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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916926/informatics-for-precision-medicine-and-healthcare
#1
Jiajia Chen, Yuxin Lin, Bairong Shen
The past decade has witnessed great advances in biomedical informatics. Biomedical informatics is an emerging field of healthcare that aims to translate the laboratory observation into clinical practice. Smart healthcare has also developed rapidly with ubiquitous sensor and communication technologies. It is able to capture the online patient-centric phenotypic variables, thus providing a rich information base for translational biomedical informatics. Biomedical informatics and smart healthcare represent two interrelated disciplines...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916860/the-effect-of-migration-on-social-capital-and-depression-among-older-adults-in-china
#2
Qiuju Li, Xudong Zhou, Sha Ma, Minmin Jiang, Lu Li
PURPOSE: An estimated 9 million elderly people accompanied their adult children to urban areas in China, raising concerns about their social capital and mental health following re-location. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of migration on social capital and depression among this population. METHODS: Multistage stratified cluster sampling was applied to recruit the migrant and urban elderly in Hangzhou from May to August, 2013. Data were collected from face-to-face interviews by trained college students using a standardized questionnaire...
September 15, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916161/stable-association-of-a-drosophila-derived-microbiota-with-its-animal-partner-and-the-nutritional-environment-throughout-a-fly-population-s-life-cycle
#3
REVIEW
Mélisandre A Téfit, Benjamin Gillet, Pauline Joncour, Sandrine Hughes, François Leulier
In the past years, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been extensively used to study the relationship between animals and their associated microbes. Compared to the one of wild populations, the microbiota of laboratory-reared flies is less diverse, and comprises fewer bacterial taxa; nevertheless, the main commensal bacteria found in fly microbiota always belong to the Acetobacteraceae and Lactobacillaceae families. The bacterial communities associated with the fly are environmentally acquired, and the partners engage in a perpetual re-association process...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915479/effect-of-design-and-operational-conditions-on-the-performance-of-subsurface-flow-treatment-wetlands-emerging-organic-contaminants-as-indicators
#4
Stefanie Kahl, Jaime Nivala, Manfred van Afferden, Roland A Müller, Thorsten Reemtsma
Six pilot-scale subsurface flow treatment wetlands loaded with primary treated municipal wastewater were monitored over one year for classical wastewater parameters and a set of emerging organic compounds (EOCs) serving as process indicators for biodegradation: caffeine, ibuprofen, naproxen, benzotriazole, diclofenac, acesulfame, and carbamazepine. The wetland technologies investigated included conventional horizontal flow, unsaturated vertical flow (single and two-stage), horizontal flow with aeration, vertical flow with aeration, and reciprocating...
September 5, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915413/transmission-electron-microscopy-studies-and-modeling-of-3d-reciprocal-space-of-%C3%AF-forming-alloy
#5
Alphy George, Vinayak Sharma, R Divakar, M Sabeena, E Mohandas
Initial stage of ω phase formation and associated anomalous features that appear in diffraction patterns of a metastable β transition metal alloy have been investigated in this study with the aid of transmission electron microscopy, simulation and modeling. The paper explores discrete features that emerge in selected area diffraction patterns of quenched Ti-15wt%Mo alloy and analyzes the correlation between ω reflections and diffuse arcs by considering all variants of ω phase as per the formation kinetics of ω phase in β matrix while quenching...
September 12, 2017: Micron: the International Research and Review Journal for Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914912/quasiperiodic-one-dimensional-photonic-crystals-with-adjustable-multiple-photonic-bandgaps
#6
Andrey M Vyunishev, Pavel S Pankin, Sergey E Svyakhovskiy, Ivan V Timofeev, Stepan Ya Vetrov
We propose an elegant approach to produce photonic bandgap (PBG) structures with multiple photonic bandgaps by constructing quasiperiodic photonic crystals (QPPCs) composed of a superposition of photonic lattices with different periods. Generally, QPPC structures exhibit both aperiodicity and multiple PBGs due to their long-range order. They are described by a simple analytical expression, instead of quasiperiodic tiling approaches based on substitution rules. Here we describe the optical properties of QPPCs exhibiting two PBGs that can be tuned independently...
September 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913979/physical-pain-increases-interpersonal-trust-in-females
#7
C Wang, J Gao, Y Ma, C Zhu, X-W Dong
BACKGROUND: People behave and interact with others differently when experiencing physical pain. Pain has dramatic effects on one's emotional responses, cognitive functions and social interaction. However, little has been known about whether and how physical pain influences interpersonal trust in social interaction. In the present study, we examined the influence of physical pain on trusting behaviour. METHODS: A total of 112 healthy participants were recruited and assigned to physical pain condition (induced by Capsaicin) and control condition (with hand cream), respectively...
