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MR and Cerebral

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716281/-black-butterfly-sign-on-t2-weighted-and-susceptibility-weighted-imaging-a-novel-finding-of-chronic-venous-congestion-of-the-brain-stem-and-spinal-cord-associated-with-dural-arteriovenous-fistulas
#1
Mikako Enokizono, Noriko Sato, Minoru Morikawa, Yukio Kimura, Atsuhiko Sugiyama, Tomoko Maekawa, Daichi Sone, Daiki Takewaki, Tomoko Okamoto, Yuji Takahashi, Nobutaka Horie, Takayuki Matsuo
A dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF) with spinal perimedullary venous drainage can cause progressive myelopathy, and it is sometimes incorrectly diagnosed as another spinal cord disease. Here we report the cases of three individuals with a DAVF (one craniocervical junction DAVF and two tentorial DAVFs) with progressive myelopathy showing unique magnetic resonance (MR) imaging findings. MR T2*WI or susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) demonstrated symmetrical dark signal intensity lesions predominantly in the dorsal aspect of medulla and the central gray matter of cervical spinal cord that showed the "black butterfly" silhouette...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705823/transient-focal-neurologic-symptoms-correspond-to-regional-cerebral-hypoperfusion-by-mri-a-stroke-mimic-in-children
#2
L L Lehman, A R Danehy, C C Trenor, C F Calahan, M E Bernson-Leung, R L Robertson, M J Rivkin
Children who present with acute transient focal neurologic symptoms raise concern for stroke or transient ischemic attack. We present a series of 16 children who presented with transient focal neurologic symptoms that raised concern for acute stroke but who had no evidence of infarction and had unilateral, potentially reversible imaging features on vascular and perfusion-sensitive brain MR imaging. Patients were examined with routine brain MR imaging, MRA, perfusion-sensitive sequences, and DWI. Fourteen (88%) children had lateralized MRA evidence of arterial tree pruning without occlusion, all had negative DWI findings, and all showed evidence of hemispheric hypoperfusion by susceptibility-weighted imaging or arterial spin-labeling perfusion imaging at presentation...
July 13, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702117/balloon-angioplasty-for-intracranial-atherosclerotic-disease-a-multicenter-study
#3
Lakshmi Sudha Prasanna Karanam, Mukesh Sharma, Anand Alurkar, Sridhar Reddy Baddam, Vijaya Pamidimukkala, Raghavasarma Polavarapu
AIM: To evaluate the role and efficacy of the balloon angioplasty in intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD) in patients who presented with acute stroke due to vessel occlusion and in patients with symptomatic disease despite optimum medical management. METHODS: From 2013 to 2016, a total of 39 patients (24 males and 15 females with a mean age of 64.5 years) underwent balloon angioplasty over a period of 2 years and 8 months in three different institutions in India...
June 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697558/comparative-analysis-of-cortical-microinfarcts-and-microbleeds-using-3-0-tesla-postmortem-magnetic-resonance-images-and-histopathology
#4
Atsushi Niwa, Yuichiro Ii, Akihiro Shindo, Ko Matsuo, Hidehiro Ishikawa, Akira Taniguchi, Shinichi Takase, Masayuki Maeda, Hajime Sakuma, Hiroyasu Akatsu, Yoshio Hashizume, Hidekazu Tomimoto
Microvascular lesions including cortical microinfarctions (CMIs) and cerebral lobar microbleeds (CMBs) are usually caused by cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in the elderly and are correlated with cognitive decline. However, their radiological-histopathological coincidence has not been revealed systematically with widely used 3-Tesla (3T) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of the present study is to delineate the histopathological background corresponding to MR images of these lesions. We examined formalin-fixed 10-mm thick coronal brain blocks from 10 CAA patients (five were also diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, three with dementia with Lewy bodies, and two with CAA only) with dementia and six non CAA patients with neurodegenerative disease...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695670/mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-cerebral-metabolic-abnormalities-in-patients-with-mitochondrial-encephalomyopathy-subtypes-evidence-from-proton-mr-spectroscopy-and-muscle-biopsy
#5
Feng-Nan Niu, Hai-Lan Meng, Lei-Lei Chang, Hong-Yan Wu, Wei-Ping Li, Ren-Yuan Liu, Hui-Ting Wang, Bing Zhang, Yun Xu
AIMS: Accumulated evidence indicates that cerebral metabolic features, evaluated by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1) H-MRS), are sensitive to early mitochondrion dysfunction associated with mitochondrial encephalomyopathy (ME). The metabolite ratios of lactate (lac)/Cr, N-acetyl aspartate (NAA)/creatine (Cr), total choline (tCho)/Cr, and myoinositol (mI)/Cr are measured in the infarct-like lesions by (1) H-MRS and may reveal metabolic changes associated with ME. However, the application of this molecular imaging technique in the investigation of the pathology of ME subtypes is unknown...
