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MR and Cerebral

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218385/bilateral-carotid-anterior-cerebral-artery-anastomoses-associated-with-bilateral-ophthalmic-arteries-arising-from-the-anastomotic-arteries-diagnosed-by-magnetic-resonance-angiography-a-case-report
#1
Akira Uchino, Naoko Saito, Norio Tanahashi
Rarely, the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) arises from the ophthalmic segment of the internal carotid artery, a condition described as carotid-ACA anastomosis or infraoptic course of the ACA that generally demonstrates right-sided predominance. We diagnosed a case of bilateral anastomoses of the carotid and ACA vessels in which bilateral ophthalmic arteries arose from the origins of the anastomotic vessels using magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. Identification of rare arterial variations on MR angiography requires careful scrutiny of source images, and creation of partial volume-rendering images can aid visualization of detailed anatomic structures...
December 7, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214780/mismatch-between-tof-mr-angiography-and-ct-angiography-of-the-middle-cerebral-artery-may-be-a-critical-sign-in-cerebrovascular-dynamics
#2
Keiji Igase, Michiya Igase, Ichiro Matsubara, Kazuhiko Sadamoto
PURPOSE: Although time-of-flight (TOF)-magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) can clearly depict intracranial arteries, the arterial flow of middle cerebral artery (MCA) is occasionally not detected. We evaluated this phenomenon with reference to cerebrovascular dynamics. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen patients with suspected occlusion of MCA or internal carotid artery on TOF-MRA were enrolled. All patients underwent CT angiography (CTA) and quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) examination for measurement of resting CBF and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR)...
January 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209885/neuroimaging-findings-associated-with-congenital-zika-virus-syndrome-case-series-at-the-time-of-first-epidemic-outbreak-in-pernambuco-state-brazil
#3
Pedro Pires, Patricia Jungmann, Jully Moura Galvão, Adriano Hazin, Luiza Menezes, Ricardo Ximenes, Gabriele Tonni, Edward Araujo Júnior
PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe the prenatal and postnatal neuroimaging and clinical findings in a clinical series following congenital Zika virus syndrome during the first epidemic Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil. METHODS: We (the authors) conducted a retrospective study of a prospectively collected case series of fetuses and neonates with microcephaly born to mothers with presumed/confirmed congenital ZIKV syndrome. Prenatal ultrasound findings were reviewed to identify potential central nervous system (CNS) abnormalities...
December 5, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205392/toward-quantitative-fast-diffusion-kurtosis-imaging-with-b-values-chosen-in-consideration-of-signal-to-noise-ratio-and-model-fidelity
#4
Yen-Shu Kuo, Shun-Chung Yang, Hsiao-Wen Chung, Wen-Chau Wu
PURPOSE: Diffusion kurtosis (DK) imaging is a variant of conventional diffusion magnetic resonance (MR) imaging that allows assessment of non-Gaussian diffusion. Fast DK imaging expedites the procedure by decreasing both scan time (acquiring the minimally required number of b-values) and computation time (obviating least-square curve fitting). This study aimed to investigate the applicability of fast DK imaging for both cerebral gray matter and white matter as a quantitative method. METHODS: Seventeen healthy volunteers were recruited and each provided written informed consent before participation...
December 5, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202103/early-changes-in-glioblastoma-metabolism-measured-by-mr-spectroscopic-imaging-during-combination-of-anti-angiogenic-cediranib-and-chemoradiation-therapy-are-associated-with-survival
#5
Ovidiu C Andronesi, Morteza Esmaeili, Ronald J H Borra, Kyrre Emblem, Elizabeth R Gerstner, Marco C Pinho, Scott R Plotkin, Andrew S Chi, April F Eichler, Jorg Dietrich, S Percy Ivy, Patrick Y Wen, Dan G Duda, Rakesh Jain, Bruce R Rosen, Gregory A Sorensen, Tracy T Batchelor
Precise assessment of treatment response in glioblastoma during combined anti-angiogenic and chemoradiation remains a challenge. In particular, early detection of treatment response by standard anatomical imaging is confounded by pseudo-response or pseudo-progression. Metabolic changes may be more specific for tumor physiology and less confounded by changes in blood-brain barrier permeability. We hypothesize that metabolic changes probed by magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging can stratify patient response early during combination therapy...
