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Ximena Corso-Díaz, Charles N de Leeuw, Vivian Alonso, Diana Melchers, Bibiana K Y Wong, René Houtman, Elizabeth M Simpson
BACKGROUND: NR2E1 (Tlx) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates the maintenance and self-renewal of neural stem cells, and promotes tumourigenesis. Nr2e1-null mice exhibit reduced cortical and limbic structures and pronounced retinal dystrophy. NR2E1 functions mainly as a repressor of gene transcription in association with the co-repressors atrophin-1, LSD1, HDAC and BCL11A. Recent evidence suggests that NR2E1 also acts as an activator of gene transcription. However, co-activator complexes that interact with NR2E1 have not yet been identified...
October 26, 2016: BMC Genomics
Roland Kjellander
Screened electrostatic interactions in ionic liquids are investigated by means of exact statistical mechanical analysis combined with physical arguments that enhance the transparency and conceptual accessibility of the analysis and results. The constituent ions and immersed particles in the liquid can have arbitrary shapes and any internal charge distributions. The decay of the screened electrostatic potential and the free energy of interaction in ionic liquids can be exponentially damped oscillatory (like in molten simple salts) as well as plain exponential and long-ranged (like in dilute electrolyte solutions)...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
Yafit Levin, Rahel Bachem, Zahava Solomon
Despite considerable research on secondary traumatization, the ramifications of veterans' and their wives' posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) for the family system remain largely uninvestigated. Beginning to fill this gap, the current study aims to investigate the reciprocal relations between both spouses' PTSS and marital adjustment, and the implications these bear for their parental functioning. Two hundred and twenty-five Israeli veterans (mean age = 58.62, SD = 7.6) from the 1973 Yom Kippur War and their wives (mean age = 58...
October 26, 2016: Family Process
Paula Ferrada, Rao R Ivatury, David A Spain, Kimberly A Davis, Michel Aboutanos, John J Fildes, Thomas M Scalea
INTRODUCTION: Acute Care Surgery (ACS), Trauma and Surgical Critical Care (SCC) fellowships graduate fellows deemed qualified to perform complex cases immediately upon graduation. We hypothesize international fellow rotations (IFR) can be a resource to supplement operative case exposure METHODS: A survey was sent to all program directors of ACS and SCC fellowships via email. Data was captured and analyzed using the Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) tool. RESULTS: The survey was sent to 113 program directors (PDs) with a response rate of 42%...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
H E du Plessis, J P R de Villiers, A Tuling, E J Olivier
Supported cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalysts are characteristically nanoparticulate and the reduced SiC supported catalyst was found to contain both HCP and FCC polymorphs. This is reflected in the powder XRD patterns and generally there is a poor fit between the experimental and calculated diffractograms. This was ascribed to small crystallite sizes and the occurrence of disorder, manifested as peak broadening and peak shifts. Selected area electron diffraction data of suitably oriented cobalt catalyst grains on silicon carbide supports show non-periodic disorder in the zone axis orientations that contain the common (001) (HCP) and (111) (FCC) reciprocal lattice planes...
October 25, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Anne Beemelmanns, Olivia Roth
The transfer of acquired and specific immunity against previously encountered bacteria from mothers to offspring boosts the immune response of the next generation and supports the development of a successful pathogen defense. While most studies claim that the transfer of immunity is a maternal trait, in the sex-role-reversed pipefish Syngnathus typhle, fathers nurse the embryos over a placenta-like structure, which opens the door for additional paternal immune priming. We examined the potential and persistence of bacteria-type-specific parental immune priming in the pipefish S...
September 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Jing Xue, Sarah A Schoenrock, William Valdar, Lisa M Tarantino, Folami Y Ideraabdullah
BACKGROUND: Environmental perturbation of epigenetic mechanisms is linked to a growing number of diseases. Characterizing the role environmental factors play in modifying the epigenome is important for disease etiology. Vitamin D is an essential nutrient affecting brain, bone, heart, immune and reproductive health. Vitamin D insufficiency is a global issue, and the role in maternal and child health remains under investigation. METHODS: We used Collaborative Cross (CC) inbred mice to characterize the effect of maternal vitamin D depletion on offspring phenotypic and epigenetic outcomes at imprinted domains (H19/Igf2, Snrpn, Dlk1/Gtl2, and Grb10) in the soma (liver) and germline (sperm)...
