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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811742/respiratory-t-wave-inversion-in-a-patient-with-chest-pain
#1
Himani Sharma, Abhinav Tiwari
T-wave inversion on electrocardiogram (ECG) is always a concerning finding as it is often associated with myocardial ischemia or ventricular strain. Respiratory variation in the T-wave morphology has been reported in the literature; however, the frequency of this observation remains unknown as this is not routinely evaluated. Although the exact physiological mechanisms underlying this ECG change are unclear, it is proposed to be due to the respiratory variation of the heart position resulting in an alteration in T-wave polarity...
2017: Clinical Medicine Insights. Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811488/deregulation-of-zpr1-causes-respiratory-failure-in-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#2
Naresh K Genabai, Annapoorna Kannan, Saif Ahmad, Xiaoting Jiang, Kanchan Bhatia, Laxman Gangwani
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by the low levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein and is characterized by motor neuron degeneration and muscle atrophy. Respiratory failure causes death in SMA but the underlying molecular mechanism is unknown. The zinc finger protein ZPR1 interacts with SMN. ZPR1 is down regulated in SMA patients. We report that ZPR1 functions downstream of SMN to regulate HoxA5 levels in phrenic motor neurons that control respiration. Spatiotemporal inactivation of Zpr1 gene in motor neurons down-regulates HoxA5 and causes defects in the function of phrenic motor neurons that results in respiratory failure and perinatal lethality in mice...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811200/globular-adiponectin-reverses-osteo-sarcopenia-and-altered-body-composition-in-ovariectomized-rats
#3
Shyamsundar Pal China, Subhashis Pal, Sourav Chattopadhyay, Konica Porwal, Sapana Kushwaha, Sharmishtha Bhattacharyya, Monika Mittal, Anagha A Gurjar, Tarun Barbhuyan, Abhishek K Singh, Arun K Trivedi, Jiaur R Gayen, Sabyasachi Sanyal, Naibedya Chattopadhyay
Adiponectin regulates various metabolic processes including glucose flux, lipid breakdown and insulin response. We recently reported that adiponectin receptor1 (adipoR1) activation by a small molecule reverses osteopenia in leptin receptor deficient db/db (diabetic) mice. However, the role of adiponectin in bone metabolism under the setting of post-menopausal (estrogen-deficiency) osteopenia and associated metabolic derangements has not been studied. Here, we studied the therapeutic effect of the globular form of adiponectin (gAd), which is predominantly an adipoR1 agonist, in aged ovariectomized (OVX) rats and compared it with standard-of-care anti-osteoporosis drugs...
August 12, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810688/exhaled-breath-condensate-a-novel-matrix-for-biological-monitoring-to-assess-occupational-exposure-to-respirable-crystalline-silica
#4
Elizabeth Leese, James F Staff, Vikki A Carolan, Jackie Morton
Biological monitoring (BM) is a useful way of determining overall exposures to chemical substances; however, in the case of respirable crystalline silica (RCS), this has not been analytically feasible in conventional biological matrices. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) as a potential biological matrix in which to determine exposure to RCS. A small pilot study was undertaken collecting EBC from six quarry workers and six occupationally unexposed persons; the samples were analysed using both single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809851/grape-pomace-compost-harbors-organohalide-respiring-dehalogenimonas-species-with-novel-reductive-dehalogenase-genes
#5
Yi Yang, Steven A Higgins, Jun Yan, Burcu Şimşir, Karuna Chourey, Ramsunder Iyer, Robert L Hettich, Brett Baldwin, Dora M Ogles, Frank E Löffler
Organohalide-respiring bacteria have key roles in the natural chlorine cycle; however, most of the current knowledge is based on cultures from contaminated environments. We demonstrate that grape pomace compost without prior exposure to chlorinated solvents harbors a Dehalogenimonas (Dhgm) species capable of using chlorinated ethenes, including the human carcinogen and common groundwater pollutant vinyl chloride (VC) as electron acceptors. Grape pomace microcosms and derived solid-free enrichment cultures were able to dechlorinate trichloroethene (TCE) to less chlorinated daughter products including ethene...
