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Lorenza Brocca, Luana Toniolo, Carlo Reggiani, Roberto Bottinelli, Marco Sandri, Maria Antonietta Pellegrino
Muscle atrophy is a complex process that is in common with many different catabolic diseases including disuse/inactivity and ageing. The signalling pathways that control the atrophy program in the different disuse/inactivity conditions have not yet been completely dissected. It has been recently reported that inhibition of FoxO only partially spared muscle mass after denervation. The purposes of this study were: (i) to determine the involvement of FoxOs in hindlimb suspension disuse model, (ii) to define whether the molecular events of protein breakdown are shared among different unloaded muscles and finally (iii) to compare the data obtained in this model with another model of inactivity such as denervation...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Georgiana Juravle, Phillipp Reicherts, Mirjam Riechmann-Weinstein, Matthias J Wieser, Andreas von Leupoldt
Emotional processes have an impact on the anticipation and perception of bodily threat sensations, such as breathlessness. However, little is known about the reverse influence of breathlessness on emotional processes, as well as its modulation by anxiety sensitivity (AS). Here, we investigated by means of visually evoked potentials how the perception versus anticipation of resistive-load-induced breathlessness (RLIB) influences emotional processing. High (HA) and low anxious (LA) participants viewed pictures of positive, neutral, or negative content under conditions of perceived RLIB, anticipated RLIB, or an unloaded baseline...
October 21, 2016: Psychophysiology
Luca Fusi, Valentina Percario, Elisabetta Brunello, Marco Caremani, Pasquale Bianco, Joseph D Powers, Massimo Reconditi, Vincenzo Lombardi, Gabriella Piazzesi
KEY POINTS: Myosin filament mechanosensing determines the efficiency of the contraction by adapting the number of switched ON motors to the load. Accordingly, the unloaded shortening velocity (V0 ) is already set at the end of the latency relaxation (LR), ∼10 ms after the start of stimulation, when the myosin filament is still in the OFF state. Here the number of actin-attached motors per half-myosin filament (n) during V0 shortening imposed either at the end of LR or at the plateau of the isometric contraction is estimated from the relation between half-sarcomere compliance and force during the force redevelopment after the shortening...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Gerrit Bode, Ferdinand Kloos, Matthias J Feucht, Benjamin Fleischer, Norbert Südkamp, Philipp Niemeyer, Christoph Becher
PURPOSE: The unloading effect of an extra-articular absorber system on the knee joint medial compartment was compared with high tibial osteotomy (HTO) under physiological conditions in vitro. METHODS: Seven fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were used to test isokinetic flexion-extension motions under physiological loading using a biomechanical knee simulator. Tibiofemoral area contact and peak contact pressures were measured using pressure-sensitive film in the untreated medial compartment...
October 19, 2016: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Thomas W Storer, Shehzad Basaria, Tinna Traustadottir, S Mitchell Harman, Karol Pencina, Zhuoying Li, Thomas G Travison, Renee Miciek, Panayiotis Tsitouras, Kathleen Hally, Grace Huang, Shalender Bhasin
CONTEXT: Testosterone's effects on muscle strength and physical function in older men have been inconsistent; its effects on muscle power and fatigability have not been studied. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of testosterone administration for 3 years in older men on muscle strength, power, fatigability and physical function Study Design: In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, healthy men ≥60 years with total testosterone 100-400 ng/dL or free testosterone <50 pg/mL, were randomized to 7...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
George Bakris
Resistant hypertension is defined as a blood pressure above 140/90 mmHg despite adherence to a combination of at least three optimally dosed antihypertensive medications, one of which is a diuretic. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is one of the more common patient comorbidities associated with resistant hypertension. Recommended low-salt diet and triple antihypertensive drug regimens that include a diuretic, should be complemented by the sequential addition of other antihypertensive drugs. CKD is associated with premature vascular ageing, characterized by accelerated arteriosclerosis or atherosclerosis and endothelial dysfunction...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Juquan Song, Melody R Saeman, Lisa A Baer, Anthony R Cai, Charles E Wade, Steven E Wolf
This study investigated microRNA and target gene profiles under different conditions of burn, bed rest, and exercise training. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48) were assigned to sham ambulatory, sham hindlimb unloading, burn ambulatory, or burn plus hindlimb unloading groups. Rats received a 40% TBSA scald burn or sham treatments and were ambulatory or hindlimb unloaded. Rats were further assigned to exercise or no exercise. Plantaris tissues were harvested on day 14 and pooled to analyze for microRNA and gene expression profiles...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Richard S Metcalfe, Nicolas Tardif, Dylan Thompson, Niels B J Vollaard
Previously it has been reported that reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training (REHIT; total training time of 3 × 10 min per week) improves maximal aerobic capacity in both sedentary men and women, but improves insulin sensitivity in men only. The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is a true sex difference in response to REHIT, or that these findings can be explained by the large interindividual variability in response inherent to all exercise training. Thirty-five sedentary participants (18 women; mean ± SD age for men and women, respectively: age, 33 ± 9 and 36 ± 9 years; body mass index, 25...
