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MR and Cerebral

Takashi Hashido, Shigeyoshi Saito
PURPOSE: Neuromelanin is a dark pigment granule present within certain catecholamine neurons of the human brain. Here, we aimed to clarify the relationship between contrast of neuromelanin-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR relaxation times using T1, T2, and T2* mapping of the lower midbrain. METHODS: The subjects were 14 healthy volunteers (11 men and 3 women, mean age 29.9 ± 6.9 years). Neuromelanin-sensitive MRI was acquired using an optimized T1-weighted two-dimensional (2D)-turbo spin-echo sequence...
2016: PloS One
E H Baker, S W Levin, Z Zhang, A B Mukherjee
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis is a devastating neurodegenerative storage disease caused by palmitoyl-protein thioesterase 1 deficiency, which impairs degradation of palmitoylated proteins (constituents of ceroid) by lysosomal hydrolases. Consequent lysosomal ceroid accumulation leads to neuronal injury, resulting in rapid neurodegeneration and childhood death. As part of a project studying the treatment benefits of a combination of cysteamine bitartrate and N-acetyl cysteine, we made serial measurements of patients' brain volumes with MR imaging...
October 20, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Kostas Delaunay, Florence Le Jeune, Etienne Garin, Anne Devillers, Xavier Palard-Novello
A 75-year-old man with a history of prostate cancer was referred to our department to perform F-choline (FCH) PET/CT. FCH PET/CT showed a markedly increased uptake in the right temporoparietal junction brain. Three weeks earlier, acute ischemic stroke was diagnosed in the right temporoparietal junction brain on diffusion-weighted sequence and thrombosis in a distal branch of the right middle cerebral artery on MR angiography. Choline precursors promote repair and growth of cell membranes in neurologic diseases, so FCH PET/CT uptake could be explained by repair processes during early outcome of acute ischemic stroke...
October 18, 2016: Clinical Nuclear Medicine
J Wu, S Dehkharghani, F Nahab, J Allen, D Qiu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Measuring cerebrovascular reactivity with the use of vasodilatory stimuli, such as acetazolamide, is useful for chronic cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of acetazolamide on the assessment of hemodynamic impairment and functional connectivity by using noninvasive resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent MR imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 20-minute resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent MR imaging scan was acquired with infusion of acetazolamide starting at 5 minutes after scan initiation...
October 6, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Sven Haller, Greg Zaharchuk, David L Thomas, Karl-Olof Lovblad, Frederik Barkhof, Xavier Golay
Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a magnetic resonance (MR) imaging technique used to assess cerebral blood flow noninvasively by magnetically labeling inflowing blood. In this article, the main labeling techniques, notably pulsed and pseudocontinuous ASL, as well as emerging clinical applications will be reviewed. In dementia, the pattern of hypoperfusion on ASL images closely matches the established patterns of hypometabolism on fluorine 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) images due to the close coupling of perfusion and metabolism in the brain...
November 2016: Radiology
Ambra Bisio, Ludovico Pedullà, Laura Bonzano, Piero Ruggeri, Giampaolo Brichetto, Marco Bove
Writing is a means of communication which requires complex motor, perceptual, and cognitive skills. If one of these abilities gets lost following traumatic events or due to neurological diseases, handwriting could deteriorate. Occupational therapy practitioners provide rehabilitation services for people with impaired handwriting. However, to determine the effectiveness of handwriting interventions no studies assessed whether the proposed treatments improved the kinematics of writing movement or had an effect at the level of the central nervous system...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Nolan S Hartkamp, Reinoud P H Bokkers, M J P van Osch, Gert J de Borst, Jeroen Hendrikse
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To assess the effect of unilateral large vessel disease upon the cerebral hemodynamic autoregulatory status in the basal ganglia of patients with steno-occlusive internal carotid artery (ICA) disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five healthy volunteers and 38 patients with a unilateral symptomatic steno-occlusive ICA lesion and were investigated; 20 with a stenosis >50% and 18 with an occlusion. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) were assessed with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging before and after administration of acetazolamide...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Jerrold L Boxerman, Mark S Shiroishi, Benjamin M Ellingson, Whitney B Pope
Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) MR imaging, a perfusion-weighted MR imaging technique typically used in neuro-oncologic applications for estimating the relative cerebral blood volume within brain tumors, has demonstrated much potential for determining prognosis, predicting therapeutic response, and assessing early treatment response of gliomas. This review highlights recent developments using DSC-MR imaging and emphasizes the need for technical standardization and validation in prospective studies in order for this technique to become incorporated into standard-of-care imaging for patients with brain tumors...