2017: NPJ Precision Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199507/asymmetric-oculomotor-apraxia-optic-ataxia-and-simultanagnosia-with-right-hemispatial-neglect-from-a-predominantly-left-sided-lesion-of-the-parieto-occipital-area
#6
Yasuhisa Sakurai, Masanori Fujimoto, Kensuke Hamada, Izumi Sugimoto
INTRODUCTION: Bálint's syndrome involves bilateral damage to the parieto-occipital area. The extent of the effect of unilateral damage on the Bálint's triad (oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, and simultanagnosia) remains unknown. METHODS: We examined a 63-year-old, right-handed woman who developed right hemianopia, oculomotor apraxia, optic ataxia, simultanagnosia, and hemispatial neglect (HSN) for the right after a cerebral infarction, with detailed neuropsychological tests, magnetic resonance imaging, and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)...
December 2, 2017: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194727/diminished-cerebral-oxygen-extraction-and-metabolic-rate-in-sickle-cell-disease-using-t2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging-mri
#7
Adam M Bush, Thomas D Coates, John C Wood
PURPOSE: T2 MRI oximetry can noninvasively determine oxygen saturation (Y) but requires empirical MR calibration models to convert the measured blood transverse relaxation (T2b ) into Y. The accuracy of existing T2b models in the presence of blood disorders such as sickle cell disease (SCD) remains unknown. METHODS: A Carr Purcell Meiboom Gill T2 preparation sequence was used to make 83 whole blood measurements from 11 subjects with SCD to derive an ex vivo sickle hemoglobin (HbS) T2b model...
December 1, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190989/aberrant-pattern-of-regional-cerebral-blood-flow-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-voxel-wise-meta-analysis-of-arterial-spin-labeling-mr-imaging-studies
#8
Hai Rong Ma, Ping Lei Pan, Li Qin Sheng, Zhen Yu Dai, Gen Di Wang, Rong Luo, Jia Hui Chen, Pei Rong Xiao, Jian Guo Zhong, Hai Cun Shi
Many studies have applied arterial spin labeling (ASL) to characterize cerebral perfusion patterns of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, findings across studies are not conclusive. A quantitatively voxel-wise meta-analysis to pool the resting-state ASL studies that measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) alterations in AD was conducted to identify the most consistent and replicable perfusion pattern using seed-based d mapping. The meta-analysis, including 17 ASL studies encompassing 327 AD patients and 357 healthy controls, demonstrated that decreased rCBF in AD patients relative to healthy controls were consistently identified in the bilateral posterior cingulate cortices (PCC)/precuneus, bilateral inferior parietal lobules (IPLs), and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex...
November 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190679/infarct-morphology-assessment-in-patients-with-carotid-artery-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-using-fast-fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery-flair-vascular-hyperintensity-fvh
#9
Deng-Yue Zhai, Shuang-Gen Zhu, Wei Zhang, Xue Li, You-Ling Zhu
We aim to evaluate the value of fast fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) vascular hyperintensity (FVH) in assessing infarct morphology in patients with symptomatic internal carotid artery (ICA) or middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusions. Magnetic resonance (MR) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) FLAIR sequences, and carotid/cerebral magnetic resonance angiography of 102 patients with symptomatic ICA or MCA occlusions were evaluated. The location and score of FVH were determined using Olindo's method; patients were classified as having Low or High FVHs based on FVH score, and either Distal or Proximal FVH based on FVH location...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184763/usefulness-of-enhancement-perfusion-mismatch-in-differentiation-of-cns-lymphomas-from-other-enhancing-malignant-tumors-of-the-brain
#10
Pradeep Goyal, Yogesh Kumar, Nishant Gupta, Ajay Malhotra, Saurabh Gupta, Sonali Gupta, Manisha Mangla, Rajiv Mangla
Background: Surgical planning and treatment options for primary or secondary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL or SCNSL) are different from other enhancing malignant lesions such as glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), anaplastic gliomas and metastases; so, it is critical to distinguish them preoperatively. We hypothesized that enhancement-perfusion (E-P) mismatch on dynamic susceptibility weighted magnetic resonance (DSC-MR) perfusion imaging which corresponds to low mean relative cerebral blood volume (mean rCBV) in an enhancing portion of the tumor should allow differentiation of CNS lymphomas from other enhancing malignant lesions...