July 7, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Morad Chughtai, Anil Bhave, Sabahat Z Khan, Anton Khlopas, Osman Ali, Steven F Harwin, Michael A Mont
The use of a pneumatic unloader brace has been shown in pilot studies to decrease pain and increase muscle strength in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Therefore, we analyzed patients who had knee OA, and either received a pneumatic unloader brace and conventional treatment or conventional treatment alone. Specifically, we assessed: (1) use of pain relieving injections; (2) opioid consumption; and (3) the eventual need for total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the above-mentioned cohort. We performed an analysis of a longitudinally maintained database of patients from a prospective, randomized, single center study...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Knee Surgery
M H Romero, L F Uribe-Velásquez, J A Sánchez, A A Rayas-Amor, G C Miranda-de la Lama
The aim of the study was to determine the effects of abattoir type (conventional abattoir -CA- versus modern abattoir -MA-) on stress parameters and risk factors for high muscle pH in Colombia. A total of 522 Zebu young bulls were studied in two groups: 285 at CA, and 237 at MA. Blood samples were taken to measure cortisol, glucose, lactate, creatine kinase, β-hydroxybutyrate, total protein, albumin, creatinine, urea, haematocrit, leukocytes and N/L ratio. Cattle were monitored during the unloading, lairage, handling and stunning...
October 11, 2016: Meat Science
David M Turer, Kelly L Koch, Todd M Koelling, Audrey H Wu, Francis D Pagani, Jonathan W Haft
Centrifugal and axial flow left ventricular assist devices have different hydrodynamic properties that may impact the effectiveness of left ventricular unloading. We sought to determine if patients implanted with the HeartWare HVAD (HW) and HeartMate II (HMII) had a similar degree of hemodynamic support by comparing parameters measured using echocardiography and right heart catheterization. Using our prospectively collected database, we identified 268 patients implanted with the HMII and 93 with the HW. Demographic characteristics were similar between groups...
July 26, 2016: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Monica Montesi, Katharina Jähn, Lynda Bonewald, Susanna Stea, Barbara Bordini, Alina Beraudi
Skeletal unloading leads to hypoxia in the bone microenvironment, resulting in imbalanced bone remodeling that favors bone resorption. Osteocytes, the mechanosensors of bone, have been demonstrated to orchestrate bone homeostasis. Hypoxic osteocytes either undergo apoptosis or actively stimulate osteoclasts to remove bone matrix during hypoxia. Oxygen‑regulated protein 150 (ORP150) is an endoplasmic reticulum‑associated chaperone that has been observed to serve an important role in the cellular adaptation to hypoxia and in preventing cellular apoptosis in various tissue types...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Debananda Roy, Gurdeep Singh, Pankaj Yadav
Source apportionment study of PM10 (Particulate Matter) in a critically polluted area of Jharia coalfield, India has been carried out using Dispersion model, Principle Component Analysis (PCA) and Chemical Mass Balance (CMB) techniques. Dispersion model Atmospheric Dispersion Model (AERMOD) was introduced to simplify the complexity of sources in Jharia coalfield. PCA and CMB analysis indicates that monitoring stations near the mining area were mainly affected by the emission from open coal mining and its associated activities such as coal transportation, loading and unloading of coal...
October 2016: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
J A D van der Woude, S Spruijt, B T J van Ginneken, R J van Heerwaarden
Varus deformity can be localized in the tibia, in the femur or in both. If varus deformity is localized within the femur, it is mandatory to correct it in the femur. This report presents the technique and results of a consecutive case series of lateral uniplanar and biplanar closed-wedge valgus osteotomy of the distal femur for the treatment of varus deformity of the knee. Retrospectively, fifteen patients (sixteen knees) were identified. Indications for surgery varied from unloading an osteoarthritic medial compartment to reduction to symmetrical varus leg alignment...