November 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging Clinics of North America
M J Paldino, F Golriz, M L Chapieski, W Zhang, Z D Chu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The biologic basis for intelligence rests to a large degree on the capacity for efficient integration of information across the cerebral network. We aimed to measure the relationship between network architecture and intelligence in the pediatric, epileptic brain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients were retrospectively identified with the following: 1) focal epilepsy; 2) brain MR imaging at 3T, including resting-state functional MR imaging; and 3) full-scale intelligence quotient measured by a pediatric neuropsychologist...
October 13, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Jongseong Kim, Jung E Park, Matthias Nahrendorf, Dong-Eog Kim
There is an emergent need for imaging methods to better triage patients with acute stroke for tissue-plasminogen activator (tPA)-mediated thrombolysis or endovascular clot retrieval by directly visualizing the size and distribution of cerebral thromboemboli. Currently, magnetic resonance (MR) or computed tomography (CT) angiography visualizes the obstruction of blood flow within the vessel lumen rather than the thrombus itself. The present visualization method, which relies on observation of the dense artery sign (the appearance of cerebral thrombi on a non-enhanced CT), suffers from low sensitivity...
September 2016: Journal of Stroke
Junya Hatakeyama, Toshiharu Yanagisawa, Erina Kudo, Shuntaro Togashi, Hiroaki Shimizu
Progressive cerebral infarction in patients with hemorrhagic onset of moyamoya disease is rare, and a treatment strategy is not well established. Here, we report a case that was successfully treated with emergency bypass surgery. A 58-year-old woman presented with a sudden disturbance of consciousness and right-sided hemiparesis. Computed tomography(CT)showed intraventricular hemorrhage involving the head of the left caudate nucleus. Ventricular drainage was immediately performed, and the patient was treated conservatively...
October 2016: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
Elisabeth B Marsh, Wendy C Ziai, Rafael H Llinas
INTRODUCTION: Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) typically affects young patients and left untreated can result in hemorrhage or ischemic stroke. Though the disorder has been well characterized in the literature, the most appropriate way to diagnose, treat, and evaluate therapeutic response remains unclear. In previous studies, transcranial Doppler ultrasound (TCD) has shown elevated velocities indicative of vasospasm. This imaging modality is noninvasive and inexpensive; an attractive option for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring if it is sensitive enough to detect changes in the acute setting given that RCVS often affects the distal vessels early in the course of disease...
May 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
Naoki Matsumoto, Hitoshi Fukuda, Akira Handa, Toshinari Kawasaki, Yoshitaka Kurosaki, Masaki Chin, Sen Yamagata
The mechanism of thrombus formation in Trousseau syndrome remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate specific pathological findings of the thrombi in Trousseau syndrome. The authors report on 2 cases of thrombi in Trousseau syndrome from large cerebral vessels removed by endovascular therapy and compared with thrombi in atherosclerosis or cardiac embolism. The first patient, a 67-year-old man, was transferred to our hospital for sudden onset consciousness disturbance and tetraparesis. He had been diagnosed with stage IV lung cancer...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
Corin Kuang, Lisa Buchy, Mariapaola Barbato, Carolina Makowski, Frank P MacMaster, Signe Bray, Stephanie Deighton, Jean Addington
Cognitive insight is described as a balance between one's self-reflectiveness (recognition and correction of dysfunctional reasoning), and self-certainty (overconfidence). Neuroimaging studies have linked the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) to cognitive insight in people with psychosis. However, the relationship between cognitive insight and structural connectivity between the VLPFC and other brain areas is unknown. Here, we investigated the modulation of cognitive insight on structural covariance networks involving the VLPFC in a first-episode psychosis sample...
