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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351862/social-capital-socioeconomic-status-and-depression-in-community-living-elderly
#1
Kyu-Man Han, Changsu Han, Cheolmin Shin, Hee-Jung Jee, Hyonggin An, Ho-Kyoung Yoon, Young-Hoon Ko, Seung-Hyun Kim
A growing body of evidence has suggested that social capital is an upstream social determinant of mental health. We investigated the association of cognitive social capital, including interpersonal trust and reciprocity, with depressive symptoms in the elderly. We also explored the mediating role of cognitive social capital in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and depressive symptoms and the moderating effect of SES on the relationship between social capital and depressive symptoms. Data from the 2012 Korea Welfare Panel Study (KOWEPS) was analyzed for 5969 participants aged 60 years or older...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351513/neuroimmune-interactions-from-the-brain-to-the-immune-system-and-vice-versa
#2
Robert Dantzer
Because of the compartmentalization of disciplines that shaped the academic landscape of biology and biomedical sciences in the past, physiological systems have long been studied in isolation from each other. This has particularly been the case for the immune system. As a consequence of its ties with pathology and microbiology, immunology as a discipline has largely grown independently of physiology. Accordingly, it has taken a long time for immunologists to accept the concept that the immune system is not self-regulated but functions in close association with the nervous system...
January 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351356/epha2-ephrin-a1-mediate-corneal-epithelial-cell-compartmentalization-via-adam10-regulation-of-egfr-signaling
#3
Nihal Kaplan, Rosa Ventrella, Han Peng, Sonali Pal-Ghosh, Constadina Arvanitis, Joshua Z Rappoport, Brian J Mitchell, Mary Ann Stepp, Robert M Lavker, Spiro Getsios
Purpose: Progenitor cells of the limbal epithelium reside in a discrete area peripheral to the more differentiated corneal epithelium and maintain tissue homeostasis. What regulates the limbal-corneal epithelial boundary is a major unanswered question. Ephrin-A1 ligand is enriched in the limbal epithelium, whereas EphA2 receptor is concentrated in the corneal epithelium. This reciprocal pattern led us to assess the role of ephrin-A1 and EphA2 in limbal-corneal epithelial boundary organization...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351015/temperature-dependent-growth-and-fission-rate-plasticity-drive-seasonal-and-geographic-changes-in-body-size-in-a-clonal-sea-anemone
#4
Will H Ryan
The temperature-size rule is a commonly observed pattern where adult body size is negatively correlated with developmental temperature. In part, this may occur as a consequence of allometric scaling, where changes in the ratio of surface area to mass limit oxygen diffusion as body size increases. As oxygen demand increases with temperature, a smaller body should be favored as temperature increases. For clonal animals, small changes in growth and/or fission rate can rapidly alter the average body size of clonal descendants...
February 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351005/an-integrated-operational-definition-and-conceptual-model-of-asthma-self-management-in-teens
#5
Jennifer Mammen, Hyekyun Rhee, Sally A Norton, Arlene M Butz, Jill S Halterman, Kimberly Arcoleo
OBJECTIVES: A previous definition of adolescent asthma self-management was derived from interviews with clinicians/researchers and published literature; however, it did not incorporate perspectives of teens or parents. Therefore, we conducted in-depth interviews with teens and parents and synthesized present findings with the prior analysis to develop a more encompassing definition and model. METHODS: Focal concepts were qualitatively extracted from 14-day self-management voice-diaries (n = 14) and 1-hour interviews (n = 42) with teens and parents (28 individuals) along with concepts found in the previous clinical/research oriented analysis...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350211/correction-a-niche-that-triggers-aggressiveness-within-brca1-iris-overexpressing-triple-negative-tumors-is-supported-by-reciprocal-interactions-with-the-microenvironment
#6
Daniel Ryan, Abhilasha Sinha, Danielle Bogan, Joanna Davies, Jim Koziol, Wael M ElShamy
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.20892.].
