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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918356/what-is-the-price-for-the-duchenne-gait-pattern-in-patients-with-cerebral-palsy
#1
Firooz Salami, Mirjam Niklasch, Britta K Krautwurst, Thomas Dreher, Sebastian I Wolf
Duchenne gait is characterized by trunk lean towards the affected stance limb with the pelvis stable or elevated on the swinging limb side during single limb stance phase. We assessed the relationship between hip abduction moments and trunk kinetics in patients with cerebral palsy showing excessive lateral trunk motion. Data of 18 subjects with bilateral spastic cerebral palsy (CP) and 20 aged matched typically developing subjects (TD) were collected retrospectively. Criteria for patient selection were barefoot walking without aid presenting with excessive lateral trunk motion...
September 7, 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913652/differences-in-bone-structure-and-unloading-induced-bone-loss-between-c57bl-6n-and-c57bl-6j-mice
#2
Jeyantt S Sankaran, Manasvi Varshney, Stefan Judex
The C57BL/6 mouse, the most frequently utilized animal model in biomedical research, is in use as several substrains, all of which differ by a small array of genomic differences. Two of these substrains, C57BL/6J (B6J) and C57BL/6N (B6N), are commonly used but it is unclear how phenotypically similar or different they are. Here, we tested whether adolescent B6N mice have a bone phenotype and respond to the loss of weightbearing differently than B6J. At 9 weeks of age, normally ambulating B6N had lower trabecular bone volume fraction but greater bone formation rates and osteoblast surfaces than corresponding B6J...
September 14, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912130/near-infrared-spectroscopy-of-superficial-and-deep-rectus-femoris-reveals-markedly-different-exercise-response-to-superficial-vastus-lateralis
#3
Shunsaku Koga, Dai Okushima, Thomas J Barstow, Harry B Rossiter, Narihiko Kondo, David C Poole
To date our knowledge of skeletal muscle deoxygenation as measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is predicated almost exclusively on sampling of superficial muscle(s), most commonly the vastus lateralis (VL-s). Recently developed high power NIRS facilitates simultaneous sampling of deep (i.e., rectus femoris, RF-d) and superficial muscles of RF (RF-s) and VL-s. Because deeper muscle is more oxidative with greater capillarity and sustains higher blood flows than superficial muscle, we used time-resolved NIRS to test the hypotheses that, following exercise onset, the RF-d has slower deoxy[Hb+Mb] kinetics with reduced amplitude than superficial muscles...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904105/contribution-of-sensory-feedback-to-plantar-flexor-muscle-activation-during-push-off-in-adults-with-cerebral-palsy
#4
Rasmus Feld Frisk, Peter Jensen, Henrik Kirk, Laurent J Bouyer, Jakob Lorentzen, Jens Bo Nielsen
INTRODUCTION: Exaggerated sensory activity has been assumed to contribute to functional impairment following lesion of the central motor pathway. However, recent studies have suggested that sensory contribution to muscle activity during gait is reduced in stroke patients and children with cerebral palsy (CP). We investigated whether this also occurs in CP adults and whether daily treadmill training is accompanied by alterations in sensory contribution to muscle activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 17 CP adults and 12 uninjured individuals participated...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903017/is-a-high-tibial-osteotomy-superior-to-non-surgical-treatment-in-patients-with-varus-malaligned-medial-knee-osteoarthritis-a-propensity-matched-study-using-2-rct-datasets
#5
M V van Outeren, J H Waarsing, R W Brouwer, J A N Verhaar, M Reijman, S M A Bierma-Zeinstra
OBJECTIVE: No randomized controlled trial (RCT) has compared the high tibial osteotomy (HTO) with non-surgical treatment in patients with medial knee osteoarthritis and varus malalignment. The aim was to compare the effectiveness of an unloader brace treatment or a usual care program to the HTO regarding pain severity and knee function. DESIGN: Surgical treatment (HTO) to two non-surgical options was compared by combining the data of two RCTs. One RCT (n=117) compared an unloader brace to usual care treatment; the other RCT (n=92) compared closing to opening wedge HTO...