August 15, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809670/cardio-pulmonary-stethoscope-clinical-validation-with-heart-failure-and-hemodialysis-patients
#6
Magdy F Iskander, Todd B Seto, Ruthsenne Rg Perron, Eunjung Lim, Farhan Qazi
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy of a noninvasive radiofrequency-based device, the Cardio-Pulmonary Stethoscope (CPS), to monitor heart and respiration rates and detect changes in lung water content in human experiments and clinical trials. METHODS: Three human populations (healthy subjects (n=4), heart failure (n=12) and hemodialysis (n=13) patients) were enrolled in this study. The study was conducted at the University of Hawaii and The Queen's Medical Center in Honolulu, HI...
August 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809394/smad5-signaling-more-than-meets-the-nuclei
#7
John Orlowski
SMADs are essential transcriptional effectors of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ)/TGFβ-related signaling that underlies embryonic development and adult homeostasis. A recent study by Fang et al. in Cell Research adds to this biological complexity by demonstrating an atypical cytoplasmic role for SMAD5 in modulating the bioenergetic homeostasis (i.e., glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration) of cells in response to fluctuations in intracellular pH that is independent of receptor signaling.
August 15, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808362/a-study-on-the-psychometric-properties-of-revised-nonverbal-pain-scale-and-original-nonverbal-pain-scale-in-iranian-nonverbal-ventilated-patients
#8
Hoda Chookalayi, Mehdi Heidarzadeh, Mohammad Hasanpour, Sajjad Jabrailzadeh, Fatemeh Sadeghpour
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The nonverbal pain scale is one of the instruments which study pain in nonverbal-ventilated patients with regard to the changes of behavioral and physiological indices. The purpose of the study is to survey the psychometric properties of revised-nonverbal pain scale (R-NVPS) and original-nonverbal pain scale (O-NVPS) in ventilated patients hospitalized in critical care units. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four nurses studied pain in sixty patients hospitalized in trauma, medical, neurology, and surgical critical care units using R-NVPS and O-NVPS at six times (before, during, and after nociceptive and nonnociceptive procedures)...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808334/cardiorespiratory-optimization-during-improvised-singing-and-toning
#9
N F Bernardi, S Snow, I Peretz, H D Orozco Perez, N Sabet-Kassouf, A Lehmann
We evaluated the effect of different forms of singing on cardiorespiratory physiology, and we aimed at disentangling the role of breathing from that of vocal production. Cardiorespiratory recordings were obtained from 20 healthy adults at rest and during: a) singing of familiar slow songs as in the standard form of Western culture; b) improvised vocalization of free vowel sounds, known as toning. To disentangle the role of breathing from that of vocal production, we compared the vocal conditions with matched breathing-only conditions...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808161/listeria-monocytogenes-has-both-a-bd-type-and-an-aa3-type-terminal-oxidase-which-allow-growth-in-different-oxygen-levels-and-both-are-important-in-infection
#10
David Corbett, Marie Goldrick, Vitor E Fernandes, Kelly Davidge, Robert K Poole, Peter W Andrew, Jennifer Cavet, Ian S Roberts
Listeria monocytogenes is a food borne pathogen responsible for a number of life-threatening infections of humans. During an infection it invades epithelial cells before spreading from the intestine to the cells of the liver and spleen. This requires an ability to adapt to varying oxygen levels. Here we demonstrate that L. monocytogenes has two terminal oxidases, a cytochrome bd-type (CydAB) and a cytochrome aa3 -type menaquinol oxidase (QoxAB) and that both are used for respiration under different oxygen tensions...
