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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102845/h19-let-7-lin28-reciprocal-negative-regulatory-circuit-promotes-breast-cancer-stem-cell-maintenance
#1
Fei Peng, Ting-Ting Li, Kai-Li Wang, Guo-Qing Xiao, Ju-Hong Wang, Hai-Dong Zhao, Zhi-Jie Kang, Wen-Jun Fan, Li-Li Zhu, Mei Li, Bai Cui, Fei-Meng Zheng, Hong-Jiang Wang, Eric W-F Lam, Bo Wang, Jie Xu, Quentin Liu
Long noncoding RNA-H19 (H19), an imprinted oncofetal gene, has a central role in carcinogenesis. Hitherto, the mechanism by which H19 regulates cancer stem cells, remains elusive. Here we show that breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) express high levels of H19, and ectopic overexpression of H19 significantly promotes breast cancer cell clonogenicity, migration and mammosphere-forming ability. Conversely, silencing of H19 represses these BCSC properties. In concordance, knockdown of H19 markedly inhibits tumor growth and suppresses tumorigenesis in nude mice...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102840/cancer-associated-fibroblasts-enact-field-cancerization-by-promoting-extratumoral-oxidative-stress
#2
Jeremy Soon Kiat Chan, Ming Jie Tan, Ming Keat Sng, Ziqiang Teo, Terri Phua, Chee Chong Choo, Liang Li, Pengcheng Zhu, Nguan Soon Tan
Histological inspection of visually normal tissue adjacent to neoplastic lesions often reveals multiple foci of cellular abnormalities. This suggests the presence of a regional carcinogenic signal that spreads oncogenic transformation and field cancerization. We observed an abundance of mutagenic reactive oxygen species in the stroma of cryosectioned patient tumor biopsies, indicative of extratumoral oxidative stress. Diffusible hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was elevated in the conditioned medium of cultured skin epithelia at various stages of oncogenic transformation, and H2O2 production increased with greater tumor-forming and metastatic capacity of the studied cell lines...
January 19, 2017: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100827/insights-into-resource-consumption-cross-feeding-system-collapse-stability-and-biodiversity-from-an-artificial-ecosystem
#3
Yu Liu, David Sumpter
Community ecosystems at very different levels of biological organization often have similar properties. Coexistence of multiple species, cross-feeding, biodiversity and fluctuating population dynamics are just a few of the properties that arise in a range of ecological settings. Here we develop a bottom-up model of consumer-resource interactions, in the form of an artificial ecosystem 'number soup', which reflects basic properties of many bacterial and other community ecologies. We demonstrate four key properties of the number soup model: (i) communities self-organize so that all available resources are fully consumed; (ii) reciprocal cross-feeding is a common evolutionary outcome, which evolves in a number of stages, and many transitional species are involved; (iii) the evolved ecosystems are often 'robust yet fragile', with keystone species required to prevent the whole system from collapsing; (iv) non-equilibrium dynamics and chaotic patterns are general properties, readily generating rich biodiversity...
January 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100637/a-zip3-like-protein-plays-a-role-in-crossover-formation-in-the-sc-less-meiosis-of-the-protist-tetrahymena
#4
Anura Shodhan, Kensuke Kataoka, Kazufumi Mochizuki, Maria Novatchkova, Josef Loidl
When programmed meiotic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) undergo recombinational repair, genetic crossovers (COs) may be formed. A certain level of these are required for the faithful segregation of chromosomes, but the majority of DSBs are processed toward a safer alternative, namely non-crossovers (NCOs), via non-reciprocal DNA exchange. At the crossroads between these two DSB fates are the Msh4-Msh5 (MutSγ) complex, which stabilizes CO-destined recombination intermediates, and members of the Zip3/RNF212 family of RING finger proteins, which in turn stabilize MutSγ...