October 2017: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183789/a-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-of-early-brain-injury-in-a-rat-model-of-acute-dfp-intoxication
#11
Brad A Hobson, Douglas R Rowland, Suangsuda Supasai, Danielle J Harvey, Pamela J Lein, Joel R Garbow
Current treatments for seizures induced by organophosphates do not protect sufficiently against progressive neurodegeneration or delayed cognitive impairment. Developing more effective therapeutic approaches has been challenging because the pathogenesis of these delayed consequences is poorly defined. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we previously reported brain lesions that persist for months in a rat model of acute intoxication with the OP, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP). However, the early spatiotemporal progression of these lesions remains unknown...
November 25, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182625/regional-brain-morphometry-in-patients-with-traumatic-brain-injury-based-on-acute-and-chronic-phase-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#12
Christian Ledig, Konstantinos Kamnitsas, Juha Koikkalainen, Jussi P Posti, Riikka S K Takala, Ari Katila, Janek Frantzén, Henna Ala-Seppälä, Anna Kyllönen, Henna-Riikka Maanpää, Jussi Tallus, Jyrki Lötjönen, Ben Glocker, Olli Tenovuo, Daniel Rueckert
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is caused by a sudden external force and can be very heterogeneous in its manifestation. In this work, we analyse T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) brain images that were prospectively acquired from patients who sustained mild to severe TBI. We investigate the potential of a recently proposed automatic segmentation method to support the outcome prediction of TBI. Specifically, we extract meaningful cross-sectional and longitudinal measurements from acute- and chronic-phase MR images...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177950/vascular-and-tissue-changes-of-magnetic-susceptibility-in-the-mouse-brain-after-transient-cerebral-ischemia
#13
Markus Vaas, Andreas Deistung, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Annika Keller, Anja Kipar, Jan Klohs
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) has been recently introduced as a novel MRI post-processing technique of gradient recalled echo (GRE) data. QSM is useful in depicting both brain anatomy and for detecting abnormalities. Its utility in the context of ischemic stroke has, however, not been extensively characterized so far. In this study, we explored the potential of QSM to characterize vascular and tissue changes in the transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) mouse model of cerebral ischemia...
November 25, 2017: Translational Stroke Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172203/-factor-xa-inhibitor-for-the-treatment-of-cerebral-venous-thrombosis-with-intracerebral-hemorrhage-during-anticoagulation-therapy-a-case-report
#14
Takehiro Kitagawa, Tetsuhiro Kitahara
A 46-year-old man presented with headache, right hemiparesis, and motor aphasia. A diagnosis of cerebral venous thrombosis with subarachnoid hemorrhage was made. We started intravenous administration of unfractionated heparin. After 6 days in hospital, the right hemiparesis and motor aphasia worsened, and brain computed tomographic(CT)images demonstrated intracerebral hemorrhage in the left parietal lobe. Therefore, we switched treatment from heparin to apixaban. His condition improved and a brain magnetic resonance(MR)venogram after 7 days in hospital showed recanalization of the cerebral veins...
November 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167167/cellular-mechanisms-underlying-obesity-induced-arterial-stiffness
#15
Annayya R Aroor, Guanghong Jia, James R Sowers
Obesity is an emerging pandemic driven by consumption of a diet rich in high fat and high refined carbohydrates (western diet [WD]) and a sedentary life style in both children and adults. There is mounting evidence that arterial stiffness in obesity is an independent and strong predictor of adverse cardiovascular disease (CVD), cognitive functional decline and chronic kidney disease. Cardiovascular stiffness is a precursor to systolic hypertension, cardiac diastolic dysfunction, impairment of coronary and cerebral blood flow, and atherosclerosis...