October 6, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Zhengzhen Chen, Huihuang Qiao, Yu Guo, Jiance Li, Huizhong Miao, Caiyun Wen, Xindong Wen, Xiaofen Zhang, Xindong Yang, Chengchun Chen
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Understanding the anatomy of the anterior septal vein (ASV) is critical for minimally invasive procedures to the third ventricle and for assessing lesion size and venous drainage in the anterior cranial fossa. Accordingly, this study evaluated topographic anatomy and anatomic variation of the ASV using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI). METHODS: Sixty volunteers were examined using a 3.0T MR system. The diameter of the ASV and distance between bilateral septal points were measured...
2016: PloS One
Zhi-Hong Shao, Guo-Liang Wang, Xiang-Hua Yi, Pei-Jun Wang
Intracranial gliosis has no typical clinical signals or imaging characteristics. Therefore, it can be easily misdiagnosed as neoplasm. Hereby, we report a unique case of gliosis that grew outward from the surface of the brain. MRI depicted its signal and enhancement pattern similar to the cerebral gray matter. The diagnosis was confirmed by pathology and immunohistochemistry. Although it was difficult to reach a diagnosis, correlating its origin, growing pattern and MR features and knowing that gliosis can present this way may help in differentiating it from other diseases...
April 2016: Iranian Journal of Radiology: a Quarterly Journal Published By the Iranian Radiological Society
Bing Fan, Meijiao Li, Xiaoying Wang, Yufeng Xu, Feiyu Li, Laiyun Zhang, Jian Jiang, Yanyan Jiang
PURPOSE: To compare gadobutrol and gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3T for visualizing brain metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present randomized study included 60 consecutive patients with known or suspected brain metastases from systemic malignancies. Two enhanced cerebral MR scans were performed in each patient within an interval of 2-5 days using different contrast agents (gadobutrol or Gd-DTPA) at 3T...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Morris H Baslow, Christopher K Cain, Robert Sears, Donald A Wilson, Alvin Bachman, Scott Gerum, David N Guilfoyle
Brain activation studies in humans have shown the dynamic nature of neuronal N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) based on changes in their MRS signals in response to stimulation. These studies demonstrated that upon visual stimulation there was a focal increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and a decrease in NAA or in the total of NAA and NAAG signals in the visual cortex, and that these changes were reversed upon cessation of stimulation. In the present study we have developed an animal model in order to explore the relationships between brain stimulation, neuronal activity, CBF and NAA...
October 3, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Andrew A Maudsley, Mohammed Z Goryawala, Sulaiman Sheriff
A method for mapping of temperature over a large volume of the brain using volumetric proton MR spectroscopic imaging has been implemented and applied to 150 normal subjects. Magnetic susceptibility-induced frequency shifts in gray- and white-matter regions were measured and included as a correction in the temperature mapping calculation. Additional sources of magnetic susceptibility variations of the individual metabolite resonance frequencies were also observed that reflect the cellular-level organization of the brain metabolites, with the most notable differences being attributed to changes of the N-Acetylaspartate resonance frequency that reflect the intra-axonal distribution and orientation of the white-matter tracts with respect to the applied magnetic field...
September 28, 2016: NeuroImage
Sindhura Pisipati, Kyle A Smith, Kushal Shah, Koji Ebersole, Roukoz B Chamoun, Paul J Camarata
OBJECTIVE Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) is used in numerous neurosurgical applications including lesions that are difficult to resect. Its rising popularity can be attributed to its minimally invasive approach, improved accuracy with real-time MRI guidance and thermography, and enhanced control of the laser. One of its drawbacks is the possible development of significant edema, which contributes to extended hospital stays and often necessitates hyperosmolar or steroid therapy. Here, the authors discuss the use of minimally invasive craniotomy to resect tissue ablated with LITT in attempt to minimize cerebral edema...
October 2016: Neurosurgical Focus
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