January 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100274/using-medical-specialty-and-selection-criteria-clusters-to-study-specialty-selection-by-israeli-medical-students
#5
Yoram G Weiss, Rachel Yaffa Zisk-Rony, Howard Tandeter, Uriel Elchalal, Alex Avidan, Josh E Schroeder, Charles Weissman
BACKGROUND: During their final year of medical school, Israeli students must consider which specialty to choose for residency. Based on the vocational counseling literature we presumed that choices are made by selecting from a cluster of related specialties while considering professional and socio-economic issues. METHODS: Questionnaires distributed to final-year medical students at two Israeli medical schools ascertained inclinations toward various medical specialties and the importance of various selection criteria...
January 18, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099679/clinical-outcomes-for-couples-containing-a-reciprocal-chromosome-translocation-carrier-without-preimplantation-genetic-diagnosis
#6
Biao Yin, Yuanchang Zhu, Tonghua Wu, Shuqiu Shen, Yong Zeng, Desheng Liang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pregnancy outcomes of couples containing a carrier of a reciprocal chromosome translocation (RCT) after assisted reproductive technology without preimplantation genetic diagnosis. METHODS: A retrospective study was performed using data for couples with an RCT carrier and control couples with a normal karyotype (1:4 ratio) who underwent assisted reproductive technology cycles at a Chinese fertility center in 2010-2011. The embryos were fertilized via in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099143/desirable-cytolytic-immune-effector-cell-recruitment-by-interleukin-15-dendritic-cells
#7
Heleen H Van Acker, Ottavio Beretta, Sébastien Anguille, Lien De Caluwé, Angela Papagna, Johan M Van den Bergh, Yannick Willemen, Herman Goossens, Zwi N Berneman, Viggo F Van Tendeloo, Evelien L Smits, Maria Foti, Eva Lion
Success of dendritic cell (DC) therapy in treating malignancies is depending on the DC capacity to attract immune effector cells, considering their reciprocal crosstalk is partially regulated by cell-contact-dependent mechanisms. Although critical for therapeutic efficacy, immune cell recruitment is a largely overlooked aspect regarding optimization of DC vaccination. In this paper we have made a head-to-head comparison of interleukin (IL)-15-cultured DCs and conventional IL-4-cultured DCs with regard to their proficiency in the recruitment of (innate) immune effector cells...
January 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098354/concealed-accessory-pathways-with-a-single-ventricular-and-two-discrete-atrial-insertion-sites
#8
Ryan T Kipp, Raed Abu Sham'a, Ito Hiroyuki, Frederick T Han, Marwan Refaat, Jonathan C Hsu, Michael E Field, Douglas E Kopp, Gregory M Marcus, Melvin M Scheinman, Kurt S Hoffmayer
BACKGROUND: Atrioventricular reciprocating tachycardia utilizing a concealed accessory pathway is common. It is well appreciated that some patients may have multiple accessory pathways with separate atrial and ventricular insertion sites. METHODS: We present three cases of AVRT utilizing concealed pathways with evidence that each utilizing a single ventricular insertion and two discrete atrial insertion sites. RESULTS: In case one, two discrete atrial insertion sites were mapped in two separate procedures, and only during the second ablation was the Kent potential identified...
January 18, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097826/development-shapes-a-consistent-inbreeding-effect-in-mouse-crania-of-different-line-crosses
#9
Mihaela Pavličev, Philipp Mitteroecker, Paula M Gonzalez, Campbell Rolian, Heather Jamniczky, Fernando Pardo-Manuel Villena, Ralph Marcucio, Richard Spritz, Benedikt Hallgrimsson
Development translates genetic variation into a multivariate pattern of phenotypic variation, distributing it among traits in a nonuniform manner. As developmental processes are largely shared within species, this suggests that heritable phenotypic variation will be patterned similarly, in spite of the different segregating alleles. To investigate developmental effect on the variational pattern in the shape of the mouse skull across genetically differentiated lines, we employed the full set of reciprocal crosses (a...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part B, Molecular and Developmental Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096541/the-mucosal-immune-system-master-regulator-of-bidirectional-gut-brain-communications
#10
REVIEW
Nick Powell, Marjorie M Walker, Nicholas J Talley
Communication between the brain and gut is not one-way, but a bidirectional highway whereby reciprocal signals between the two organ systems are exchanged to coordinate function. The messengers of this complex dialogue include neural, metabolic, endocrine and immune mediators responsive to diverse environmental cues, including nutrients and components of the intestinal microbiota (microbiota-gut-brain axis). We are now starting to understand how perturbation of these systems affects transition between health and disease...
