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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832452/clinical-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-of-antihyperglycemic-medications-in-children-and-adolescents-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#1
REVIEW
Fatemeh Akhlaghi, Kelly L Matson, Amir Hooshang Mohammadpour, Meghan Kelly, Asieh Karimani
The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) among children and adolescents has been rising. This condition is associated with obesity, and it's prevalence is higher among minority or female youth. Lifestyle modification including diet and exercise is only successful in a small proportion of patients; therefore, pharmacotherapy approaches are needed to treat T2DM among youth. Currently, in the USA, only metformin and insulin are approved for the treatment of T2DM in children. However, several antihyperglycemic agents including exenatide, glimepiride, glyburide, liraglutide, pioglitazone, and rosiglitazone are also used off-label in this population...
November 10, 2016: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27389824/pioglitazone-and-exenatide-enhance-cognition-and-downregulate-hippocampal-beta-amyloid-oligomer-and-microglia-expression-in-insulin-resistant-rats
#2
Enas S Gad, Sawsan A Zaitone, Yasser M Moustafa
Insulin resistance is known to be a risk factor for cognitive impairment, most likely linked to insulin signaling, microglia overactivation, and beta amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the brain. Exenatide, a long lasting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, enhances insulin signaling and shows neuroprotective properties. Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferated-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonist, was previously reported to enhance cognition through its effect on Aβ accumulation and clearance. In the present study, insulin resistance was induced in male rats by drinking fructose for 12 weeks...
August 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27311248/-dulaglutide-trulicity%C3%A2-a-new-once-weekly-agonist-of-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptors-for-type-2-diabetes
#3
COMPARATIVE STUDY
A J Scheen
Dulaglutide (Trulicity®) is a new once-weekly agonist of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors indicated in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Phase III clinical trials in AWARD programme demonstrated the efficacy and safety of dulaglutide in patients with type 2 diabetes treated by diet and exercise, metformin, a combination of metformin and a sulfonylurea or metformin and pioglitazone or even by supplements of prandial insulin. In the AWARD programme, dulaglutide (subcutaneous 0.75 or 1.5 mg once weekly) exerted a greater glucose-lowering activity than metformin, sitagliptin, exenatide or insulin glargine, and was non-inferior to liraglutide 1...
March 2016: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27217788/advances-in-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-impact-of-dulaglutide
#4
REVIEW
Angela M Thompson, Jennifer M Trujillo
The purpose of this review is to provide a review of current data of the most recently approved glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1-receptor agonist, dulaglutide, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. To complete this, a PubMed search was performed to identify manuscripts published from 1947 to July 2015. The search terms "Trulicity", "dulaglutide", and "LY2189265" were utilized, and publications were included if they evaluated the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, safety, or patient-reported outcomes of dulaglutide...
2016: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26976710/effect-of-incretin-therapies-compared-to-pioglitazone-and-gliclazide-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-in-diabetic-patients-not-controlled-on-metformin-alone-an-observational-pilot-study
#5
Eduardo García Díaz, Danila Guagnozzi, Verónica Gutiérrez, Carmen Mendoza, Cristina Maza, Yulene Larrañaga, Dolores Perdomo, Teresa Godoy, Ghalli Taleb
AIM: To compare the effect of different hypoglycemic drugs on laboratory and ultrasonographic markers of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with type 2 diabetes not controlled on metformin alone. METHODS: Prospective study of diabetic patients treated with metformin in combination with gliclazide, pioglitazone, sitagliptin, exenatide, or liraglutide. NAFLD was assessed by abdominal ultrasound and NAFLD fibrosis score was calculated at baseline and 6 months...
May 2016: Endocrinología y Nutrición: órgano de la Sociedad Española de Endocrinología y Nutrición
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26423061/dulaglutide-a-review-in-type-2-diabetes
#6
REVIEW
Celeste B Burness, Lesley J Scott
Dulaglutide (Trulicity™) is a once-weekly subcutaneously administered glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist produced by recombinant DNA technology and approved in numerous countries as an adjunct to diet and exercise for the treatment of adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). In randomized controlled trials in patients with T2DM, dulaglutide monotherapy was noninferior to once-daily subcutaneous liraglutide monotherapy and significantly more effective than oral metformin monotherapy in improving glycemic control at 26 weeks...
December 2015: BioDrugs: Clinical Immunotherapeutics, Biopharmaceuticals and Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26309403/exenatide-once-weekly-injection-for-the-treatment-of-type-2-diabetes-in-chinese-patients-current-perspectives
#7
REVIEW
Wuquan Deng, Sheng Qiu, Gangyi Yang, Bing Chen
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogs, such as exenatide, have played an important role as antidiabetic medications in the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Like most other hypoglycemic agents, exenatide has a number of actions, including lowering blood glucose, promoting weight loss, improving insulin resistance, and protecting islet β-cells. Although GLP-1 analogs, combined with other antidiabetic medications, have excellent performance in T2DM, some side effects and imperfections limit its use in clinical practice...