December 22, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349594/pacifists-and-revenge-seekers-in-response-to-unambiguous-peer-provocation
#7
Kristina L McDonald, Steven R Asher
In order to better understand why some children retaliate when they feel provoked and others do not, the present study identified "pacifistically-oriented" children who made negative interpretations in response to unambiguous provocations, yet did not endorse revenge goals, and compared them to "revenge-seeking" children who also made negative interpretations but did endorse revenge goals. Groups were identified based on seventh graders' (N = 367; 54.77% male; 22.89% racial/ethnic minority) responses to hypothetical situations in which a peer excluded and insulted them...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Youth and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347722/stochastic-thermodynamics-of-periodically-driven-systems-fluctuation-theorem-for-currents-and-unification-of-two-classes
#8
Somrita Ray, Andre C Barato
Periodic driving is used to operate machines that go from standard macroscopic engines to small nonequilibrium microsized systems. Two classes of such systems are small heat engines driven by periodic temperature variations, and molecular pumps driven by external stimuli. Well-known results that are valid for nonequilibrium steady states of systems driven by fixed thermodynamic forces, instead of an external periodic driving, have been generalized to periodically driven heat engines only recently. These results include a general expression for entropy production in terms of currents and affinities, and symmetry relations for the Onsager coefficients from linear-response theory...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347555/morphing-continuum-theory-for-turbulence-theory-computation-and-visualization
#9
James Chen
A high order morphing continuum theory (MCT) is introduced to model highly compressible turbulence. The theory is formulated under the rigorous framework of rational continuum mechanics. A set of linear constitutive equations and balance laws are deduced and presented from the Coleman-Noll procedure and Onsager's reciprocal relations. The governing equations are then arranged in conservation form and solved through the finite volume method with a second-order Lax-Friedrichs scheme for shock preservation. A numerical example of transonic flow over a three-dimensional bump is presented using MCT and the finite volume method...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347523/microstructure-and-mechanical-properties-of-hyperuniform-heterogeneous-materials
#10
Yaopengxiao Xu, Shaohua Chen, Pei-En Chen, Wenxiang Xu, Yang Jiao
A hyperuniform random heterogeneous material is one in which the local volume fraction fluctuations in an observation window decay faster than the reciprocal window volume as the window size increases. Recent studies show that this class of materials are endowed with superior physical properties such as large isotropic photonic band gaps and optimal transport properties. Here we employ a stochastic optimization procedure to systematically generate realizations of hyperuniform heterogeneous materials with controllable short-range order, which is partially quantified using the two-point correlation function S_{2}(r) associated with the phase of interest...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347437/mechanisms-of-cooperation-and-competition-of-two-species-transport-in-narrow-nanochannels
#11
Wolfgang Rudolf Bauer
Flow of particles of two different species through a narrow channel with solely two discrete spatial positions is analyzed with respect to the species' capability to cooperate or compete for transport. The origin of the latter arises from particle-channel and interparticle interactions within the channel, i.e., blocking the position of a particle, and its interaction with its neighbors in the channel. The variety of occupation options within the channel defines the state space. The transition dynamics within is considered as a continuous Markov process, which, in contrast to mean-field approaches, conserves explicitly spatial correlations...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347080/derivation-of-stable-burnett-equations-for-rarefied-gas-flows
#12
Narendra Singh, Ravi Sudam Jadhav, Amit Agrawal
A set of constitutive relations for the stress tensor and heat flux vector for the hydrodynamic description of rarefied gas flows is derived in this work. A phase density function consistent with Onsager's reciprocity principle and H theorem is utilized to capture nonequilibrium thermodynamics effects. The phase density function satisfies the linearized Boltzmann equation and the collision invariance property. Our formulation provides the correct value of the Prandtl number as it involves two different relaxation times for momentum and energy transport by diffusion...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346764/sgk1-governs-the-reciprocal-development-of-th17-and-regulatory-t-cells
#13
Chuan Wu, Zuojia Chen, Sheng Xiao, Theresa Thalhamer, Asaf Madi, Timothy Han, Vijay Kuchroo
A balance between Th17 and regulatory T (Treg) cells is critical for immune homeostasis and tolerance. Our previous work has shown Serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase 1 (SGK1) is critical for the development and function of Th17 cells. Here, we show that SGK1 restrains the function of Treg cells and reciprocally regulates development of Th17/Treg balance. SGK1 deficiency leads to protection against autoimmunity and enhances self-tolerance by promoting Treg cell development and disarming Th17 cells. Treg cell-specific deletion of SGK1 results in enhanced Treg cell-suppressive function through preventing Foxo1 out of the nucleus, thereby promoting Foxp3 expression by binding to Foxp3 CNS1 region...
January 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346748/spiraling-connectivity-of-nac-vta-circuitry
#14
Marco Pignatelli, Antonello Bonci
How do nucleus accumbens (NAc) subdivisions shape information flow into distinct ventral tegmental area (VTA) subcircuits? Yang et al. (2018) provide insightful answers to this question by expanding our knowledge about the circuit architecture and function of reciprocal connectivity between NAc and VTA.