September 14, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913952/new-age-ideas-about-age-old-sex-separating-meiosis-from-mating-could-solve-a-century-old-conundrum
#8
Michael Brandeis
Ever since Darwin first addressed it, sexual reproduction reigns as the 'queen' of evolutionary questions. Multiple theories tried to explain how this apparently costly and cumbersome method has become the universal mode of eukaryote reproduction. Most theories stress the adaptive advantages of sex by generating variation, they fail however to explain the ubiquitous persistence of sexual reproduction also where adaptation is not an issue. I argue that the obstacle for comprehending the role of sex stems from the conceptual entanglement of two distinct processes - gamete production by meiosis and gamete fusion by mating (mixis)...
September 14, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913669/resolving-distinct-molecular-origins-for-copper-effects-on-pai-1
#9
Joel C Bucci, Carlee S McClintock, Yuzhuo Chu, Gregory L Ware, Kayla D McConnell, Joseph P Emerson, Cynthia B Peterson
Components of the fibrinolytic system are subjected to stringent control to maintain proper hemostasis. Central to this regulation is the serpin plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), which is responsible for specific and rapid inhibition of fibrinolytic proteases. Active PAI-1 is inherently unstable and readily converts to a latent, inactive form. The binding of vitronectin and other ligands influences stability of active PAI-1. Our laboratory recently observed reciprocal effects on the stability of active PAI-1 in the presence of transition metals, such as copper, depending on the whether vitronectin was also present (Thompson et al...
September 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912653/validity-of-a-newly-designed-rectilinear-stepping-ergometer-submaximal-exercise-test-to-assess-cardiorespiratory-fitness
#10
Rubin Zhang, Likui Zhan, Shaoming Sun, Wei Peng, Yining Sun
The maximum oxygen uptake (V̇O2 max), determined from graded maximal or submaximal exercise tests, is used to classify the cardiorespiratory fitness level of individuals. The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the YMCA submaximal exercise test protocol performed on a newly-designed rectilinear stepping ergometer (RSE) that used up and down reciprocating vertical motion in place of conventional circular motion and giving precise measurement of workload, to determine V̇O2 max in young healthy male adults...
September 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912551/the-antipsychotic-drugs-olanzapine-and-haloperidol-modify-network-connectivity-and-spontaneous-activity-of-neural-networks-in-vitro
#11
Egor Dzyubenko, Georg Juckel, Andreas Faissner
Impaired neural synchronization is a hallmark of psychotic conditions such as schizophrenia. It has been proposed that schizophrenia-related cognitive deficits are caused by an unbalance of reciprocal inhibitory and stimulatory signaling. This supposedly leads to decreased power of induced gamma oscillations during the performance of cognitive tasks. In light of this hypothesis an efficient antipsychotic treatment should modify the connectivity and synchronization of local neural circuits. To address this issue, we investigated a model of hippocampal neuronal networks in vitro...
September 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912172/rna-binding-proteins-in-neurodegeneration-mechanisms-in-aggregate
#12
REVIEW
Erin G Conlon, James L Manley
Neurodegeneration is a leading cause of death in the developed world and a natural, albeit unfortunate, consequence of longer-lived populations. Despite great demand for therapeutic intervention, it is often the case that these diseases are insufficiently understood at the basic molecular level. What little is known has prompted much hopeful speculation about a generalized mechanistic thread that ties these disparate conditions together at the subcellular level and can be exploited for broad curative benefit...
August 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912111/crispr-cas9-mediated-g4946e-substitution-in-the-ryanodine-receptor-of-spodoptera-exigua-confers-high-levels-of-resistance-to-diamide-insecticides
#13
Yayun Zuo, Hui Wang, Yanjun Xu, Jianlei Huang, Shuwen Wu, Yidong Wu, Yihua Yang
Diamide insecticides selectively activate insect ryanodine receptors (RyRs), inducing uncontrolled release of calcium ions, and causing muscle contraction, paralysis and eventually death. The RyR(G4946E) substitution associated with diamide resistance has been identified in three lepidopteran pests, Plutella xylostella, Tuta absoluta and Chilo suppressalis. Recently, the T. absoluta RyR(G4946V) mutation was knocked into the model insect Drosophila melanogaster by CRISPR/Cas9 mediated genome editing and provided in vivo functional confirmation for its role in diamide resistance...
September 11, 2017: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911742/inheritance-and-stability-of-mevinphos-resistance-in-plutella-xylostella-l-with-special-reference-to-mutations-of-acetylcholinesterase-1
#14
Chia-Li Lin, Shih-Chia Yeh, Hai-Tung Feng, Shu-Mei Dai
Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella L.) causes enormous damage on cruciferous vegetables and can rapidly develop resistance to all kinds of insecticides. To effectively manage the insecticide resistance of P. xylostella, an understanding of its inheritance and stability is essential. Here we investigated the phenotypic and genotypic basis of mevinphos resistance by crossing two genetically pure lines of P. xylostella, an SHggt wild-type strain and an SHMTCN resistant strain carrying 892T/T, 971C/C, and 1156T/G (TCN) mutations of the acetylcholinesterase 1 gene (Pxace1)...
