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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332162/roles-of-irisin-in-the-linkage-from-muscle-to-bone-during-mechanical-unloading-in-mice
#1
Naoyuki Kawao, Akihiro Moritake, Kohei Tatsumi, Hiroshi Kaji
Mechanical unloading induces disuse muscle atrophy and bone loss, but the details in mechanism involved in those pathophysiological conditions are not fully understood. Interaction between muscle and bone has been recently noted. Here, we investigated the roles of humoral factors linking muscle to bone during mechanical unloading using mice with hindlimb unloading (HU) and sciatic neurectomy (SNX). HU and SNX reduced muscle volume surrounding the tibia, tissue weights of soleus and gastrocnemius muscle, and trabecular bone mineral density (BMD) in the tibia of mice...
January 13, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331975/is-postoperative-bracing-after-pedicle-screw-fixation-of-spine-fractures-necessary-study-protocol-of-the-ornot-study-a-randomised-controlled-multicentre-trial
#2
Arjen Johannes Smits, Jaap Deunk, Agnita Stadhouder, Mark Cornelis Altena, Diederik Hendrik Ruth Kempen, Frank Willem Bloemers
INTRODUCTION: The most common surgical treatment of traumatic spine fractures is through a posterior approach using pedicle screws and rods. Postoperative treatment protocols including the use of postoperative orthoses however differ between hospitals and surgeons. A three-point hyperextension orthosis is designed to support proper posture and unload the anterior column. Some motion remains when wearing an orthosis, and its main value in postoperative treatment is therefore believed to be pain relief and patient confidence...
January 13, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325227/soluble-st2-in-end-stage-heart-failure-before-and-after-support-with-a-left-ventricular-assist-device
#3
C C S Tseng, M M H Huibers, L H Gaykema, E Siera-de Koning, F Z Ramjankhan, A S Maisel, N de Jonge
BACKGROUND: The interleukin-33 (IL-33)/supressor of tumorigenicity 2 (ST2) pathway is suggested to play an important role in fibrosis, remodeling and the progression of heart failure (HF). Increased soluble (sST2) levels are associated with adverse outcome in the average HF population. Less is known about sST2 levels in end-stage HF. Therefore, we studied sST2 levels in end-stage HF and the effect of unloading by left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support on sST2 levels. METHOD AND RESULTS: Serial plasma measurements of sST2 were performed pre-implantation and 1, 3 and 6 months after (LVAD) implantation in 38 patients...
January 11, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323915/resonance-energy-transfer-promoted-photothermal-and-photodynamic-performance-of-gold-copper-sulfide-yolk-shell-nanoparticles-for-chemophototherapy-of-cancer
#4
Yun Chang, Yan Cheng, Yanlin Feng, Hui Jian, Li Wang, Xiaomin Ma, Xi Li, Haiyuan Zhang
Gold (Au) core@void@copper sulfide (CuS) shell (Au-CuS) yolk-shell nanoparticles (YSNPs) were prepared in the present study for potential chemo-, photothermal, and photodynamic combination therapy, so called "chemophototherapy". The resonance energy transfer (RET) process was utilized in Au-CuS YSNPs to achieve both enhanced photothermal and photodynamic performance compared with those of CuS hollow nanoparticles (HNPs). A series of Au nanomaterials as cores that had different localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) absorption peaks at 520, 700, 808, 860, and 980 nm were embedded in CuS HNPs to screen the most effective Au-CuS YSNPs according to the RET process...
January 11, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321941/hygienic-measures-during-animal-transport-to-abattoirs-a-status-quo-analysis-of-the-current-cleaning-and-disinfection-of-animal-transporters-in-germany
#5
Luisa Weber, Diana Meemken
Background: The process of cleaning and disinfection of animal transport vehicles after unloading animals at the abattoir is a critical control point regarding proper hygiene. It is an important step regarding the biosecurity. In the present study, a status quo analysis of the currently performed cleaning and disinfection measures of animal transport vehicles was carried out at the vehicle washing facilities of five different industrial abattoirs in Germany. For this purpose, a checklist was developed and validated to assess the washing procedure of transport vehicles in a standardised way...