2016: Clinical Epigenetics
Lianghua Bin, Donald Y M Leung
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by the complex interaction of genetic, immune and environmental factors. There have many recent discoveries involving the genetic and epigenetic studies of AD. METHODS: A retrospective PubMed search was carried out from June 2009 to June 2016 using the terms "atopic dermatitis", "association", "eczema", "gene", "polymorphism", "mutation", "variant", "genome wide association study", "microarray" "gene profiling", "RNA sequencing", "epigenetics" and "microRNA"...
2016: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
D J Greene, A C Williams Iii, J M Koller, B L Schlaggar, K J Black
Previous studies of brain structure in Tourette syndrome (TS) have produced mixed results, and most had modest sample sizes. In the present multicenter study, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare 103 children and adolescents with TS to a well-matched group of 103 children without tics. We applied voxel-based morphometry methods to test gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) volume differences between diagnostic groups, accounting for MRI scanner and sequence, age, sex and total GM+WM volume...
October 25, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal Silva, Laise Silva Villarino, Victor Talarico Leal Vieira, Thais Accorsi-Mendonça, Henrique Dos Santos Antunes, Gustavo De-Deus, Hélio Pereira Lopes
INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the bending resistance and cyclic fatigue life of a new single-file reciprocating instrument (Unicone; Medin, Nové Město na Moravě, Czech Republic). Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany) and WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer) instruments were used as references for comparison. METHODS: Flexibility was determined by 45° bending tests using a universal testing machine. The cyclic fatigue test was performed using a custom-made device. For this test, an artificial canal with a 60° angle and a 5-mm radius of curvature was used...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Endodontics
K Nicole Jones, Melanie E Brewster
In recent history, heterosexual allies have played an integral role in promoting change for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) populations in the United States; however, questions have been raised as to what drives heterosexual allies to promote change via activism. To delineate factors important in engagement in activism, 207 self-identified heterosexual allies completed an online survey measuring components associated with LGBT activism using Bandura's (1986) model of triadic reciprocal determinism: personal factors (ally identity, social justice self-efficacy and outcome expectations, empathetic perspective taking, and gender) and environmental factors (social justice related supports and barriers, positive marginality, and education level) to predict behaviors (LGBT activism)...
October 24, 2016: American Journal of Orthopsychiatry
Adrien Favre, Alex Widmer, Sophie Karrenberg
In order to investigate the role of differential adaptation for the evolution of reproductive barriers, we conducted a multi-site transplant experiment with the dioecious sister species Silene dioica and S. latifolia and their hybrids. Crosses within species as well as reciprocal first-generation (F1 ) and second-generation (F2 ) interspecific hybrids were transplanted into six sites, three within each species' habitat. Survival and flowering were recorded over 4 yr. At all transplant sites, the local species outperformed the foreign species, reciprocal F1 hybrids performed intermediately and F2 hybrids underperformed in comparison to F1 hybrids (hybrid breakdown)...
October 24, 2016: New Phytologist
Bo-Yu Zhang, Song-Jia Fan, Cong Li, Xiu-Deng Zheng, Jian-Zhang Bao, Ross Cressman, Yi Tao
Cooperation coexisting with defection is a common phenomenon in nature and human society. Previous studies for promoting cooperation based on kin selection, direct and indirect reciprocity, graph selection and group selection have provided conditions that cooperators outcompete defectors. However, a simple mechanism of the long-term stable coexistence of cooperation and defection is still lacking. To reveal the effect of direct reciprocity on the coexistence of cooperation and defection, we conducted a simple experiment based on the Prisoner's Dilemma (PD) game, where the basic idea behind our experiment is that all players in a PD game should prefer a cooperator as an opponent...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
F Claire Rind, Stefan Wernitznig, Peter Pölt, Armin Zankel, Daniel Gütl, Julieta Sztarker, Gerd Leitinger
In locusts, two lobula giant movement detector neurons (LGMDs) act as looming object detectors. Their reproducible responses to looming and their ethological significance makes them models for single neuron computation. But there is no comprehensive picture of the neurons that connect directly to each LGMD. We used high-through-put serial block-face scanning-electron-microscopy to reconstruct the network of input-synapses onto the LGMDs over spatial scales ranging from single synapses and small circuits, up to dendritic branches and total excitatory input...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
Amutha Selvamani, Farida Sohrabji
With age, stroke prevalence is higher, and stroke outcome, worse, in women. Thus there is an urgent need to identify stroke neuroprotectants for this population. Using a preclinical stroke model, our studies focused on microRNAs (miRNAs), a class of translational repressors, as neuroprotectants. Analysis of circulating miRNA in the acute phase of stroke indicated potential neuroprotective capacity for miR363. Specifically, mir363 is elevated in serum of adult female rats that typically have small infarct volumes, but is deficient in age-matched males or middle-aged males and females, groups that have greater stroke-associated impairment...
