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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637190/evolution-of-the-sperm-methylome-of-primates-is-associated-with-retrotransposon-insertions-and-genome-instability
#1
Kei Fukuda, Yukihiro Inoguchi, Kenji Ichiyanagi, Tomoko Ichiyanagi, Yasuhiro Go, Masashi Nagano, Yojiro Yanagawa, Noboru Takaesu, Yasuyuki Ohkawa, Hiroo Imai, Hiroyuki Sasaki
Changes in gene expression resulting from epigenetic and/or genetic changes play an important role in the evolutionary divergence of phenotypes. To explore how epigenetic and genetic changes are linked during primate evolution, we have compared the genome-wide DNA methylation profiles (methylomes) of humans and chimpanzees, which have a 1.2% DNA sequence divergence, of sperm, the frontal cortices, B cells, and neutrophils. We revealed that species-specific differentially methylated regions (S-DMRs), ranging from several hundred bp to several kb, were frequently associated with sequence changes in transcription factor binding sites and insertions of Alu and SVA retrotransposons...
June 20, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636503/effects-of-instructional-physical-activity-courses-on-overall-physical-activity-and-mood-in-university-students
#2
James J Annesi, Kandice J Porter, Grant M Hill, Bernard D Goldfine
PURPOSE: The aim of this research was to assess the association between university-based instructional physical activity (PA) courses and changes in overall PA levels and negative mood and their interrelations. The study also sought to determine the amount of change in PA required to significantly improve mood in course enrollees. METHOD: Participants were university students initially completing PA below the level recommended for health who were either presently enrolled in an elective instructional PA course (treatment group, n = 52, 69% female) or not presently enrolled in such a course (comparison group, n = 32, 69% female)...
June 21, 2017: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636397/a-comparison-of-the-structural-response-to-pressure-of-ils-with-ether-and-alkyl-functionalities
#3
Kamal B Dhungana, Claudio Javier Margulis
The response of ionic liquids to external perturbations including elevated pressure is a topic of current interest for applications such as tribology. Ionic liquids come in many classes, including those that are amphiphilic and some that are mostly polar having either cationic or anionic tails that are functionalized. The current study compares the effect of elevated pressure on two ionic liquids with different types of cationic tail. 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (C10mim+/NTf2-) is amphiphilic whereas isoelectronic ether-functionalized 1-(2-(2-(2-methoxyethoxy)ethoxy)ethyl)-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide (C7O3mim+/NTf2-) has cationic tails that are more polar and conformationally different...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636340/three-dimensional-modeling-of-quasicrystal-structures-from-x-ray-diffraction-an-icosahedral-al-cu-fe-alloy
#4
Seung-Tae Hong
Quasicrystals (QCs) are well-ordered but aperiodic crystals with classically forbidden symmetries (such as 5-fold). High-dimensional (HD) crystallography is a standard method to locate atom positions explicitly. However, in practice, it is still challenging because of its complexity. Here, we report a new simple approach to three-dimensional (3D) atomic modeling derived from X-ray diffraction data, and apply it to the icosahedral QC Al0.63Cu0.25Fe0.12. Electron density maps were calculated directly from 3D diffraction data indexed with noninteger (fractional) numbers as measured, with proper phases; each of 2(5) = 32 possible phase assignments for the five strongest reflections was used for Fourier synthesis...
June 21, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636217/research-on-potential-biomarker-correlates-for-suicidal-behavior-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Sangha Kim, Kyoung-Uk Lee
Suicide is a world health priority. Studies over the last few decades have revealed the complexity underlying the neurobiological mechanisms of suicide. Researchers have found dysregulations in the serotonergic system, the stress system, neural plasticity, lipid metabolism, and cell signaling pathways in relation to suicidal behaviors. These findings have provided more insight into the final path leading to suicide, at which medical intervention should be applied to prevent the action. However, because these molecular mechanisms have been implicated in both depression and suicide, the specificity of the mechanisms has been obscured...
June 21, 2017: Asia-Pacific Psychiatry: Official Journal of the Pacific Rim College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635581/first-report-on-the-successful-hybridization-of-pangasianodon-hypophthalmus-sauvage-1878-and-clarias-gariepinus-burchell-1822
#6
V T Okomoda, I C C Koh, M S Shahreza
Breeding and larval performance of novel hybrids from reciprocal crosses of Asian catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage, 1878) and African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) were investigated in this study. Spawning was by hormonal injection of brood fish, artificial fertilization, and incubation in triplicate aquarium tanks (0.5 × 0.5 × 0.5 m3) with continuous aeration. Reciprocal crosses (♀C. gariepinus × ♂P. hypophthalmus and ♀P. hypophthalmus × ♂C. gariepinus) had lower hatchability (≤50%) than their pure siblings (≥75%)...