January 18, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096460/occupancy-of-the-zinc-binding-site-by-transition-metals-decreases-the-substrate-affinity-of-the-human-dopamine-transporter-by-an-allosteric-mechanism
#11
Yang Li, Felix P Mayer, Peter S Hasenhuetl, Verena Burtscher, Klaus Schicker, Harald H Sitte, Michael Freissmuth, Walter Sandtner
The human dopamine transporter (DAT) has a tetrahedral Zn(2+)-binding site. Zn(2+)-binding sites are also recognized by other first row transition metals. Excessive accumulation of manganese or of copper can lead to Parkinsonism due to dopamine deficiency. Accordingly, we examined the effect of Mn(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+) and Cu(2+)on transport-associated currents through DAT and DAT-H193K, a mutant with a disrupted Zn(2+)-binding site. All transition metals - but Mn(2+) - modulated the transport cycle of wild type DAT with affinities in the low µM range...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096240/coevolution-of-leukemia-and-host-immune-cells-in-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#12
Noelia Purroy, C J Wu
Cumulative studies on the dissection of changes in driver genetic lesions in cancer across the course of the disease have provided powerful insights into the adaptive mechanisms of tumors in response to the selective pressures of therapy and environmental changes. In particular, the advent of next-generation-sequencing (NGS)-based technologies and its implementation for the large-scale comprehensive analyses of cancers have greatly advanced our understanding of cancer as a complex dynamic system wherein genetically distinct subclones interact and compete during tumor evolution...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096089/tolerogenic-interactions-between-cd8-dendritic-cells-and-nkt-cells-prevent-rejection-of-bone-marrow-and-organ-grafts
#13
David Hongo, Xiaobin Tang, Xiangyue Zhang, Edgar G Engleman, Samuel Strober
The combination of total lymphoid irradiation and anti-T cell antibodies safely induces immune tolerance to combined hematopoietic cell and organ allografts in humans. Our mouse model required host natural killer T (NKT) cells to induce tolerance. Since NKT cells normally depend on signals from CD8+ dendritic cells (DCs) for their activation, we used the mouse model to test the hypothesis that after lymphoid irradiation host CD8+DCs play a requisite role in tolerance induction through interactions with NKT cells...
January 17, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095394/loss-of-cul4a-expression-is-underlying-cisplatin-hypersensitivity-in-colorectal-carcinoma-cells-with-acquired-trabectedin-resistance
#14
B Englinger, M Mair, W Miklos, C Pirker, T Mohr, S van Schoonhoven, D Lötsch, W Körner, F Ferk, S Knasmüller, P Heffeter, B K Keppler, M Grusch, W Berger
BACKGROUND: Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide. Platinum-based anticancer compounds still constitute one mainstay of systemic CRC treatment despite limitations due to adverse effects and resistance development. Trabectedin has shown promising antitumor effects in CRC, however, again resistance development may occur. In this study, we aimed to develop strategies to circumvent or even exploit acquired trabectedin resistance in novel CRC treatment regimens...
