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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448967/facial-nerve-stimulation-in-normal-pigs-and-healthy-human-volunteers-transitional-development-of-a-medical-device-for-the-emergency-treatment-of-ischemic-stroke
#1
Olivia Sanchez, Andrea García, Fernando Castro-Prado, Miriam Perez, Rafael Lara-Estrada, Martin Ramirez-Meza, Montserrat Godinez, Michael L Coco, Joaquín Azpiroz, Mark K Borsody, Emilio Sacristán
BACKGROUND: Magnetic stimulation of the facial nerve has been tested in preclinical studies as a new, non-invasive emergency treatment of ischemic stroke that acts by increasing cerebral blood flow (CBF). The objective of the studies reported herein was to identify minimal stimulation parameters that increase CBF in large animals and then test those stimulation parameters in healthy volunteers for safety, tolerability, and effectiveness at increasing CBF. This translational research is necessary preparation for clinical studies in ischemic stroke patients...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444157/does-radiation-therapy-increase-gadolinium-accumulation-in-the-brain-quantitative-analysis-of-t1-shortening-using-r1-relaxometry-in-glioblastoma-multiforme-patients
#2
Woo Hyeon Lim, Seung Hong Choi, Roh-Eul Yoo, Koung Mi Kang, Tae Jin Yun, Ji-Hoon Kim, Chul-Ho Sohn
OBJECTIVE: This study evaluated the possibility of accelerated gadolinium accumulation in irradiated brain parenchyma where the blood-brain barrier was weakened. METHODS: From January 2010 to June 2015, 44 patients with supratentorial glioblastoma were retrospectively identified who underwent pre- and post-radiation brain MR imaging, including R1 mapping. The mean dose of administered gadobutrol (Gadovist, Bayer, Germany) was 5.1 vials. Regions of interest (ROIs) were drawn around tumors that were located within 50-100% iso-dose lines of maximum radiation dose...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431005/reduced-blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-connectivity-is-related-to-hypoperfusion-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Jens Göttler, Christine Preibisch, Isabelle Riederer, Lorenzo Pasquini, Panagiotis Alexopoulos, Karl Peter Bohn, Igor Yakushev, Ebba Beller, Stephan Kaczmarz, Claus Zimmer, Timo Grimmer, Alexander Drzezga, Christian Sorg
Functional connectivity of blood oxygenation level dependent signal fluctuations (BOLD-FC) is decreased in Alzheimer's disease (AD), and suggested to reflect reduced coherence in neural population activity; however, as both neuronal and vascular-hemodynamic processes underlie BOLD signals, impaired perfusion might also contribute to reduced BOLD-FC; 42 AD patients and 27 controls underwent simultaneous PET/MR imaging. Resting-state functional MRI assessed BOLD co-activity to quantify BOLD-FC, pulsed arterial spin labeling (pASL) assessed cerebral blood flow (CBF) as proxy for vascular hemodynamics, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET assessed glucose metabolism (GluMet) to index neuronal activity...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427833/neurodevelopmental-outcomes-in-newborns-with-neonatal-seizures-caused-by-rotavirus-associated-leukoencephalopathy
#4
Kyung Yeon Lee, Young Cheol Weon, Seong Hoon Choi, Ki Won Oh, Hyewon Park
PURPOSE: Rotavirus infection has recently been reported to be associated with seizures accompanied by leukoencephalopathy in newborns. We aimed to determine long-term outcomes and prognostic factors in newborns with neonatal seizures caused by rotavirus-associated leukoencephalopathy. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records and brain magnetic resonance (MR) images of 32 patients who fulfilled the following criteria: (1) neonatal seizures, (2) distinctive symmetric cerebral white matter lesions on diffusion-weighted MR images (DWI), (3) rotavirus infection, (4) absence of a specific etiology of seizures, except for the aforementioned DWI lesions, and (5) Korean Bayley Scales of Infant Development II (K-BSID-II) assessment after 12 months of age...