July 11, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695244/-diagnostic-and-treatment-standards-for-cerebral-sinus-venous-thrombosis-results-of-an-online-survey-of-german-stroke-units
#6
C Geisbüsch, P A Ringleb, O Busse, G F Hamann, S Nagel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The aim of this survey was to characterize the current diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for thrombosis of the cerebral sinus and veins (CVT) performed in German stroke units (SU). METHODS: Between September 2015 and January 2016 all clinical heads of certified SUs in Germany were invited to participate in a standardized online survey. The survey concentrated on the basic characteristics of SUs, diagnostic and therapeutic procedures and was made anonymous if so desired...
July 10, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695243/cns-metabolism-in-high-risk-drug-abuse-insights-gained-from-1-h-31-p-mrs-and-pet
#7
REVIEW
S Bodea
BACKGROUND: High-risk drug consumption is a matter of great concern for public health actors in industrialised countries. The latest trends show a market tendency towards diversification and increasing demand for high-purity synthetic drugs. While most consumers seek medical help after cannabis use, it is high-risk drugs like cocaine, heroin and amphetamines that account for most of the 1000 drug-related deaths that occur in Germany every year. PURPOSE: This article presents the most prominent in vivo cerebral metabolic information in cocaine, heroin and methamphetamine users provided by MRI spectroscopy and PET imaging...
July 10, 2017: Der Radiologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694612/cerebral-and-coronary-vasculature-in-disease-associations-and-dissociations-in-the-south-indian-population
#8
Krishnan Srinivasan, Srinivasan Ravikumar, Sadanandavalli Retnaswami Chandra, Selva Ganapathy, G S Ravi
INTRODUCTION: Cerebrovascular accidents constitute the most common cause of disability all over the world. In India prevalence rate is 545 per 100000 and mortality rate is around 7.5 per thousand. Therefore the authors undertook a study on patients who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). They were investigated for clinical and/or radiological evidence of cerebrovascular disease (CVD) with the aim to decide on early neurological intervention. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 210 patients who had undergone CABG were evaluated with neck vessel Doppler using high resolution duplex scanner system and computed tomography (CT) scan as well as MR angiogram (MRA) in addition to assessment of co morbid risk factors...
July 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694463/contrast-enhanced-mr-microscopy-of-amyloid-plaques-in-five-mouse-models-of-amyloidosis-and-in-human-alzheimer-s-disease-brains
#9
Clémence Dudeffant, Matthias Vandesquille, Kelly Herbert, Clément M Garin, Sandro Alves, Véronique Blanchard, Emmanuel E Comoy, Fanny Petit, Marc Dhenain
Gadolinium (Gd)-stained MRI is based on Gd contrast agent (CA) administration into the brain parenchyma. The strong signal increase induced by Gd CA can be converted into resolution enhancement to record microscopic MR images. Moreover, inhomogeneous distribution of the Gd CA in the brain improves the contrast between different tissues and provides new contrasts in MR images. Gd-stained MRI detects amyloid plaques, one of the microscopic lesions of Alzheimer's disease (AD), in APPSL/PS1M146L mice or in primates...