2018: Porcine Health Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320953/spaceflight-activates-protein-kinase-c-alpha-signaling-and-modifies-the-developmental-stage-of-human-neonatal-cardiovascular-progenitor-cells
#6
Jonathan Baio, Aida F Martinez, Leonard L Bailey, Nahidh Hasaniya, Michael Pecaut, Mary Kearns-Jonker
Spaceflight impacts cardiovascular function in astronauts; however, its impact on cardiac development and the stem cells that form the basis for cardiac repair is unknown. Accordingly, further research is needed to uncover the potential relevance of such changes to human health. Using simulated microgravity (SMG) generated via two-dimensional clinorotation and culture aboard the International Space Station (ISS), we assessed the effects of mechanical unloading on human neonatal cardiovascular progenitor cell (CPC) developmental properties and signaling...
January 10, 2018: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320371/graphene-as-an-active-virtually-massless-top-electrode-for-rf-solidly-mounted-bulk-acoustic-wave-smr-baw-resonators
#7
Marius David Knapp, René Hoffmann, Vadim Lebedev, Volker Cimalla, Oliver Ambacher
Mechanical and electrical losses induced by an electrode material greatly influence the performance of bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonators. Graphene as a conducting and virtually massless 2D material is a suitable candidate as an alternative electrode material for BAW resonators which reduces electrode induced mechanical losses. In this publication we show that graphene acts as an active top electrode for solidly mounted BAW resonators (BAW-SMR) at 2.1 GHz resonance frequency. Due to a strong decrease of mass loading and its remarkable electronic properties, graphene demonstrates its ability as an ultrathin conductive layer...
January 10, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318943/torsional-friction-behavior-of-the-contact-interface-between-the-materials-of-an-artificial-knee-joint-replacement
#8
Handong Xu, Kai Chen, Dekun Zhang, Xuehui Yang
The torsional friction behavior of the materials (CoCrMo alloy and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene (UHMWPE)) that are used in artificial knee joint replacement (AKJR) were investigated under dynamic loading. The torsional friction torque, wear loss and scars and stress distribution were analyzed and compared. The results show the following: (1) the friction torque declines rapidly at the beginning of the experiments, and meanwhile, the maximum normal load and the torsional angle amplitude show very little effect on the steady value; (2) the wear loss decreases with the increased torsional angle amplitude but increases with the increased maximum normal load; additionally, as the cycle times increase, the wear rate decreases, and the wear is minimal; (3) unloading and secondary loading significantly reduce the friction and wear of the materials, and thus, patients should rest after prolonged exercise to reduce wear; (4) the margins of UHMWPE and CoCrMo are worn, and the wear mechanism is abrasive wear; (5) around the center of the UHMWPE, the surface is peeled off, and the wear mechanism is fatigue wear; and (6) in terms of the compressive stress and shear stress, the calculated results from a finite element model match the experimental results well...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316874/liposomal-delivery-of-demineralised-dentine-matrix-for-dental-tissue-regeneration
#9
Genevieve Elizabeth Melling, John Colombo, Steven J Avery, Wayne Ayre, Samuel L Evans, Rachel Jane Waddington, Alastair James Sloan
Current dental restorations have short longevity, consequently there is a need for novel tissue engineering strategies that aim to regenerate the dentine-pulp complex. Dentine matrix contains a myriad of bioactive growth factors and extracellular matrix proteins associated with the recruitment, proliferation and differentiation of dental pulp progenitor cells. Here, we show that demineralised dentine matrix (DDM), from non-carious dentine, can be encapsulated into liposomes for delivery to dental tissue to promote regeneration...
January 9, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316646/microfluidic-high-q-circular-substrate-integrated-waveguide-siw-cavity-for-radio-frequency-rf-chemical-liquid-sensing
#10
Muhammad Usman Memon, Sungjoon Lim
In this study, a high-Q circular substrate-integrated waveguide (SIW) cavity resonator is proposed as a non-contact and non-invasive radio frequency (RF) sensor for chemical sensing applications. The design of the structure utilizes SIW technology along with a circular shape to achieve a high unloaded Q factor, which is one of the important requirements for RF sensors. The resonant frequency of the proposed circular SIW cavity sensor changes when a liquid material or a chemical (microliters) is inserted in the sensitive area of the structure...