August 14, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808062/ablating-tbc1d1-impairs-contraction-induced-sarcolemmal-glucose-transporter-type-4-redistribution-but-not-insulin-mediated-responses-in-rats
#11
Jamie Whitfield, Sabina Paglialunga, Brennan K Smith, Paula M Miotto, Genevieve Simnett, Holly L Robson, Swati S Jain, Eric A F Herbst, Eric M Desjardins, David J Dyck, Lawrence L Spriet, Gregory R Steinberg, Graham P Holloway
TBC1 domain family member 1 (TBC1D1), a Rab GTPase-activating protein and paralogue of Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160), has been implicated in both insulin- and 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase (AICAR)-mediated glucose transporter type (GLUT4) translocation. However, the role of TBC1D1 in contracting muscle remains ambiguous. We therefore explored the metabolic consequence of ablating TBC1D1 in both resting and contracting skeletal muscles, utilizing a rat TBC1D1-KO model...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807815/bcl-xl-knockout-attenuates-mitochondrial-respiration-and-causes-oxidative-stress-that-is-compensated-by-pentose-phosphate-pathway-activity
#12
Annika Pfeiffer, Julia Schneider, Diones Bueno, Amalia Dolga, Timo-Daniel Voss, Jan Lewerenz, Verena Wüllner, Axel Methner
Bcl-xL is an anti-apoptotic protein that localizes to the outer mitochondrial membrane and influences mitochondrial bioenergetics by controlling Ca(2+) influx into mitochondria. Here, we analyzed the effect of mitochondrial Bcl-xL on mitochondrial shape and function in knockout (KO), wildtype and rescued mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines. Mitochondria of KO cells were more fragmented, exhibited a reduced ATP concentration, and reduced oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) suggesting an increased importance of ATP generation by other means...
August 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807687/influence-of-tween-80-on-the-production-and-structure-of-water-insoluble-curdlan-from-agrobacterium-sp
#13
Ying Liang, Li Zhu, Minjie Gao, Zhiyong Zheng, Jianrong Wu, Xiaobei Zhan
In order to explore the mechanism by which Tween-80 enhances the production of curdlan produced by Agrobacterium sp., the effects of Tween-80 on the production and structure of curdlan and Agrobacterium sp. were evaluated. Maximum curdlan production (51.94g/L) was achieved when 16g/L Tween-80 was added at the beginning of the cell growth stage. The addition of Tween-80 at higher concentration inhibited cell growth. However, the addition of 16g/L Tween-80 enhanced the production of curdlan with a looser ultrastructure, significantly weakened the envelopment of curdlan on Agrobacterium sp...
August 11, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806519/pluronic-p85-f68-micelles-of-baicalein-could-interfere-with-mitochondria-to-overcome-mrp2-mediated-efflux-and-offer-improved-anti-parkinsonian-activity
#14
Tongkai Chen, Ye Li, Chuwen Li, Xiang Yi, Ruibing Wang, Simon Ming Yuen Lee, Ying Zheng
Overexpression of the drug efflux transporter multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2) in the gastrointestinal tract and blood-brain barrier compromises the oral delivery of drugs to the circulation system and brain in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we aim to develop small-sized Pluronic P85/F68 micelles loaded with baicalein (B-MCs) to overcome MRP2-mediated efflux and to investigate related mechanism, as well as the anti-Parkinsonian efficacy. Spherical and sustained-release B-MCs have a mean particle size of 40...