July 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694213/a-general-protocol-of-ultra-high-resolution-mr-angiography-to-image-the-cerebro-vasculature-in-6-different-rats-strains-at-high-field
#10
Géraldine Pastor, María Jiménez-González, Sandra Plaza-García, Marta Beraza, Daniel Padro, Pedro Ramos-Cabrer, Torsten Reese
BACKGROUND: Differences in the cerebro-vasculature among strains as well as individual animals might explain variability in animal models and thus, a non-invasive method tailored to image cerebral vessel of interest with high signal to noise ratio is required. NEW METHOD: Experimentally, we describe a new general protocol of three-dimensional time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography to visualize non-invasively the cerebral vasculature in 6 different rat strains...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693687/abnormal-alterations-of-cortical-thickness-in-16-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-pilot-mri-study-%C3%A2
#11
Chen Zhiye, Zang Xiujuan, Liu Mengqi, Liu Mengyu, Li Jinfeng, Gu Zhaoyan, Ma Lin
Objective The aim of this study is to investigate the cerebral cortical thickness changes in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using a whole brain cortical thickness mapping system based on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).Methods High resolution three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo MR images were obtained from 16 patients with T2DM, as well as from 16 normal controls. The whole brain cortical thickness maps were generated, and the cortical thickness of each brain region was calculated according to gyral based regions of interest (ROI) using an automated labeling system by the Freesurfer software...
June 10, 2017: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689257/fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery-vascular-hyperintensities-in-predicting-cerebral-hyperperfusion-after-intracranial-arterial-stenting
#12
Chih-Cheng Wan, David Yen-Ting Chen, Ying-Chi Tseng, Feng-Xian Yan, Kun-Yu Lee, Chen-Hua Chiang, Chi-Jen Chen
PURPOSE: No reliable imaging sign predicting cerebral hyperperfusion after intracranial arterial stenting (IAS) had been described in the literature. This study evaluated the effect of fluid-attenuated inversion recovery vascular hyperintensities (FVHs), also called hyperintense vessel sign on T2-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (T2-FLAIR) MR images, in predicting significant increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) defined by arterial spin labeling (ASL) after IAS. METHODS: We reviewed ASL CBF images and T2-FLAIR MR images before (D0), 1 day after (D1), and 3 days after (D3) IAS of 16 patients...
July 8, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687423/an-increase-of-sigma-1-receptor-in-the-penumbra-neuron-after-acute-ischemic-stroke
#13
Xiaotian Zhang, Fangfang Wu, Yun Jiao, Tianyu Tang, Li Yang, Chunqiang Lu, Yanhong Zhang, Yuan Zhang, Ying Bai, Jie Chao, Gaojun Teng, Honghong Yao
BACKGROUND: Penumbra salvage from infarction by early reperfusion within the time window is the target of acute ischemic stroke therapies. Although the penumbral imaging is potently usable in clinic trial, additional work needs to be performed to advancing the field with better-defined, evaluated, and validated imaging measures. METHODS: Mice were subjected to permanent stroke by right middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Multimodel magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method was assessed to define the penumbra as that brain region in which the perfusion and diffusion-weighted MR images are mismatched (perfusion-weighted imaging [PWI]-diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI] mismatch)...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28684457/pericortical-enhancement-on-delayed-postgadolinium-fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery-images-in-normal-aging-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease
#14
W M Freeze, R S Schnerr, W M Palm, J F Jansen, H I Jacobs, E I Hoff, F R Verhey, W H Backes
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Breakdown of BBB integrity occurs in dementia and may lead to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. We assessed whether extravasation of gadolinium chelate could be visualized on delayed postcontrast FLAIR images in older individuals with and without cognitive impairment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventy-four individuals participated in this study (15 with Alzheimer disease, 33 with mild cognitive impairment, and 26 with normal cognition)...
July 6, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676888/spinal-cord-microstructure-integrating-phase-sensitive-inversion-recovery-and-diffusional-kurtosis-imaging
#15
V Panara, R Navarra, P A Mattei, E Piccirilli, A R Cotroneo, N Papinutto, R G Henry, A Uncini, M Caulo
PURPOSE: The aim of this prospective study was to determine the feasibility in terms of repeatability and reproducibility of diffusional kurtosis imaging (DKI) for microstructural assessment of the normal cervical spinal cord (cSC) using a phase-sensitive inversion recovery (PSIR) sequence as the anatomical reference for accurately defining white-matter (WM) and gray-matter (GM) regions of interests (ROIs). METHODS: Thirteen young healthy subjects were enrolled to undergo DKI and PSIR sequences in the cSC...