June 21, 2017: Zygote: the Biology of Gametes and Early Embryos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635434/mental-health-professionals-and-media-professionals-a-survey-of-attitudes-towards-one-another
#7
Beth Chapman, Rohit Shankar, Joanne Palmer, Richard Laugharne
BACKGROUND: The general public regard mass media as their main source of information about mental illness. Psychiatrists are reluctant to engage with the media. There is little understanding of why this is the case. AIMS: The paper looks to explore attitudes of mental health clinicians and the media towards one another. METHOD: Media and mental health clinicians in the southwest of England completed self-report surveys. RESULTS: Of 119 questionnaires returned 85 were mental health clinicians and 34 media professionals...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635432/psychological-resilience-in-people-experiencing-schizophrenia-and-suicidal-thoughts-and-behaviours
#8
Patricia Ann Gooding, Donna Littlewood, Rebecca Owen, Judith Johnson, Nick Tarrier
BACKGROUND: Negative stressors can aggravate the impact of schizophrenia. However, some people find ways of combating such stressors. There is a dearth of research examining factors which enable individuals with schizophrenia to show psychological resilience. AIMS: The goal of this study was to investigate resilience to negative stressors in people with disorders on the schizophrenia spectrum using a qualitative methodology. METHODS: Data were collected from 23 participants who had experienced schizophrenia and suicidal thoughts and behaviours...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635262/enormous-hydrogen-bond-strength-enhancement-through-%C3%AF-conjugation-gain-implications-for-enzyme-catalysis
#9
Chia-Hua Wu, Keigo Ito, Allyson Buytendyk, Kit Hansell Bowen, Judy I Wu
Surprisingly large "resonance-assistance" effects may explain how some enzymes form extremely short, strong hydrogen bonds to stabilize reactive oxyanion intermediates and facilitate catalysis. Computational models for several enzymic residue-substrate interactions reveal that when a π-conjugated, proton donor (XH) forms a hydrogen bond to a charged substrate (Y-), XH can become significantly more π-electron delocalized, and this "extra" stabilization may boost the [XH…Y-] hydrogen bond strength by up to 15 kcal/mol...
June 21, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634806/household-water-insecurity-and-its-cultural-dimensions-preliminary-results-from-newtok-alaska
#10
Laura Eichelberger
Using a relational approach, I examine several cultural dimensions involved in household water access and use in Newtok, Alaska. I describe the patterns that emerge around domestic water access and use, as well as the subjective lived experiences of water insecurity including risk perceptions, and the daily work and hydro-social relationships involved in accessing water from various sources. I found that Newtok residents haul water in limited amounts from a multitude of sources, both treated and untreated, throughout the year...
June 21, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634464/anti-inflammatory-and-neuroprotective-effects-of-co-ultrapealut-in-a-mouse-model-of-vascular-dementia
#11
Rosalba Siracusa, Daniela Impellizzeri, Marika Cordaro, Rosalia Crupi, Emanuela Esposito, Stefania Petrosino, Salvatore Cuzzocrea
Vascular dementia (VaD), the second most common cause of cognitive impairment in the population, is a disease that results from reduction in regional cerebral blood flow and involves oxidative stress and inflammation. Co-ultramicronized PEALut (co-ultra PEALut) is a new compound with beneficial effects, which include anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Recently, co-ultraPEALut has been shown to exhibit neuroprotective effects in models of Parkinson's disease, cerebral ischemia and Alzheimer's disease...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634446/are-distal-and-proximal-visual-cues-equally-important-during-spatial-learning-in-mice-a-pilot-study-of-overshadowing-in-the-spatial-domain
#12
Marie Hébert, Jan Bulla, Denis Vivien, Véronique Agin
Animals use distal and proximal visual cues to accurately navigate in their environment, with the possibility of the occurrence of associative mechanisms such as cue competition as previously reported in honey-bees, rats, birds and humans. In this pilot study, we investigated one of the most common forms of cue competition, namely the overshadowing effect, between visual landmarks during spatial learning in mice. To this end, C57BL/6J × Sv129 mice were given a two-trial place recognition task in a T-maze, based on a novelty free-choice exploration paradigm previously developed to study spatial memory in rodents...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634266/30-years-of-the-mineralocorticoid-receptor-the-brain-mineralocorticoid-receptor-a-saga-in-three-episodes
#13
REVIEW
Marian Joëls, E Ronald de Kloet
In 1968, Bruce McEwen discovered that (3)H-corticosterone administered to adrenalectomised rats is retained in neurons of hippocampus rather than those of hypothalamus. This discovery signalled the expansion of endocrinology into the science of higher brain regions. With this in mind, our contribution highlights the saga of the brain mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in three episodes. First, the precloning era dominated by the conundrum of two types of corticosterone-binding receptors in the brain, which led to the identification of the high-affinity corticosterone receptor as the 'promiscuous' MR cloned in 1987 by Jeff Arriza and Ron Evans in addition to the classical glucocorticoid receptor (GR)...
July 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634255/population-genetic-structure-of-bromus-tectorum-in-the-mountains-of-western-north-america
#14
Spencer Arnesen, Craig E Coleman, Susan E Meyer
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Invasive species are often initially restricted to a narrow range and may then expand through any of multiple mechanisms including phenotypic plasticity, in situ evolution, or selection on traits preadapted for new habitats. Our study used population genetics to explore possible processes by which the highly selfing invasive annual grass Bromus tectorum has expanded into montane environments. METHODS: We used 69 single nucleotide polymorphic (SNP) markers to genotype ca...