February 7, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424126/fewer-peripheral-asymmetrical-cortical-veins-is-a-predictor-of-favorable-outcome-in-mca-infarctions-with-swi-dwi-mismatch
#5
Tao Yuan, Guoli Ren, Guanmin Quan, Duo Gao
BACKGROUND: Outcome prediction of asymmetrical prominent cortical veins (APCVs) on infarction is still debated and may help in selecting patients for reperfusion treatment. PURPOSE: To explore the relationship between fewer peripheral APCVs and the outcome in the patients of acute/subacute middle cerebral artery (MCA) infarctions as well as the relationship between this sign and stenosis of ipsilateral MCA. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective case-control study...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422362/multiple-cranial-neuropathies-as-a-presentation-of-spontaneous-internal-carotid-artery-dissection-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Stephen W English, Theodore J Passe, E Paul Lindell, James P Klaas
Cervical artery dissection is an underrecognized cause of lower cranial neuropathies and diagnosis can remain elusive if not properly investigated. We present a case of an internal carotid artery dissection that was initially missed in a 48-year-old man who presented with subacute-onset of dysarthria, dysphagia, and unilateral tongue weakness. Knowledge of the most common presenting symptoms, relevant neuroanatomy, and neuroimaging techniques is essential to avoid misdiagnosis. Pseudoaneurysm formation from subadventitial carotid artery dissection may result in compressive neuropathies of cranial nerves IX, X, XI, and XII without associated cerebral ischemia...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417380/assessing-long-term-neuroinflammatory-responses-to-encephalopathy-using-mri-approaches-in-a-rat-endotoxemia-model
#7
Rheal A Towner, D Saunders, N Smith, W Towler, M Cruz, S Do, J E Maher, K Whitaker, M Lerner, K A Morton
Sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) induces neuroinflammation, which is associated with cognitive impairment (CI). CI is also correlated with aging. We used contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), perfusion MRI, and MR spectroscopy to assess long-term alterations in BBB permeability, microvascularity, and metabolism, respectively, in a rat lipopolysaccharide-induced SAE model. Free radical-targeted molecular MRI was used to detect brain radical levels at 24 h and 1 week post-LPS injection. CE-MRI showed increased Gd-DTPA uptake in LPS rat brains at 24 h in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and perirhinal cortex regions...
February 7, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417155/diagnosing-neoplastic-hematoma-role-of-mr-perfusion
#8
Jai Jai Shiva Shankar, Namita Sinha
BACKGROUND: The imaging appearance of neoplastic hematoma can be complicated by the presence of a large hematoma, even on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We describe the role of MR perfusion (MRP) in detecting neoplastic hematomas in patients with intraparenchymal hematoma (IPH). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective review was performed for consecutive patients with IPH, where MRP was performed. Routine, post-gadolinium MRI and MRP were analyzed. All patients were either operated on for evacuation of IPH or followed up on imaging...
February 7, 2018: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29411683/case-report-a-patient-with-spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-31-and-sporadic-creutzfeldt-jakob-disease
#9
Natsumi Saito, Tomohiko Ishihara, Kensaku Kasuga, Mana Nishida, Takanobu Ishiguro, Hiroaki Nozaki, Takayoshi Shimohata, Osamu Onodera, Masatoyo Nishizawa
We report a Japanese patient with spinocerebellar ataxia type 31 (SCA31) and sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD). A 52-year-old man developed progressive cognitive impairment after the appearance of cerebellar symptoms. Brain MR diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) demonstrated a slowly expanding hyperintense lesion in the cerebral cortex. The patient was finally diagnosed as having both SCA31 and sCJD by identification of genetic mutations and by real-time quaking-induced conversion (RT-QUIC) analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), respectively...
February 7, 2018: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408682/neurochemical-changes-in-unilateral-cerebralhemisphere-during-the-subacute-stage-of-focal-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-in-rats-an-ex-vivo-1h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-study
#10
Qun Huang, Chen Li, Nengzhi Xia, Liangcai Zhao, Dan Wang, Yunjun Yang, Hongchang Gao
Understanding the subacute may shed light on the mechanism of cerebral ischemia. The present study aimed to explore metabolic features underlying subacute stage of ischemia-reperfusion injury and developing effective treatments. Rats were divided into three groups: the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO), transient cerebral focal ischemia (tMCAO) and sham group. Evaluation of animal models was performed by the neurological deficit, MR images and pathological morphological abnormality. To elucidate metabolic changes, we conducted a comparative analysis of metabolic composition of unilateral brain tissue using 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy...