September 10, 2017: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900011/robust-mechanobiological-behavior-emerges-in-heterogeneous-myosin-systems
#6
Paul F Egan, Jeffrey R Moore, Allen J Ehrlicher, David A Weitz, Christian Schunn, Jonathan Cagan, Philip LeDuc
Biological complexity presents challenges for understanding natural phenomenon and engineering new technologies, particularly in systems with molecular heterogeneity. Such complexity is present in myosin motor protein systems, and computational modeling is essential for determining how collective myosin interactions produce emergent system behavior. We develop a computational approach for altering myosin isoform parameters and their collective organization, and support predictions with in vitro experiments of motility assays with α-actinins as molecular force sensors...
September 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898058/mechanoregulation-of-sm22%C3%AE-transgelin
#7
Rong Liu, M Moazzem Hossain, Xuequn Chen, Jian-Ping Jin
SM22α, also named transgelin, is an actin filament-associated protein in smooth muscle and fibroblast. Three decades after discovery, the biological function of SM22α remains under investigation. Here we report a novel finding that the expression and degradation of SM22α/transgelin is regulated by mechanical tension. Following a mass spectrometry identification of SM22α degradation in isolated and tension-unloaded mouse aorta, we developed specific monoclonal antibodies to study the regulation of SM22α in human fetal lung myofibroblast line MRC-5 and primary cultures of neonatal mouse skin fibroblast...
September 12, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893541/nanomechanical-assessment-of-bone-surrounding-implants-loaded-for-3%C3%A2-years-in-a-canine-experimental-model
#8
Rodolfo B Anchieta, Márcia V M Guimarães, Marcelo Suzuki, Nick Tovar, Estevam A Bonfante, Pablo Atria, Paulo G Coelho
PURPOSE: This work evaluated the nanomechanical properties of bone surrounding submerged and immediately loaded implants after 3 years in vivo. It was hypothesized that the nanomechanical properties of bone would markedly increase in immediately and functionally loaded implants compared with submerged implants. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The second, third, and fourth right premolars and the first molar of 10 adult Doberman dogs were extracted. After 6 months, 4 implants were placed in 1 side of the mandible...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892196/effect-of-biomechanical-stress-on-endogenous-antioxidant-networks-in-bovine-articular-cartilage
#9
Rita Issa, Michael Boeving, Michael Kinter, Timothy M Griffin
Mechanosensitve pathways in chondrocytes are essential for maintaining articular cartilage homeostasis. Traumatic loading increases cartilage oxidation and causes cell death and osteoarthritis. However, sub-lethal doses of the pro-oxidant molecule tert-Butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) protects against loading-induced chondrocyte death. We hypothesized that compressive cyclic loading at moderate strains (<20%) causes sub-lethal cartilage oxidation that induces an adaptive increase in the endogenous antioxidant defense network...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892014/a-novel-approach-to-estimate-the-plastic-anisotropy-of-metallic-materials-using-cross-sectional-indentation-applied-to-extruded-magnesium-alloy-az31b
#10
Mingzhi Wang, Jianjun Wu, Hongfei Wu, Zengkun Zhang, He Fan
In this paper, a methodology is presented for obtaining the plastic anisotropy of bulk metallic materials using cross-sectional indentation. This method relies on spherical indentation on the free edge of a specimen, and examining the out-of-plane residual deformation contour persisting on the cross-section after unloading. Results obtained from numerical simulation revealed that some important aspects of the out-of-plane residual deformation field are only sensitive to the extent of the material plastic anisotropy, and insensitive to strain hardening, yield strain, elastic anisotropy, and the selected displacement threshold value...