October 20, 2016: Neurochemistry International
Yaling Wu, Dingbin Tang, Na Liu, Wei Xiong, Huanwei Huang, Yang Li, Zhixiong Ma, Haijiao Zhao, Peihao Chen, Xiangbing Qi, Eric Erquan Zhang
Circadian regulation is critically important in maintaining metabolic and physiological homeostasis. However, little is known about the possible influence of the clock on physiological abnormalities occurring under pathological conditions. Here, we report the discovery that hypoxia, a condition that causes catastrophic bodily damage, is gated by the circadian clock in vivo. Hypoxia signals conversely regulate the clock by slowing the circadian cycle and dampening the amplitude of oscillations in a dose-dependent manner...
October 14, 2016: Cell Metabolism
Daibiao Xiao, Ming Yue, Hexiu Su, Ping Ren, Jue Jiang, Feng Li, Yufeng Hu, Haining Du, Hudan Liu, Guoliang Qing
MYCN amplification in human cancers predicts poor prognosis and resistance to therapy. However, pharmacological strategies that directly target N-Myc, the protein encoded by MYCN, remain elusive. Here, we identify a molecular mechanism responsible for reciprocal activation between Polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1) and N-Myc. PLK1 specifically binds to the SCF(Fbw7) ubiquitin ligase, phosphorylates it, and promotes its autopolyubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, counteracting Fbw7-mediated degradation of N-Myc and additional substrates, including cyclin E and Mcl1...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Cell
Lin Shan, Xing Zhou, Xinhua Liu, Yue Wang, Dongxue Su, Yongqiang Hou, Na Yu, Chao Yang, Beibei Liu, Jie Gao, Yang Duan, Jianguo Yang, Wanjin Li, Jing Liang, Luyang Sun, Kexin Chen, Chenghao Xuan, Lei Shi, Yan Wang, Yongfeng Shang
Although clinically associated with severe developmental defects, the biological function of FOXK2 remains poorly explored. Here we report that FOXK2 interacts with transcription corepressor complexes NCoR/SMRT, SIN3A, NuRD, and REST/CoREST to repress a cohort of genes including HIF1β and EZH2 and to regulate several signaling pathways including the hypoxic response. We show that FOXK2 inhibits the proliferation and invasion of breast cancer cells and suppresses the growth and metastasis of breast cancer. Interestingly, FOXK2 is transactivated by ERα and transrepressed via reciprocal successive feedback by HIF1β/EZH2...
October 14, 2016: Cancer Cell
Helen E Vuong, Elaine Y Hsiao
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a serious neurodevelopmental disorder that affects one in 45 children in the United States, with a similarly striking prevalence in countries around the world. However, mechanisms underlying its etiology and manifestations remain poorly understood. Although ASD is diagnosed based on the presence and severity of impaired social communication and repetitive behavior, immune dysregulation and gastrointestinal issues are common comorbidities. The microbiome is an integral part of human physiology; recent studies show that changes in the gut microbiota can modulate gastrointestinal physiology, immune function, and even behavior...
August 26, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
S R Williams, K L Berrier, K Redlinger-Grosse, J G Edwards
Utilizing the tenet, "Relationship is integral to the genetic counseling process" from the Reciprocal Engagement Model (REM) of genetic counseling practice, this study sought to explore the relationship between the genetic counselor and patient following a "life-limiting" prenatal diagnosis that resulted in a major loss (termination, stillbirth/miscarriage, or neonatal death). The specific aims of this study were to: 1) Understand and describe aspects of the genetic counselor-patient relationship in the context of the life-limiting prenatal diagnosis, and identify characteristics and actions of the 2) genetic counselor and 3) patient that influence the relationship...
October 22, 2016: Journal of Genetic Counseling
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