January 6, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315934/effect-of-euk-134-on-akt-mtor-signaling-in-the-rat-soleus-during-7-days-of-mechanical-unloading
#11
J Matthew Kuczmarski, Jeff M Hord, Yang Lee, Vinicius Guzzoni, Dinah Rodriguez, Matthew S Lawler, Erika L Garcia-Villatoro, Dylan Holly, Patrick Ryan, Kristian Falcon, Marcela Garcia, Mariana Janini Gomes, James D Fluckey, John M Lawler
Mechanical unloading stimulates rapid changes in skeletal muscle morphology, characterized by atrophy of muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) and a partial fiber-type shift from slow to fast-twitch. Recent studies revealed that oxidative stress contributes to activation of FoxO3a, proteolytic signaling and unloading-induced muscle atrophy via translocation of the mu-splice variant of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOSμ) and activation of FoxO3a. Yet, there is limited understanding of the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on the Akt-mTOR pathway signaling during unloading...
January 8, 2018: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307048/biomechanical-analysis-of-a-new-lumbar-interspinous-device-with-optimized-topology
#12
Chen-Sheng Chen, Shih-Liang Shih
Interspinous spacers used stand-alone preserve joint movement but provide little protection for diseased segments of the spine. Used as adjuncts with fusion, interspinous spacers offer rigid stability but may accelerate degeneration on adjacent levels. Our new device is intended to balance the stability and preserves motion provided by the implant. A new interspinous spacer was devised according to the results of topology optimization studies. Four finite element (FE) spine models were created that consisted of an intact spine without an implant, implantation of the novel, the device for intervertebral assisted motion (DIAM system), and the Dynesys system...
January 6, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306077/the-e3-ubiquitin-ligase-hectd1-is-involved-in-abca1-mediated-cholesterol-export-from-macrophages
#13
Shereen M Aleidi, Alryel Yang, Laura J Sharpe, Geetha Rao, Blake J Cochran, Kerry-Anne Rye, Maaike Kockx, Andrew J Brown, Ingrid C Gelissen
The ABC lipid transporters, ABCA1 and ABCG1, are essential for maintaining lipid homeostasis in cells such as macrophages by exporting excess cholesterol to extracellular acceptors. These transporters are highly regulated at the post-translational level, including protein ubiquitination. Our aim was to investigate the role of the E3 ubiquitin ligase HECTD1, recently identified as associated with ABCG1, on ABCG1 and ABCA1 protein levels and cholesterol export function. Here, we show that HECTD1 protein is widely expressed in a range of human and murine primary cells and cell lines, including macrophages, neuronal cells and insulin secreting β-cells...
January 3, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304963/editorial-commentary-are-knee-patellofemoral-surgeons-overestimating-their-anteromedialization-measurements
#14
EDITORIAL
Jack Farr
Anteromedialization as originally described by Fulkerson has become an important tool in the armamentarium of patellofemoral surgeons. The goal is to combine the unloading of tibial tubercle anteriorization and the realignment of tubercle medialization. The classic teaching, that the steepest slope of 60° allows approximately 9 mm of medialization with 15 mm of unloading anteriorization, is now challenged, and we may not be achieving the amount of anteriorization as preoperatively planned. Because failure to unload the patellofemoral compartment may adequately compromise surgical outcomes, thorough re-evaluation of anteromedialization measurement is warranted...
January 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304023/insulin-inclusion-into-a-tragacanth-hydrogel-an-oral-delivery-system-for-insulin
#15
Mokhamad Nur, Todor Vasiljevic
Nanoparticles or microparticles created by physical complexation between two polyelectrolytes may have a prospective use as an excipient for oral insulin administration. Natural polymers such as tragacanth, alginate, dextran, pullulan, hyaluronic acid, gelatin and chitosan can be potential candidates for this purpose. In this research, insulin particles were prepared by the inclusion of insulin into a tragacanth hydrogel. The effect of the pH and concentration relationship involving polyelectrolytes offering individual particle size and zeta potential was assessed by zetasizer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)...