September 11, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888930/a-combined-experimental-modeling-and-computational-approach-to-interpret-the-viscoelastic-response-of-the-white-matter-brain-tissue-during-indentation
#11
Aref Samadi-Dooki, George Z Voyiadjis, Rhett W Stout
Viscoelastic properties of the white matter brain tissue are systematically studied in this paper utilizing indentation experiments, mathematical modeling, and finite element simulation. It is first demonstrated that the internal stiffness of the instrument needs to be thoroughly obtained and incorporated in the analysis as its contribution to the recorded mechanical response is significant for experiments on very compliant materials. The flat-punch monotonic indentation is then performed indirectly on sagittal plane slices with pushing a large rigid coverslip into the sample surface...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883403/new-late-permian-tectonic-model-for-south-africa-s-karoo-basin-foreland-tectonics-and-climate-change-before-the-end-permian-crisis
#12
Pia A Viglietti, Bruce S Rubidge, Roger M H Smith
Late Permian Karoo Basin tectonics in South Africa are reflected as two fining-upward megacycles in the Balfour and upper Teekloof formations. Foreland tectonics are used to explain the cyclic nature and distribution of sedimentation, caused by phases of loading and unloading in the southern source areas adjacent to the basin. New data supports this model, and identifies potential climatic effects on the tectonic regime. Diachronous second-order subaerial unconformities (SU) are identified at the base and top of the Balfour Formation...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881245/the-influence-of-thermal-treatment-on-bioweathering-and-arsenic-sorption-capacity-of-a-natural-iron-oxyhydr-oxide-based-adsorbent
#13
Klaudia Debiec, Grzegorz Rzepa, Tomasz Bajda, Lukasz Zych, Jan Krzysztoforski, Aleksandra Sklodowska, Lukasz Drewniak
Adsorption plays a significant role in remediation of waters contaminated with arsenic, but the efficiency of the process varies depending on the sorbent properties. Bog iron ores (BIOs), characterized by high sorption capacity and widespread availability, seem to be an optimal sorbent of arsenic. However, the use of BIOs for arsenic removal from waters may be limited by the high amount of organic matter, which may stimulate microbial activity, and thus decomposition of the sorbent. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of organic matter removal by thermal transformation (roasting) on the bioavailability of BIOs and their arsenic sorption capacity...
August 29, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877750/mit-skywalker-considerations-on-the-design-of-a-body-weight-support-system
#14
Rogério Sales Gonçalves, Hermano Igo Krebs
BACKGROUND: To provide body weight support during walking and balance training, one can employ two distinct embodiments: support through a harness hanging from an overhead system or support through a saddle/seat type. This paper presents a comparison of these two approaches. Ultimately, this comparison determined our selection of the body weight support system employed in the MIT-Skywalker, a robotic device developed for the rehabilitation/habilitation of gait and balance after a neurological injury...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroengineering and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874726/remarkable-plasticity-of-na-k-atpase-ca-2-atpase-and-serca-contributes-to-muscle-disuse-atrophy-resistance-in-hibernating-daurian-ground-squirrels
#15
Quanling Guo, Xin Mi, Xiaoyong Sun, Xiaoyu Li, Weiwei Fu, Shenhui Xu, Qi Wang, Yasir Arfat, Huiping Wang, Hui Chang, Yunfang Gao
We investigated cytosolic calcium (Ca(2+)) and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) regulation in skeletal muscle fibers of hibernating Daurian ground squirrels (Spermophilus dauricus), non-hibernating hindlimb-unloaded (HLU) squirrels, and HLU rats to clarify the molecular mechanisms involved in preventing muscle atrophy in hibernators. The Na(+), K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities in the soleus muscle (SOL) of squirrels were maintained in hibernation, decreased during interbout arousal (IB-A), and increased to autumn/pre-hibernation (AUT/Pre-H) levels in torpor after interbout arousal (Post-IBA), whereas activities in the extensor digitorum longus muscle (EDL) were stable during hibernation, but increased during post-hibernation (Post-H)...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869620/the-influence-of-the-cumulated-deformation-energy-in-the-measurement-by-the-dsi-method-on-the-selected-mechanical-properties-of-bone-tissues
#16
Anna M Makuch, Konstanty R Skalski, Marek Pawlikowski
PURPOSE: The goal of the study was to determine the influence of DSI test conditions, i.e., loading/unloading rates, hold time, and the value of the maximum loading force on selected mechanical properties of trabecular bone tissue. METHODS: The test samples were resected from a femoral head of a patient qualified for a hip replacement surgery. During the DSI tests hardness (HV, HM, HIT) and elastic modulus (EIT) of trabecular bone tissue were measured using the Micro Hardness Tester (MHT, CSEM)...