January 31, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29408324/vascular-reactivity-in-small-cerebral-perforating-arteries-with-7%C3%A2-t-phase-contrast-mri-a-proof-of-concept-study
#11
Lennart Geurts, Alex Bhogal, Jeroen Siero, Peter Luijten, Geert Jan Biessels, Jaco Zwanenburg
Existing cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) techniques assess flow reactivity in either the largest cerebral vessels or at the level of the parenchyma. We examined the ability of 2D phase contrast MRI at 7 T to measure CVR in small cerebral perforating arteries. Blood flow velocity in perforators was measured in 10 healthy volunteers (mean age 26 years) using a 7 T MR scanner, using phase contrast acquisitions in the semioval center (CSO), the basal ganglia (BG) and the middle cerebral artery (MCA). Changes in flow velocity in response to a hypercapnic breathing challenge were assessed, and expressed as the percentual increase of flow velocity as a function of the increase in end tidal partial pressure of CO2...
February 2, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405357/flow-mri-simulation-in-complex-3d-geometries-application-to-the-cerebral-venous-network
#12
Alexandre Fortin, Stéphanie Salmon, Joseph Baruthio, Maya Delbany, Emmanuel Durand
PURPOSE: Develop and evaluate a complete tool to include 3D fluid flows in MRI simulation, leveraging from existing software. Simulation of MR spin flow motion is of high interest in the study of flow artifacts and angiography. However, at present, only a few simulators include this option and most are restricted to static tissue imaging. THEORY AND METHODS: An extension of JEMRIS, one of the most advanced high performance open-source simulation platforms to date, was developed...
February 5, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29400600/cocaine-abuse-longitudinal-mr-imaging-of-lasting-diffused-leukoencephalopathy
#13
Shuo Li, Roni Manyevitch, Kaltrina Sedaliu, Ahmed Abdelbaki, Nishant Gupta, Anil Kumar, Yogesh Kumar, Mark Rosovsky
Cocaine use has been known to cause a number of adverse neurological conditions, such as cerebral ischemia and posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy. The radiologic appearance of cocaine-induced leukoencephalopathy is confounded by a common contaminant, levamisole, which is also known to cause multifocal leukoencephalopathy. However, we encountered a case of diffuse leukoencephalopathy in a patient with cocaine use that had extensive involvement of the cerebral white matter, globus pallidi as well as the cerebellum...
January 1, 2018: Neuroradiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392588/clinical-applicability-of-and-changes-in-perfusion-mr-imaging-in-brain-metastases-after-stereotactic-radiotherapy
#14
M Kerkhof, I Ganeff, R G J Wiggenraad, G J Lycklama À Nijeholt, S Hammer, M J B Taphoorn, L Dirven, M J Vos
To assess the applicability of perfusion-weighted (PWI) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in clinical practice, as well as to evaluate the changes in PWI in brain metastases before and after stereotactic radiotherapy (SRT), and to correlate these changes to tumor status on conventional MR imaging. Serial MR images at baseline and at least 3 and 6 months after SRT were retrospectively evaluated. Size of metastases and the relative cerebral blood volume (rCBV), assessed with subjective visual inspection in the contrast enhanced area, were evaluated at each time point...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383512/new-mr-perfusion-features-in-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphomas-pattern-and-prognostic-impact
#15
Stella Blasel, Rieke Vorwerk, Makoto Kiyose, Michel Mittelbronn, Uta Brunnberg, Hanns Ackermann, Martin Voss, Patrick N Harter, Elke Hattingen
PURPOSE: Some MR perfusion features predict overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in glioblastomas. Prognostic value of MR perfusion in primary CNS lymphomas (PCNSL) remains unexplored being the aim of this investigation. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 3Tesla dynamic susceptibility contrast MR perfusion in 37 pre-surgical PCNSL for normalized regional cerebral blood volume rCBVmean and rCBVmax and for a PCNSL-typical shoulder-like increase of the time-signal intensity curve ("TSIC-shoulder"), indicating moderate vessel permeability...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371257/early-hemodynamic-response-assessment-of-stereotactic-radiosurgery-for-a-cerebral-arteriovenous-malformation-using-4d-flow-mri
#16
C Q Li, A Hsiao, J Hattangadi-Gluth, J Handwerker, N Farid
Brain AVMs treated with stereotactic radiosurgery typically demonstrate a minimum latency period of 1-3 years between treatment and nidus obliteration. Assessment of treatment response is usually limited to evaluation of AVM nidus structural changes using conventional MR imaging and MRA techniques. This report describes the use of 4D Flow MRI to also measure radiation-induced hemodynamic changes in a Spetzler-Martin grade III AVM, which were detectable as early as 6 months after treatment.