January 5, 2018: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303472/biomechanics-of-unilateral-and-bilateral-sacroiliac-joint-stabilization-laboratory-investigation
#16
Derek P Lindsey, Robin Parrish, Mukund Gundanna, Jeremi Leasure, Scott A Yerby, Dimitriy Kondrashov
OBJECTIVE Bilateral symptoms have been reported in 8%-35% of patients with sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction. Stabilization of a single SI joint may significantly alter the stresses on the contralateral SI joint. If the contralateral SI joint stresses are significantly increased, degeneration may occur; alternatively, if the stresses are significantly reduced, bilateral stabilization may be unnecessary for patients with bilateral symptoms. The biomechanical effects of 1) unilateral stabilization on the contralateral SI joint and 2) bilateral stabilization on both SI joints are currently unknown...
January 5, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302944/restrictive-mitral-annuloplasty-with-or-without-papillary-muscle-approximation-for-functional-mitral-regurgitation
#17
Yusuke Misumi, Takafumi Masai, Koichi Toda, Teruya Nakamura, Shigeru Miyagawa, Yasushi Yoshikawa, Satsuki Fukushima, Shunsuke Saito, Keitaro Domae, Satoshi Kainuma, Takayoshi Ueno, Toru Kuratani, Takashi Daimon, Yoshiki Sawa
BACKGROUND: The impact of adding papillary muscle approximation (PMA) to restrictive mitral annuloplasty (RMA) on postoperative left ventricular (LV) function is unknown. Changes in LV function parameters and clinical outcome were evaluated following RMA with and without PMA in patients with clinically relevant functional mitral regurgitation (FMR). METHODS: A total of 176 patients with advanced cardiomyopathy underwent RMA either with (n = 59) or without (n = 117) PMA...
July 2017: Journal of Heart Valve Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302753/a-comparison-between-the-force-velocity-relationships-of-unloaded-and-sled-resisted-sprinting-single-vs-multiple-trial-methods
#18
Matt R Cross, Pierre Samozino, Scott R Brown, Jean-Benoît Morin
PURPOSE: We sought to compare force-velocity relationships developed from unloaded sprinting acceleration to that compiled from multiple sled-resisted sprints. METHODS: Twenty-seven mixed-code athletes performed six to seven maximal sprints, unloaded and towing a sled (20-120% of body-mass), while measured using a sports radar. Two methods were used to draw force-velocity relationships for each athlete: A multiple trial method compiling kinetic data using pre-determined friction coefficients and aerodynamic drag at maximum velocity from each sprint; and a validated single trial method plotting external force due to acceleration and aerodynamic drag and velocity throughout an acceleration phase of an unloaded sprint (only)...
January 4, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300389/high-throughput-in-situ-x-ray-screening-of-and-data-collection-from-protein-crystals-at-room-temperature-and-under-cryogenic-conditions
#19
Jana Broecker, Takefumi Morizumi, Wei-Lin Ou, Viviane Klingel, Anling Kuo, David J Kissick, Andrii Ishchenko, Ming-Yue Lee, Shenglan Xu, Oleg Makarov, Vadim Cherezov, Craig M Ogata, Oliver P Ernst
Protein crystallography has significantly advanced in recent years, with in situ data collection, in which crystals are placed in the X-ray beam within their growth medium, being a major point of focus. In situ methods eliminate the need to harvest crystals, a previously unavoidable drawback, particularly for often small membrane-protein crystals. Here, we present a protocol for the high-throughput in situ X-ray screening of and data collection from soluble and membrane-protein crystals at room temperature (20-25°C) and under cryogenic conditions...
February 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288023/anterior-lens-capsule-strains-during-simulated-accommodation-in-porcine-eyes
#20
Antonio Pellegrino, Harvey John Burd, Laura Pinilla Cortés, Justin Christopher D'Antin, Nik Petrinic, Rafael I Barraquer, Ralph Michael
Experimental protocols have been developed to measure the spatial variation of the mechanical strains induced in the lens capsule during ex vivo lens stretching. The paper describes the application of these protocols to porcine lenses. The deformations and mechanical strains developed in the anterior capsule during each experiment were determined using full field digital image correlation techniques, by means of a speckle pattern applied to the lens surface. Several speckling techniques and illumination methods were assessed before a suitable combination was found...
December 26, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
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