June 20, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634160/high-throughput-characterization-of-cascade-type-i-e-crispr-guide-efficacy-reveals-unexpected-pam-diversity-and-target-sequence-preferences
#15
Becky Xu Hua Fu, Michael Wainberg, Anshul Kundaje, Andrew Z Fire
Interactions between Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat (CRISPR) RNAs and CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins form an RNA-guided adaptive immune system in prokaryotes. The adaptive immune system utilizes segments of the genetic material of invasive foreign elements in the CRISPR locus. The loci are transcribed and processed to produce small CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs), with degradation of invading genetic material directed by a combination of complementarity between RNA and DNA and in some cases recognition of adjacent motifs called PAMs (Protospacer Adjacent Motifs)...
June 20, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633965/phosphoproteome-analysis-reveals-a-critical-role-for-hedgehog-signalling-in-osteoblast-morphological-transitions
#16
Ariane Marumoto, Renato Milani, Rodrigo A da Silva, Célio Junior da Costa Fernandes, José Mauro Granjeiro, Carmen V Ferreira, Maikel P Peppelenbosch, Willian F Zambuzzi
The reciprocal and adaptive interactions between cells and substrates governing morphological transitions in the osteoblast compartment remain largely obscure. Here we show that osteoblast cultured in basement membrane matrix (Matrigel™) exhibits significant morphological changes after ten days of culture, and we decided to exploit this situation to investigate the molecular mechanisms responsible for guiding osteoblast morphological transitions. As almost all aspects of cellular physiology are under control of kinases, we generated more or less comprehensive cellular kinome profiles employing PepChip peptide arrays that contain over 1000 consensus substrates of kinase peptide...
June 17, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633935/teacher-student-relationship-quality-and-academic-achievement-in-elementary-school-a-longitudinal-examination-of-gender-differences
#17
Daniel B Hajovsky, Benjamin A Mason, Luke A McCune
Multiple group longitudinal cross-lagged panel models were implemented to understand the directional influences between teacher-student closeness and conflict and measured math and reading achievement across elementary grades and gender groups using the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development longitudinal sample (N=1133). Specifically, after testing multiple group longitudinal measurement invariance to ensure consistent measurement across genders and time, and tests of equivalence of the latent parameters, we were interested in whether longitudinal changes in teacher-rated closeness and conflict explained longitudinal changes in achievement, and vice versa, and whether those longitudinal influences varied by gender...
August 2017: Journal of School Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632925/a-kallikrein-targeting-rna-aptamer-inhibits-the-intrinsic-pathway-of-coagulation-and-reduces-bradykinin-release
#18
K-A Steen-Burrell, J Layzer, B A Sullenger
BACKGROUND: Plasma kallikrein is a serine protease that plays an integral role in many biological processes including coagulation, inflammation, and fibrinolysis. The main function of kallikrein in coagulation is the amplification of activated factor XIIa (FXIIa) generation which ultimately leads to thrombin generation and fibrin clot formation. Kallikrein is generated by FXIIa-mediated cleavage of the zymogen, prekallikrein which is usually complexed with the nonenzymatic cofactor, high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK)...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632183/measurement-of-rayleigh-wave-beams-using-angle-beam-wedge-transducers-as-the-transmitter-and-receiver-with-consideration-of-beam-spreading
#19
Shuzeng Zhang, Xiongbing Li, Hyunjo Jeong
A theoretical model, along with experimental verification, is developed to describe the generation, propagation and reception of a Rayleigh wave using angle beam wedge transducers. The Rayleigh wave generation process using an angle beam wedge transducer is analyzed, and the actual Rayleigh wave sound source distributions are evaluated numerically. Based on the reciprocity theorem and considering the actual sound source, the Rayleigh wave beams are modeled using an area integral method. The leaky Rayleigh wave theory is introduced to investigate the reception of the Rayleigh wave using the angle beam wedge transducers, and the effects of the wave spreading in the wedge and transducer size are considered in the reception process...
June 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632131/reciprocal-analyses-in-zebrafish-and-medaka-reveal-that-harnessing-the-immune-response-promotes-cardiac-regeneration
#20
Didier Yr Stainier, Shih-Lei Ben Lai, Rubén Marín-Juez, Pedro Luís Moura, Carsten Kuenne, Jason Kuan Han Lai, Ayele Taddese Tsedeke, Stefan Guenther, Mario Looso
Zebrafish display a distinct ability to regenerate their heart following injury. However, this ability is not shared by another teleost, the medaka. In order to identify cellular and molecular bases for this difference, we performed comparative transcriptomic analyses following cardiac cryoinjury. This comparison points to major differences in immune cell dynamics between these models. Upon closer examination, we observed delayed and reduced macrophage recruitment in medaka, along with delayed neutrophil clearance...
June 20, 2017: ELife
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