2015: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26249206/effect-of-exenatide-insulin-and-pioglitazone-on-bone-metabolism-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes
#8
Renyuan Li, Wen Xu, Sihui Luo, Haixia Xu, Guoyu Tong, Longyi Zeng, Dalong Zhu, Jianping Weng
AIM: Preclinical studies suggested that insulin, incretin and thiazolidinediones had effect on regulation of bone metabolism. But clinical evidence is limited. We assessed the effects of these antihyperglycemic agents on bone metabolism in patients with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. METHODS: The present study was a two-center, randomized, parallel-group clinical trial. Sixty-two newly diagnosed and drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to exenatide (EXE, n = 20), mixed protamine zinc recombinant human insulin lispro injection (25R; INS, n = 21) or pioglitazone (PIO, n = 21) group for a 24-week treatment...
December 2015: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26186809/evaluating-the-cost-of-bringing-people-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-to-multiple-targets-of-treatment-in-canada
#9
Rasmus Skovgaard, Uffe Jon Ploug, Barnaby Hunt, William J Valentine
PURPOSE: Evidence suggests that clinical outcomes for people with type 2 diabetes mellitus can be improved through multifactorial treatment. The key challenges in the successful treatment of type 2 diabetes include maintaining tight glycemic control, minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia, controlling cardiovascular risk factors, and reducing or controlling weight. The aim of the present analysis was to evaluate the cost per patient achieving a composite clinical end point (glycosylated hemoglobin <7%, with no weight gain and no hypoglycemic events) in patients with type 2 diabetes in Quebec, Quebec, Canada, receiving liraglutide 1...
August 2015: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26106226/erratum-efficacy-and-safety-of-dulaglutide-added-onto-pioglitazone-and-metformin-versus-exenatide-in-type-2-diabetes-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-award-1-diabetes-care-2014-37-2159-2167
#10
Carol Wysham, Thomas Blevins, Richard Arakaki, Gildred Colon, Pedro Garcia, Charles Atisso, Debra Kuhstoss, Mark Lakshmanan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Diabetes Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26071140/exenatide-extended-release-an-updated-review-of-its-use-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#11
REVIEW
Yahiya Y Syed, Paul L McCormack
Exenatide extended-release (exenatide ER) [Bydureon(®)] is a glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, approved for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is injected subcutaneously by patients once weekly, with no dose titration required. This article updates an earlier review of exenatide ER in the management of type 2 diabetes, focusing on recently published data. In randomized, controlled trials, adjunctive exenatide ER 2 mg once weekly for 24-30 weeks significantly improved glycaemic control and reduced bodyweight in patients with inadequately controlled type 2 diabetes despite diet plus exercise and/or oral antihyperglycaemic drugs (OADs)...
July 2015: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26000636/use-of-the-analytic-hierarchy-process-for-medication-decision-making-in-type-2-diabetes
#12
Nisa M Maruthur, Susan M Joy, James G Dolan, Hasan M Shihab, Sonal Singh
AIM: To investigate the feasibility and utility of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) for medication decision-making in type 2 diabetes. METHODS: We conducted an AHP with nine diabetes experts using structured interviews to rank add-on therapies (to metformin) for type 2 diabetes. During the AHP, participants compared treatment alternatives relative to eight outcomes (hemoglobin A1c-lowering and seven potential harms) and the relative importance of the different outcomes...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25590213/clinical-review-drugs-commonly-associated-with-weight-change-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Juan Pablo Domecq, Gabriela Prutsky, Aaron Leppin, M Bassam Sonbol, Osama Altayar, Chaitanya Undavalli, Zhen Wang, Tarig Elraiyah, Juan Pablo Brito, Karen F Mauck, Mohammed H Lababidi, Larry J Prokop, Noor Asi, Justin Wei, Salman Fidahussein, Victor M Montori, Mohammad Hassan Murad
CONTEXT: Various drugs affect body weight as a side effect. OBJECTIVE: We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize the evidence about commonly prescribed drugs and their association with weight change. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, DARE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were searched to identify published systematic reviews as a source for trials. STUDY SELECTION: We included randomized trials that compared an a priori selected list of drugs to placebo and measured weight change...
February 2015: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25565404/dulaglutide-the-newest-glp-1-receptor-agonist-for-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
Angela M Thompson, Jennifer M Trujillo
OBJECTIVE: To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacy of the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA), dulaglutide, in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search was completed to identify publications from 1947 to October 2014 using the search terms dulaglutide and LY2189265. References were reviewed to identify additional resources. STUDY SELECTION AND DATA EXTRACTION: Articles were included if they evaluated the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, safety, or efficacy of dulaglutide...
March 2015: Annals of Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25437462/-twice-daily-and-weekly-exenatide-clinical-profile-of-two-pioneer-formulations-in-incretin-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Albert Lecube, Marta Bueno, Xavier Suárez
GLP-1 receptors agonists have been a substantial change in treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and its weekly administration has broken pre-established schemes. Daily exenatide is administered every 12 hours (BID) subcutaneously, while weekly exenatide is administered once a week. Both molecules share a common mechanism of action but have differential effects on basal and postprandial glucose. We review the major clinical trials with both exenatide BID and weekly exenatide. It can be concluded that exenatide BID shows a hypoglycemic effect similar to other treatments for type 2 DM but adding significant weight loss with low incidence of hypoglycemia...