2017: Acta of Bioengineering and Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28869523/an-optimum-specimen-geometry-for-equibiaxial-experimental-tests-of-reinforced-magnetorheological-elastomers-with-iron-micro-and-nanoparticles
#17
Luis Manuel Palacios-Pineda, Imperio Anel Perales-Martínez, Mario Regino Moreno-Guerra, Alex Elías-Zúñiga
The aim of this paper focused on obtaining the optimum cruciform geometry of reinforced magnetorheological elastomers (MRE) to perform homogeneous equibiaxial deformation tests, by using optimization algorithms and Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations. To validate the proposed specimen geometry, a digital image correlation (DIC) system was used to compare experimental result measurements with respect to those of FEM simulations. Moreover, and based on the optimum cruciform geometry, specimens produced from MRE reinforced with carbonyl-iron microparticles or iron nanoparticles were subjected to equibiaxial loading and unloading cycles to examine their Mullin's effect and their residual strain deformations...
September 3, 2017: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864351/adaptation-of-a-mr-imaging-protocol-into-a-real-time-clinical-biometric-ultrasound-protocol-for-persons-with-spinal-cord-injury-at-risk-for-deep-tissue-injury-a-reliability-study
#18
Jillian M Swaine, Andrew Moe, William Breidahl, Daniel L Bader, Cees W J Oomens, Leanne Lester, Edmond O'Loughlin, Nick Santamaria, Michael C Stacey
BACKGROUND: High strain in soft tissues that overly bony prominences are considered a risk factor for pressure ulcers (PUs) following spinal cord impairment (SCI) and have been computed using Finite Element methods (FEM). The aim of this study was to translate a MRI protocol into ultrasound (US) and determine between-operator reliability of expert sonographers measuring diameter of the inferior curvature of the ischial tuberosity (IT) and the thickness of the overlying soft tissue layers on able-bodied (AB) and SCI using real-time ultrasound...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Tissue Viability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863631/cyclic-flattened-brazilian-disc-tests-for-measuring-the-tensile-fatigue-properties-of-brittle-rocks
#19
Yi Liu, Feng Dai, Nuwen Xu, Tao Zhao
We propose a cyclic flattened Brazilian disc (FBD) testing method to measure the tensile fatigue properties of brittle rocks. Our method has obvious merits in its specimen preparation and experimental operation. Two parallel flattens are introduced in the disc specimen, which facilitate easily and uniformly loading the specimen without special loading devices required. Moreover, the contact regions between two flattens and loading planes barely change during the entire loading and unloading process, ensuring a consistent contact condition...
August 2017: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28862720/effect-of-the-different-implant-protocols-on-peri-implant-bone-a-6-month-prospective-study-in-beagle-dogs
#20
Dandan Song, Hui Zheng, Yan Huang, Xucheng Ma, Guowu Ma, Xin Liang
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of different implant placement and loading protocols on the marginal bone loss (MBL) in beagles by intraoral radiography. METHODS AND MATERIALS: 61 dental implants were inserted on 9 beagle dogs at bilateral lower posteriors according to 8 different protocols: immediate implant placement and immediate loading for 3 months (IIP + IL3) or 6 months (IIP + IL6) and unloading (IIP + UL), immediate implant placement and delayed loading for 3 months (IIP + DL3) or 6 months (IIP + DL6), delayed implant placement and immediate loading for 3 months (DIP + IL3) or delayed loading for 3 months (DIP + DL3) and unloading (DIP + UL)...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
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