panayiotou, Richard Lindqvist, Chaitanya Kurhade, Kirstin Vonderstein, Jenny Pasto, Karin Edlund, Arunkumar S Upadhyay, Anna K Överby
Flaviviruses are arthropod-borne viruses that constitute a major global health problem, with millions of human infections annually. Their pathogenesis ranges from mild illness to severe manifestations such as hemorrhagic fever and fatal encephalitis. Type I interferons (IFNs) are induced in response to viral infection, and stimulate the expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), including that encoding viperin (virus-inhibitory protein, endoplasmic reticulum-associated, IFN-inducible), which shows antiviral activity against a broad spectrum of viruses including several flaviviruses...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Virology
Stephanie Du Four, Rembert Mertens, Wietse Wiels, Jacques De Keyser, Veronique Bissay, Anja Flamez
Tick borne encephalitis (TBE) is an infectious zoonotic disease caused by an RNA virus that is endemic to Central and Eastern Europe, Russia, and large parts of Asia. The tick borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is transmitted through the saliva of infected ticks and infected goat milk. In the vast majority of cases, an infection with TBEV has a subclinical course. However, in some cases, it leads to neurological symptoms due to meningitis, meningoencephalitis, meningoencephalomyelitis, or meningoencephaloradiculitis...
January 8, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Wenshuo Zhou, Michael Woodson, Biswas Neupane, Fengwei Bai, Michael B Sherman, Kyung H Choi, Girish Neelakanta, Hameeda Sultana
Molecular determinants and mechanisms of arthropod-borne flavivirus transmission to the vertebrate host are poorly understood. In this study, we show for the first time that a cell line from medically important arthropods, such as ticks, secretes extracellular vesicles (EVs) including exosomes that mediate transmission of flavivirus RNA and proteins to the human cells. Our study shows that tick-borne Langat virus (LGTV), a model pathogen closely related to tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), profusely uses arthropod exosomes for transmission of viral RNA and proteins to the human- skin keratinocytes and blood endothelial cells...
January 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Elena V Ignatieva, Alexander V Igoshin, Nikolay S Yudin
BACKGROUND: Tick-borne encephalitis is caused by the neurotropic, positive-sense RNA virus, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV). TBEV infection can lead to a variety of clinical manifestations ranging from slight fever to severe neurological illness. Very little is known about genetic factors predisposing to severe forms of disease caused by TBEV. The aims of the study were to compile a catalog of human genes involved in response to TBEV infection and to rank genes from the catalog based on the number of neighbors in the network of pairwise interactions involving these genes and TBEV RNA or proteins...
December 28, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
Saravanan Thangamani, Meghan E Hermance, Rodrigo I Santos, Mirko Slovak, Dar Heinze, Steven G Widen, Maria Kazimirova
Emerging and re-emerging diseases transmitted by blood feeding arthropods are significant global public health problems. Ticks transmit the greatest variety of pathogenic microorganisms of any blood feeding arthropod. Infectious agents transmitted by ticks are delivered to the vertebrate host together with saliva at the bite site. Tick salivary glands produce complex cocktails of bioactive molecules that facilitate blood feeding and pathogen transmission by modulating host hemostasis, pain/itch responses, wound healing, and both innate and adaptive immunity...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Malin Veje, Marie Studahl, Maja Johansson, Patrik Johansson, Peter Nolskog, Tomas Bergström
We set out to investigate the serological response of TBE virus (TBEV)-specific IgM and IgG antibodies in stored serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in notified TBE patients, in order to confirm or reject the diagnosis. We applied the ELISA methods used in clinical practice, Enzygnost and Immunozym, and assessed RT-PCR as a diagnostic tool. A total of 173 TBE cases were notified to the Public Health Agency. Samples from 129 patients were eligible for the study. Stored serum samples were found for 111 patients and CSF samples for 88 patients...
February 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Jaroslava Lieskovská, Jana Páleníková, Helena Langhansová, Jindřich Chmelař, Jan Kopecký
It has been suggested that tick saliva facilitates transmission of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) to vertebrates. The mechanism of this facilitation has not been elucidated yet. Since dendritic cells (DCs) are among first cells attacked by the virus, we examined the amount of virus and changes induced by saliva in TBEV-infected DCs. We found that virus replication was significantly increased by saliva of Ixodes ricinus tick. Next, saliva-induced enhancement of Akt pathway activation was observed in TBEV-infected DCs...
November 17, 2017: Virology
Sergey E Tkachev, Galina S Chicherina, Irina Golovljova, Polina S Belokopytova, Artem Yu Tikunov, Oksana V Zadora, Victor V Glupov, Nina V Tikunova
Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, is a causative agent of a severe neurological disease. There are three main TBEV subtypes: the European (TBEV-Eu), Far Eastern (TBEV-FE), and Siberian (TBEV-Sib). Currently, three lineages within TBEV-Sib have been recorded. In this study, the genetic and biological characteristics of a new original strain, TBEV-2871, isolated in the Novosibirsk province of Western Siberia, Russia were investigated. The strain has low neuroinvasiveness in mice...
December 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
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