August 14, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805919/cows-exposed-to-heat-stress-during-fetal-life-exhibit-improved-thermal-tolerance
#15
B M S Ahmed, U Younas, T O Asar, S Dikmen, P J Hansen, G E Dahl
Maternal heat stress during late gestation affects calf function during postnatal life. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether calves that experience heat stress in utero have altered thermoregulatory responses to acute heat stress later in life. Specifically, the hypothesis was that heat stress in utero would improve the response to acute heat stress at maturity. Females were born to dams exposed to heat stress or cooled during late gestation preceding their birth. All animals were raised postnatally under identical management...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805902/enteric-methane-emissions-from-low-and-high-residual-feed-intake-beef-heifers-measured-using-greenfeed-and-respiration-chamber-techniques
#16
A W Alemu, D Vyas, G Manafiazar, J A Basarab, K A Beauchemin
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the relationship between residual feed intake (RFI; g/d) and enteric methane (CH) production (g/kg DM) and to compare CH and carbon dioxide (CO) emissions measured using respiration chambers (RC) and the GreenFeed emission monitoring (GEM) system (C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD). A total of 98 crossbred replacement heifers were group housed in 2 pens and fed barley silage ad libitum and their individual feed intakes were recorded by 16 automated feeding bunks (GrowSafe, Airdrie, AB, Canada) for a period of 72 d to determine their phenotypic RFI...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805899/effects-of-forage-types-on-digestibility-methane-emissions-and-nitrogen-utilization-efficiency-in-two-genotypes-of-hill-ewes
#17
Y G Zhao, R Annett, T Yan
Thirty-six nonpregnant hill ewes (18 pure Scottish Blackface and 18 Swaledale × Scottish Blackface) aged 18 mo and weighing 48 ± 4.8 kg were allocated to 3 forage treatments balanced for genotype and BW. Each genotype was offered 3 forages (pelleted ryegrass, fresh lowland grass, and fresh hill grass) ad libitum with 6 ewes for each of the 6 genotype × diet combination treatments. Pelleted ryegrass was sourced from a commercial supplier (Drygrass South Western Ltd, Burrington, UK). Fresh lowland grass was harvested daily in the morning from a third regrowth perennial ryegrass () sward...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805897/effects-of-grass-silage-quality-and-level-of-feed-intake-on-enteric-methane-production-in-lactating-dairy-cows
#18
D Warner, A Bannink, B Hatew, H van Laar, J Dijkstra
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of level of feed intake and quality of ryegrass silage as well as their interaction on enteric methane (CH) emission from dairy cows. In a randomized block design, 56 lactating dairy cows received a diet of grass silage, corn silage, and a compound feed meal (70:10:20 on DM basis). Treatments consisted of 4 grass silage qualities prepared from grass harvested from leafy through late heading stage, and offered to dairy cows at 96 ± 2.4 (mean ± SEM) days in milk (namely, high intake) and 217 ± 2...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805260/determination-of-carbon-isotope-enrichment-factors-of-cis-dce-after-precursor-amendment
#19
Simon Leitner, Thomas G Reichenauer, Andrea Watzinger
RATIONALE: Bacterial reductive dechlorination of the groundwater contaminant tetrachloroethene (PCE) involves the formation of lower chlorinated metabolites. Metabolites can be instantaneously formed and consumed in this sequential process; quantification and validation of their isotopic effects conventionally rely on separate laboratory microcosm studies. Here, we present an evaluation method enabling the determination of the carbon isotope enrichment factor (ε) for the intermediate cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) by a single laboratory microcosm study initially amending the precursor PCE only...
August 14, 2017: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805245/tropical-rainforest-carbon-sink-declines-during-el-ni%C3%A3-o-as-a-result-of-reduced-photosynthesis-and-increased-respiration-rates
#20
Molly A Cavaleri, Adam P Coble, Michael G Ryan, William L Bauerle, Henry W Loescher, Steven F Oberbauer
Changes in tropical forest carbon sink strength during El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events can indicate future behavior under climate change. Previous studies revealed ˜6 Mg C ha(-1)  yr(-1) lower net ecosystem production (NEP) during ENSO year 1998 compared with non-ENSO year 2000 in a Costa Rican tropical rainforest. We explored environmental drivers of this change and examined the contributions of ecosystem respiration (RE) and gross primary production (GPP) to this weakened carbon sink. For 1998-2000, we estimated RE using chamber-based respiration measurements, and we estimated GPP in two ways: using (1) the canopy process model MAESTRA, and (2) combined eddy covariance and chamber respiration data...
August 14, 2017: New Phytologist
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