September 2017: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910666/nonlinear-elastic-multi-path-reciprocal-method-for-damage-localisation-in-composite-materials
#15
S Boccardi, D B Callá, F Ciampa, M Meo
Nonlinear ultrasonic techniques rely on the measurement of nonlinear elastic effects caused by the interaction of ultrasonic waves with the material damage, and have shown high sensitivity to detect micro-cracks and defects in the early stages. This paper presents a nonlinear ultrasonic technique, here named nonlinear elastic multi-path reciprocal method, for the identification and localisation of micro-damage in composite laminates. In the proposed methodology, a sparse array of surface bonded ultrasonic transducers is used to measure the second harmonic elastic response associated with the material flaw...
September 5, 2017: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910635/gestational-stage-and-ifn-%C3%AE-signaling-regulate-zikv-infection-in-utero
#16
Brett W Jagger, Jonathan J Miner, Bin Cao, Nitin Arora, Amber M Smith, Attila Kovacs, Indira U Mysorekar, Carolyn B Coyne, Michael S Diamond
Although Zika virus (ZIKV)-induced congenital disease occurs more frequently during early stages of pregnancy, its basis remains undefined. Using established type I interferon (IFN)-deficient mouse models of ZIKV transmission in utero, we found that the placenta and fetus were more susceptible to ZIKV infection at earlier gestational stages. Whereas ZIKV infection at embryonic day 6 (E6) resulted in placental insufficiency and fetal demise, infections at midstage (E9) resulted in reduced cranial dimensions, and infection later in pregnancy (E12) caused no apparent fetal disease...
September 13, 2017: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910389/cross-species-conservation-of-episome-maintenance-provides-a-basis-for-in-vivo-investigation-of-kaposi-s-sarcoma-herpesvirus-lana
#17
Aline C Habison, Marta Pires de Miranda, Chantal Beauchemin, Min Tan, Sofia A Cerqueira, Bruno Correia, Rajesh Ponnusamy, Edward J Usherwood, Colin E McVey, J Pedro Simas, Kenneth M Kaye
Many pathogens, including Kaposi's sarcoma herpesvirus (KSHV), lack tractable small animal models. KSHV persists as a multi-copy, nuclear episome in latently infected cells. KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (kLANA) binds viral terminal repeat (kTR) DNA to mediate episome persistence. Model pathogen murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) mLANA acts analogously on mTR DNA. kLANA and mLANA differ substantially in size and kTR and mTR show little sequence conservation. Here, we find kLANA and mLANA act reciprocally to mediate episome persistence of TR DNA...
September 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905710/cleavage-speed-and-blastomere-number-in-dba-2j-compared-with-c57bl-6j-mouse-embryos
#18
Hirofumi Nishizono, Kyosuke Uno, Hiroyuki Abe
DBA/2J mice are among the oldest and most important inbred strains still used in many research fields. However, this strain has reproductive problems, which may consume considerable time and effort during experiments requiring a large population. Because the quality of DBA/2J embryos has not yet been described in detail, we compared DBA/2J mice with the reproductively efficient C57BL/6J strain. Compared with C57BL/6J embryos, DBA/2J embryos had a slower cleavage speed (mean ± 1 SD; first cleavage: C57BL/6J, 16...
January 1, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904195/vector-order-determines-protection-against-pathogenic-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-in-a-triple-component-vaccine-by-balancing-cd4-and-cd8-t-cell-responses
#19
Ulrike Sauermann, Antonia Radaelli, Nicole Stolte-Leeb, Katharina Raue, Massimiliano Bissa, Carlo Zanotto, Michael Krawczak, Matthias Tenbusch, Klaus Überla, Brandon F Keele, Carlo De Giuli Morghen, Sieghart Sopper, Christiane Stahl-Hennig
An effective AIDS vaccine should elicit strong humoral and cellular immune responses while maintaining low levels of CD4(+) T cell activation to avoid the generation of target cells for viral infection. The present study investigated two prime-boost regimens, both starting vaccination with single cycle immunodeficiency virus, followed by two mucosal boosts either with recombinant adenovirus (rAd) or fowlpox virus (rFWPV) expressing SIVmac239 or SIVmac251 gag/pol and env genes, respectively. Finally, vectors were switched and systemically administered to the reciprocal group of animals...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904142/trophic-dynamics-of-a-simple-model-ecosystem
#20
Graham Bell, Étienne Fortier-Dubois
We have constructed a model of community dynamics that is simple enough to enumerate all possible food webs, yet complex enough to represent a wide range of ecological processes. We use the transition matrix to predict the outcome of succession and then investigate how the transition probabilities are governed by resource supply and immigration. Low-input regimes lead to simple communities whereas trophically complex communities develop when there is an adequate supply of both resources and immigrants. Our interpretation of trophic dynamics in complex communities hinges on a new principle of mutual replenishment, defined as the reciprocal alternation of state in a pair of communities linked by the invasion and extinction of a shared species...
September 13, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
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