November 22, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165748/orbital-arteriovenous-fistula-around-the-optic-nerve-treated-by-transvenous-embolization
#16
Masayuki Sato, Yuji Matsumaru, Tatsuo Amano, Yuki Kamiya
(Background) Intraorbital arteriovenous fistula is a very rare disease, therefore an optimal treatment strategy has not yet been established. Here we describe the use of high-resolution cone-beam CT (CBCT) and selective angiography to visualize the detailed anatomy of orbital vessels. The information provided by the intra-operative imaging led to a change in treatment strategy and eventually to successful transvenous coil embolization. (Clinical presentation) A 55-year-old man presented with right exophthalmos, chemosis and diplopia 4 months previously...
October 11, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165048/psychoradiologic-utility-of-mr-imaging-for-diagnosis-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-radiomics-analysis
#17
Huaiqiang Sun, Ying Chen, Qiang Huang, Su Lui, Xiaoqi Huang, Yan Shi, Xin Xu, John A Sweeney, Qiyong Gong
Purpose To identify cerebral radiomic features related to diagnosis and subtyping of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and to build and evaluate classification models for ADHD diagnosis and subtyping on the basis of the identified features. Materials and Methods A consecutive cohort of 83 age- and sex-matched children with newly diagnosed and never-treated ADHD (mean age 10.83 years ± 2.30; range, 7-14 years; 71 boys, 40 with ADHD-inattentive [ADHD-I] and 43 with ADHD-combined [ADHD-C, or inattentive and hyperactive]) and 87 healthy control subjects (mean age, 11...
November 22, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163005/in-vivo-imaging-of-tau-pathology-using-magnetic-resonance-imaging-textural-analysis
#18
Niall Colgan, Balaji Ganeshan, Ian F Harrison, Ozama Ismail, Holly E Holmes, Jack A Wells, Nick M Powell, James M O'Callaghan, Michael J O'Neill, Tracey K Murray, Zeshan Ahmed, Emily C Collins, Ross A Johnson, Ashley Groves, Mark F Lythgoe
Background: Non-invasive characterization of the pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD) could enhance patient management and the development of therapeutic strategies. Magnetic resonance imaging texture analysis (MRTA) has been used previously to extract texture descriptors from structural clinical scans in AD to determine cerebral tissue heterogeneity. In this study, we examined the potential of MRTA to specifically identify tau pathology in an AD mouse model and compared the MRTA metrics to histological measures of tau burden...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163000/convergence-of-cortical-thalamocortical-and-callosal-pathways-during-human-fetal-development-revealed-by-diffusion-mri-tractography
#19
Rongpin Wang, Molly Wilkinson, Tara Kane, Emi Takahashi
There has been evidence that during brain development, emerging thalamocortical (TC) and corticothalamic (CT) pathways converge in some brain regions and follow each other's trajectories to their final destinations. Corpus callosal (CC) pathways also emerge at a similar developmental stage, and are known to converge with TC pathways in specific cortical regions in mature brains. Given the functional relationships between TC and CC pathways, anatomical convergence of the two pathways are likely important for their functional integration...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157849/imaging-of-chronic-concussion
#20
REVIEW
Eliana Bonfante, Roy Riascos, Octavio Arevalo
Conventional imaging findings in patients with cerebral concussion and chronic traumatic encephalopathy are absent or subtle in the majority of cases. The most common abnormalities include cerebral volume loss, enlargement of the cavum of the septum pellucidum, cerebral microhemorrhages, and white matter signal abnormalities, all of which have poor sensitivity and specificity. Advanced imaging modalities, such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), blood oxygen level dependent functional MR Imaging (BOLD fMRI), MR spectroscopy, perfusion imaging, positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and magnetoencephalography detect physiologic abnormalities in symptomatic patients and, although currently in the investigation phase, may become useful in the clinical arena...
February 2018: Neuroimaging Clinics of North America
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