January 25, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369424/non-contrast-enhanced-4d-intracranial-mr-angiography-based-on-pseudo-continuous-arterial-spin-labeling-with-the-keyhole-and-view-sharing-technique
#17
Makoto Obara, Osamu Togao, Gabriele M Beck, Shuhei Shibukawa, Tomoyuki Okuaki, Masami Yoneyama, Masanobu Nakamura, Hiroshi Honda, Marc Van Cauteren
PURPOSE: 4D dynamic MR angiography (4D-MRA) using pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL), combined with Keyhole and View-sharing (4D-PACK) for scan acceleration, is introduced. Its validity for arterial inflow dynamics visualization was investigated through comparison with 4D-pCASL and contrast inherent inflow enhanced multiphase angiography (CINEMA). METHODS: Six healthy volunteers were included in the study. The arterial transit time (ATT) in 4D-PACK was measured at multiple regions in middle cerebral artery (MCA), and Pearson's correlation coefficient with ATT in 4D-pCASL was calculated...
January 25, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29368687/-meningitis-and-septic-sinus-thrombosis-in-connection-with-otitis-media
#18
Thomas Frank Flyger, Jens Højberg Wanscher, Nina Nguyen, Mette Bay
This is a case report of a 30-year-old female, who presented to the emergency department with headache, nausea and neck pain after five days of otitis media. After lumbar puncture, CT and MRI the patient was treated for meningitis with initial improvement in the clinical state. After four days she developed contralateral neurological symptoms, and after five days she had a seizure. MR-venography showed thrombosis of the lateral dural sinus with venous cerebral infarction. The treatment of intravenously administered antibiotics, mastoidectomy and anticoagulation is discussed and compared with other cases in the literature...
January 22, 2018: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29365017/association-of-reperfusion-with-brain-edema-in-patients-with-acute-ischemic-stroke-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-mr-clean-trial
#19
W Taylor Kimberly, Bruna Garbugio Dutra, Anna M M Boers, Heitor C B R Alves, Olvert A Berkhemer, Lucie van den Berg, Kevin N Sheth, Yvo B W E M Roos, Aad van der Lugt, Ludo F M Beenen, Diederik W J Dippel, Wim H van Zwam, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Hester F Lingsma, Henk Marquering, Charles B L M Majoie
Importance: It is uncertain whether therapeutic reperfusion with endovascular treatment yields more or less brain edema. Objective: To elucidate the association between reperfusion and brain edema. The secondary objectives were to evaluate whether brain edema could partially be responsible for worse outcomes in patients with later reperfusion or lower Alberta Stroke Program Early Computed Tomography Score. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a post hoc analysis of the Multicenter Randomized Clinical Trial of Endovascular Treatment for Acute Ischemic Stroke in the Netherlands (MR CLEAN), which was a prospective, randomized, multicenter clinical trial of endovascular treatment compared with conventional care of patients with acute anterior circulation ischemic stroke...
January 24, 2018: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363350/visual-failure-and-sinus-thrombosis-following-depressed-skull-fracture-management-with-single-session-lumboperitoneal-shunt-and-sinus-decompression-case-report
#20
Ponraj K Sundaram, Pawan Kumar Jain
Elevation of a depressed skull fracture (DSF) overlying a venous sinus is generally avoided due to risk of sinus injury. Rarely, the sinus may be compressed by the fractured segment, causing intracranial hypertension (IH) or encephalopathy and can only be diagnosed with cerebral angiography or MR imaging techniques. The posterior third of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) was found involved in all the reported cases. There is no consensus on its management, but most patients did not have any sinus thrombosis and improved after elevation of the compressing DSF alone...
January 24, 2018: British Journal of Neurosurgery
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