January 17, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095260/differential-expression-and-roles-of-secreted-frizzled-related-protein-5-and-the-wingless-homolog-wnt5a-in-periodontitis
#15
T Maekawa, P Kulwattanaporn, K Hosur, H Domon, M Oda, Y Terao, T Maeda, G Hajishengallis
The Wingless/integrase-1 (Wnt) family of protein ligands and their functional antagonists, secreted frizzled-related proteins (sFRPs), regulate various biological processes ranging from embryonic development to immunity and inflammation. Wnt5a and sFRP5 comprise a typical ligand/antagonist pair, and the former molecule was recently detected at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level in human periodontitis. The main objective of this study was to investigate the interrelationship of expression of Wnt5a and sFRP5 in human periodontitis (as compared to health) and to determine their roles in inflammation and bone loss in an animal model...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Dental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095201/multisensory-bayesian-inference-depends-on-synapse-maturation-during-training-theoretical-analysis-and-neural-modeling-implementation
#16
Mauro Ursino, Cristiano Cuppini, Elisa Magosso
Recent theoretical and experimental studies suggest that in multisensory conditions, the brain performs a near-optimal Bayesian estimate of external events, giving more weight to the more reliable stimuli. However, the neural mechanisms responsible for this behavior, and its progressive maturation in a multisensory environment, are still insufficiently understood. The aim of this letter is to analyze this problem with a neural network model of audiovisual integration, based on probabilistic population coding-the idea that a population of neurons can encode probability functions to perform Bayesian inference...
January 17, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094865/long-term-side-effects-on-the-temporomandibular-joints-and-orofacial-function-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea-treated-with-a-mandibular-advancement-device
#17
Sofie W Knappe, Merete Bakke, Palle Svanholt, Arne Petersson, Liselotte Sonnesen
Patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in long-term treatment with a mandibular advancement device (MAD) to increase the upper airway space, may develop changes in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the orofacial function due to the protruded jaw position during sleep. The aim was to investigate the influence of long-term MAD treatment on the TMJs, orofacial function and occlusion. This prospective study included 30 men and 13 women (median age 54) with OSA (Apnoea-Hypopnoea Index (AHI): 7-57). They were examined with the Nordic Orofacial Test Screening (NOT-S), the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) of the TMJs...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093827/trajectories-of-sleep-and-cardiac-sympathetic-activity-indexed-by-pre-ejection-period-in-childhood
#18
Mona El-Sheikh, J Benjamin Hinnant, Lauren E Philbrook
Fragmented and insufficient sleep has been implicated in disrupted autonomic nervous system activity during resting state conditions in typically developing children. Towards explication of these relations over development, the current study tested reciprocal relations between the development of sleep parameters (efficiency, duration, latency) and cardiac sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity indexed by pre-ejection period (PEP) during waking-resting state conditions throughout middle and late childhood...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Sleep Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093772/the-reciprocity-of-prosocial-behavior-and-positive-affect-in-daily-life
#19
Evelien Snippe, Bertus F Jeronimus, Marije Aan Het Rot, Elisabeth H Bos, Peter de Jonge, Marieke Wichers
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether prosocial behaviors help sustain a positive mood, we tested the dynamic reciprocal associations between prosocial behavior and positive affect (PA) in daily life. A second aim was to examine whether the personality traits neuroticism and extraversion moderate these associations. METHODS: The study included a community sample (N = 553). Participants completed an electronic diary assessing prosocial behavior and PA three times a day over 30 days...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093521/oncostatin-m-suppresses-activation-of-il-17-th17-via-socs3-regulation-in-cd4-t-cells
#20
Hye-Jin Son, Seung Hoon Lee, Seon-Yeong Lee, Eun-Kyung Kim, Eun-Ji Yang, Jae-Kyung Kim, Hyeon-Beom Seo, Sung-Hwan Park, Mi-La Cho
Oncostatin M (OSM) is a pleiotropic cytokine and a member of the IL-6 family. It has both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions and is involved in the activation of STAT3 and STAT5. Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic and excessive inflammation. Rheumatoid arthritis can lead to induction of Th17 cells, which express IL-17. The aim of this study was to measure the effects of OSM on the proliferation of regulatory T cells and Th17 cells from mice. IL-2 immune complex suppressed the development of collagen-induced arthritis in mice and altered the regulatory T/Th17 cell balance by increasing OSM expression...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
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