January 17, 2018: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346683/strigolactones-mediators-of-osmotic-stress-responses-with-a-potential-for-agrochemical-manipulation-of-crop-resilience
#15
Francesca Cardinale, Paolo Korwin Krukowski, Andrea Schubert, Ivan Visentin
After quickly touching upon general aspects of strigolactones biology and functions, including structure, synthesis and perception, this review focuses on the role and regulation of the strigolactone pathway during osmotic stress, in light of the most recent research developments. We discuss available data on organ-specific dynamics of strigolactone synthesis and interaction with abscisic acid in the acclimatization response, with emphasis on the ecophysiological implications of the effects on the stomatal closure process...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346616/racial-differences-in-family-health-history-knowledge-of-type-2-diabetes-exploring-the-role-of-interpersonal-mechanisms
#16
Jielu Lin, Christopher S Marcum, Melanie F Myers, Laura M Koehly
Collecting complete and accurate family health history is critical to preventing type 2 diabetes. Whether there are any racial difference in family health history knowledge of type 2 diabetes and whether such differences are related to interpersonal mechanisms remain unclear. We seek to identify the interpersonal mechanisms that give rise to discrepancies in family health history knowledge of type 2 diabetes in families of different racial backgrounds. We analyze informant-dyad consensus with respect to shared family history of type 2 diabetes in 127 informants of 45 families in the greater Cincinnati area (white: 28 families, 78 informants; black/African-American: 17 families, 49 informants)...
January 16, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346060/a-combination-with-probiotic-complex-zinc-and-coenzyme-q10-attenuates-autoimmune-arthritis-by-regulation-of-th17-treg-balance
#17
Seon-Young Lee, Seung Hoon Lee, JooYeon Jhun, Hyeon-Beom Seo, Kyung Ah Jung, Chul Woo Yang, Sung-Hwan Park, Mi-La Cho
Probiotic complex, zinc, and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) are recognized dietary supplements with an anti-inflammatory role. Although these supplementations are individually known to benefit rheumatoid arthritis (RA), there is no evidence suggesting any synergic effect. The primary goal of this study is to determine whether probiotic complex, zinc, and CoQ10 attenuate the development of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). The combination of probiotic complex, zinc, and CoQ10 reduced CIA severity by downregulating the levels of IgG, IgG1, and IgG2a in serum...
January 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345264/giant-spontaneous-exchange-bias-obtained-by-tuning-magnetic-compensation-in-samarium-ferrite-single-crystals
#18
Xiao-Xiong Wang, Shang Gao, Xu Yan, Qiang Li, Jun-Cheng Zhang, Yun-Ze Long, Ke-Qing Ruan, Xiao-Guang Li
Spontaneous exchange bias (SEB) under zero field cooling (ZFC) has recently attracted lots of attention due to its underlying physics and potential applications. Here we report the giant SEB (GSEB) of SmFeO3 single crystals by tuning magnetic compensation by temperature, which is rather convenient. A SEB field of up to 1 T at 3.9 K after ZFC (-1.4 T at 3.9 K after field cooling) was obtained. The SEB shows reciprocal relationship with remnant magnetization.
January 18, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344939/socially-informed-dispersal-in-a-territorial-cooperative-breeder
#19
Gabriele Cozzi, Nino Maag, Luca Börger, Tim Clutton-Brock, Arpat Ozgul
1.Dispersal is a key process governing the dynamics of socially and spatially structured populations, and involves three distinct stages: emigration, transience, and settlement. At each stage, individuals have to make movement decisions, which are influenced by social, environmental, and individual factors. Yet, a comprehensive understanding of the drivers that influence such decisions is still lacking, particularly for the transient stage during which free-living individuals are inherently difficult to follow...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344761/construct-validity-of-the-autism-impact-measure-aim
#20
Micah O Mazurek, Coleen Carlson, Mary Baker-Ericzén, Eric Butter, Megan Norris, Stephen Kanne
The Autism Impact Measure (AIM) was designed to track incremental change in frequency and impact of core ASD symptoms. The current study examined the structural and convergent validity of the AIM in a large sample of children with ASD. The results of a series of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses yielded a final model with five theoretically and empirically meaningful subdomains: Repetitive Behavior, Atypical Behavior, Communication, Social Reciprocity, and Peer Interaction. The final model showed very good fit both overall and for each of the five factors, indicating excellent structural validity...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
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