July 4, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673473/clinical-manifestations-and-imaging-tools-in-the-diagnosis-of-splanchnic-and-cerebral-vein-thromboses
#16
Nicoletta Riva, Walter Ageno
Splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) and cerebral vein thrombosis (CVT) are uncommon manifestation of venous thromboembolism (VTE), occurring less frequently than deep vein thrombosis of the lower extremities and pulmonary embolism. SVT encompasses portal vein thrombosis, mesenteric vein thrombosis, splenic vein thrombosis and the Budd-Chiari syndrome. It is therefore a heterogeneous disease, with differences in clinical manifestations according to the site of thrombosis. CVT includes thrombosis of the cortical or deep cerebral veins and thrombosis of the major dural venous sinuses...
June 27, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28670166/splenial-lesions-of-the-corpus-callosum-disease-spectrum-and-mri-findings
#17
Sung Eun Park, Dae Seob Choi, Hwa Seon Shin, Hye Jin Baek, Ho Cheol Choi, Ji Eun Kim, Hye Young Choi, Mi Jung Park
The corpus callosum (CC) is the largest white matter structure in the brain, consisting of more than 200-250 million axons that provide a large connection mainly between homologous cerebral cortical areas in mirror image sites. The posterior end of the CC is the thickest part, which is called the splenium. Various diseases including congenital to acquired lesions including congenital anomalies, traumatic lesions, ischemic diseases, tumors, metabolic, toxic, degenerative, and demyelinating diseases, can involve the splenium of the CC and their clinical symptoms and signs are also variable...
July 2017: Korean Journal of Radiology: Official Journal of the Korean Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664034/fully-automatic-acute-ischemic-lesion-segmentation-in-dwi-using-convolutional-neural-networks
#18
Liang Chen, Paul Bentley, Daniel Rueckert
Stroke is an acute cerebral vascular disease, which is likely to cause long-term disabilities and death. Acute ischemic lesions occur in most stroke patients. These lesions are treatable under accurate diagnosis and treatments. Although diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) is sensitive to these lesions, localizing and quantifying them manually is costly and challenging for clinicians. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to automatically segment stroke lesions in DWI. Our framework consists of two convolutional neural networks (CNNs): one is an ensemble of two DeconvNets (Noh et al...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664017/coexistence-of-quasi-moyamoya-disease-and-poems-syndrome-in-a-patient-with-intracranial-hemorrhage-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
Izumi Yamaguchi, Junichiro Satomi, Nobuaki Yamamoto, Shotaro Yoshioka, Yoshiteru Tada, Kenji Yagi, Yasuhisa Kanematsu, Shinji Nagahiro
POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes) syndrome is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome elicited by plasma cell dyscrasia. Its clinical manifestations are multiple and stroke is not a recognized feature. A 44-year-old woman with a 3-month history of bilateral lower extremity sensorimotor disturbance was admitted to our hospital. Examinations revealed polyneuropathy, organomegaly, hypothyroidism, monoclonal gammopathy, pelvic plasmacytoma, and elevated serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels...
January 2017: NMC Case Rep J
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654854/viscoelastic-power-law-parameters-of-in-vivo-human-brain-estimated-by-mr-elastography
#20
J Testu, M D J McGarry, F Dittmann, J B Weaver, K D Paulsen, I Sack, E E W Van Houten
The noninvasive imaging technique of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) was used to estimate the power law behavior of the viscoelastic properties of the human brain in vivo. The mechanical properties for four volunteers are investigated using shear waves induced over a frequency range of 10-50Hz to produce a displacement field measured by magnetic resonance motion-encoding gradients. The average storage modulus (μR) reconstructed with non-linear inversion (NLI) increased from approximately 0.95 to 2.58kPa over the 10-50Hz span; the average loss modulus (μI) also increased from 0...
June 21, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
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