October 14, 2016: Strategies in Trauma and Limb Reconstruction
Pedro Franco Navarro, David J Benson, Vitali F Nesterenko
The shock waves generated by a plate impact are numerically investigated in Al-W laminates with different mesostructures. The main characteristic time scales (and the corresponding spatial scales) related to the formation of the stationary shock are identified: the duration (width) of the leading front, the time (distance) from the impact required to establish a stationary profile, and the shock front width, identified as a time span (distance) from the initial state to the final quasiequilibrium state. It is demonstrated that the width of the leading front and the maximum strain rates are determined by the dispersive and the nonlinear parameters of the laminate and not by the dissipation, as is the case for uniform solids...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Na Li, Xiuhong Li, Yuzhu Wang, Guangfeng Liu, Ping Zhou, Hongjin Wu, Chunxia Hong, Fenggang Bian, Rongguang Zhang
The beamline BL19U2 is located in the Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF) and is its first beamline dedicated to biological material small-angle X-ray scattering (BioSAXS). The electrons come from an undulator which can provide high brilliance for the BL19U2 end stations. A double flat silicon crystal (111) monochromator is used in BL19U2, with a tunable monochromatic photon energy ranging from 7 to 15 keV. To meet the rapidly growing demands of crystallographers, biochemists and structural biologists, the BioSAXS beamline allows manual and automatic sample loading/unloading...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Crystallography
James Wever-Pinzon, Craig H Selzman, Greg Stoddard, Omar Wever-Pinzon, Anna Catino, Abdallah G Kfoury, Nikolaos A Diakos, Bruce B Reid, Stephen McKellar, Michael Bonios, Antigone Koliopoulou, Deborah Budge, Aaron Kelkhoff, Josef Stehlik, James C Fang, Stavros G Drakos
BACKGROUND: Small-scale studies focused mainly on nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) have shown that a subset of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) patients can achieve significant improvement of their native heart function, but the impact of ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) has not been specifically investigated. Many patients with acute myocardial infarction are discharged from their index hospitalization without heart failure (HF), only to return much later with overt HF syndrome, mainly caused by chronic remodeling of the noninfarcted region of the myocardium...
October 18, 2016: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Hongju Jian, Kun Lu, Bo Yang, Tengyue Wang, Li Zhang, Aoxiang Zhang, Jia Wang, Liezhao Liu, Cunmin Qu, Jiana Li
Sucrose is the principal transported product of photosynthesis from source leaves to sink organs. SUTs/SUCs (sucrose transporters or sucrose carriers) and SWEETs (Sugars Will Eventually be Exported Transporters) play significant central roles in phloem loading and unloading. SUTs/SUCs and SWEETs are key players in sucrose translocation and are associated with crop yields. The SUT/SUC and SWEET genes have been characterized in several plant species, but a comprehensive analysis of these two gene families in oilseed rape has not yet been reported...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Charlotte W Usselman, Chantelle A Nielson, Torri A Luchyshyn, Tamara I Gimon, Nicole S Coverdale, Stan H M Van Uum, J Kevin Shoemaker
We tested the hypothesis that sympathetic responses to baroreceptor unloading may be affected by circulating sex hormones. During lower body negative pressure at -30, -60, and -80 mmHg, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), heart rate and blood pressure were recorded in women taking (n=8) and not taking (n=9) hormonal contraceptives. All women were tested twice, once during the low hormone phase (i.e. the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle and the placebo phase of hormonal contraceptive use), and again during the high hormone phase (i...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Francesca Tombolini, Stefano Listrani, Antonella Campopiano, Carmela Plebani
Penetration measurements through commercially available filtering facepieces were performed with monodisperse DEHS aerosols ranging from 0.03 μm to 0.40 μm (either singly charged or neutralized), before and after 500 mg of paraffin oil loading. The distinct behavior of Coulomb and polarization capture efficiency is studied: as in the case of non loading also in the case of loading 500 mg of paraffin oil, the electrostatic capture mechanisms are mainly due to the Coulomb contribution up to aerosol particle diameter of about 0...
2016: Industrial Health
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