September 2014: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25425451/initial-combination-therapy-with-metformin-pioglitazone-and-exenatide-is-more-effective-than-sequential-add-on-therapy-in-subjects-with-new-onset-diabetes-results-from-the-efficacy-and-durability-of-initial-combination-therapy-for-type-2-diabetes-edict-a-randomized
#16
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
M A Abdul-Ghani, C Puckett, C Triplitt, D Maggs, J Adams, E Cersosimo, R A DeFronzo
AIM: To test our hypothesis that initiating therapy with a combination of agents known to improve insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity in subjects with new-onset diabetes would produce greater, more durable reduction in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels, while avoiding hypoglycaemia and weight gain, compared with sequential addition of agents that lower plasma glucose but do not correct established pathophysiological abnormalities. METHODS: Drug-naïve, recently diagnosed subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were randomized in an open-fashion design in a single-centre study to metformin/pioglitazone/exenatide (triple therapy; n = 106) or an escalating dose of metformin followed by sequential addition of sulfonylurea and glargine insulin (conventional therapy; n = 115) to maintain HbA1c levels at <6...
March 2015: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25326840/-twice-daily-and-weekly-exenatide-clinical-profile-of-two-pioneer-formulations-in-incretin-therapy
#17
Albert Lecube, Marta Bueno, Xavier Suárez
GLP-1 receptors agonists have been a substantial change in treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, and its weekly administration has broken pre-established schemes. Daily exenatide is administered every 12 hours (BID) subcutaneously, while weekly exenatide is administered once a week. Both molecules share a common mechanism of action but have differential effects on basal and postprandial glucose. We review the major clinical trials with both exenatide BID and weekly exenatide. It can be concluded that exenatide BID shows a hypoglycemic effect similar to other treatments for type 2 DM but adding significant weight loss with low incidence of hypoglycemia...
2014: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25118999/effects-of-exenatide-insulin-and-pioglitazone-on-liver-fat-content-and-body-fat-distributions-in-drug-naive-subjects-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Yan Bi, Bing Zhang, Wen Xu, Huijie Yang, Wenhuan Feng, Cuiliu Li, Guoyu Tong, Ming Li, Xin Wang, Shanmei Shen, Bin Zhu, Jianping Weng, Dalong Zhu
Ectopic accumulation of lipids in nonadipose tissues plays a primary role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study was to examine the effects of exenatide, insulin, and pioglitazone on liver fat content and body fat distributions in T2DM. Thirty-three drug-naive T2DM patients (age 52.7 ± 1.7 years, HbA1c 8.7 ± 0.2 %, body mass index 24.5 ± 0.5 kg/m(2)) were randomized into exenatide, insulin, or pioglitazone for 6 months. Intrahepatic fat (IHF), visceral fat (VF), and subcutaneous fat (SF) were measured using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
October 2014: Acta Diabetologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25039675/comparison-of-the-effects-on-glycaemic-control-and-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-patients-of-treatment-with-exenatide-insulin-or-pioglitazone-a-multicentre-randomized-parallel-group-trial-the-confidence-study
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
W Xu, Y Bi, Z Sun, J Li, L Guo, T Yang, G Wu, L Shi, Z Feng, L Qiu, Q Li, X Guo, Z Luo, J Lu, Z Shan, W Yang, Q Ji, L Yan, H Li, X Yu, S Li, Z Zhou, X Lv, Z Liang, S Lin, L Zeng, J Yan, L Ji, J Weng
OBJECTIVE: Progressive β-cell dysfunction hinders the maintenance of glycaemic control in type 2 diabetes, but comparative data on β-cell-protective therapies are lacking in the early stage of type 2 diabetes. Here we evaluated the comparative glycaemic efficacy and impact on β-cell function of three antihyperglycaemic agents that have a β-cell-protective effect, exenatide, insulin and pioglitazone, in newly diagnosed patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN AND METHODS: In this 48-week, multicentre, parallel-group study, 416 patients newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned 1 : 1 : 1 to receive exenatide, insulin or pioglitazone...
January 2015: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24923102/-bydureon-first-once-weekly-glp-1-receptor-agonist-exenatide-lar
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
A J Scheen
Bydureon is a new galenic formulation (long-acting release) of exenatide, the first agonist of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptors having been commercialized for the management of type 2 diabetes. The microsphere technology permits a prolonged absorption of exenatide from the subcutaneous depot, which allows one injection per week instead of two injections per day with the initial formulation of exenatide (Byetta). The clinical development programme DURATION showed that exenatide 2 mg once weekly more markedly reduces glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)), with a similar weight loss but a better digestive tolerance profile (less nausea and vomiting after treatment initiation), compared with the twice daily 10 microg exenatide...
April 2014: Revue Médicale de Liège
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