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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526665/the-sensor-study-protocol-for-a-mixed-methods-study-of-self-management-checks-to-predict-exacerbations-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-patients-with-long-term-respiratory-conditions
#1
Claire Roberts, Thomas L Jones, Samal Gunatilake, Will Storrar, Scott Elliott, Sharon Glaysher, Ben Green, Steven Rule, Carole Fogg, Ann Dewey, Kevin A Auton, Anoop J Chauhan
BACKGROUND: There are an estimated three million people in the United Kingdom with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the incidence of bronchiectasis is estimated at around 0.1% but is more common in COPD and severe asthma. Both COPD and bronchiectasis are characterized by exacerbations in which bacteria play a central role. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is isolated from sputum samples from 4% to 15% of adults with COPD and is more likely to be isolated from patients with severe disease...
May 19, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523172/roles-of-roflumilast-a-selective-phosphodiesterase-4-inhibitor-in-airway-diseases
#2
REVIEW
Theerasuk Kawamatawong
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common chronic respiratory diseases. Both diseases have incompletely distinct pathophysiology, clinical manifestation, and treatment responsiveness. Pulmonary and systemic inflammations are the hallmarks of COPD. Most asthma responds to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment. In contrast, COPD is a corticosteroid-resistant disease. Bronchodilators are a preferred treatment method of COPD, with the aim of improving symptoms and preventing exacerbation...
April 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516352/air-pollution-and-respiratory-health-among-diabetic-and-non-diabetic-subjects-in-pune-india-results-from-the-wellcome-trust-genetic-study
#3
Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie, Sundeep Santosh Salvi, Chittaranjan Sakerlal Yajnik, Ajay Ojha, Behzad Khafaie, Sharad Damodar Gore
Diabetics may be more vulnerable to the harmful effects of ambient air pollutants than healthy individuals. But, the risk factors that lead to susceptibility to air pollution in diabetics have not yet been identified. We examined the effect of exposure to ambient PM10 on chronic symptoms and the pulmonary function tests (PFT) in diabetic and non-diabetic subjects. Also, to investigate possible determinants of susceptibility, we recruited 400 type 2 diabetic and 465 healthy subjects who were investigated for chronic respiratory symptoms (CRSs) and then underwent measurement of forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume 1 (FEV1) according to standard protocol...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506728/-the-effects-of-inhaled-steroids-withdrawal-in-copd
#4
G Jebrak, I Honore, P Serrier, J Dumoulin, P Terrioux, F Soyez, C Maurer, G Mangiapan, M Febvre, L-J Couderc, J-M Braun, T Chinet
The key pathophysiological feature of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an abnormal inflammatory bronchial reaction after inhalation of toxic substances. The priority is the avoidance of such toxic inhalations, but the use of anti-inflammatory drugs also seems appropriate, especially corticosteroids that are the sole anti-inflammatory drug available for this purpose in France. The risks associated with the prolonged use of these parenteral drugs are well known. Inhalation is therefore the optimal route, but inhaled drugs may also lead to adverse consequences...
May 12, 2017: Revue des Maladies Respiratoires
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502841/use-of-airway-epithelial-cell-culture-to-unravel-the-pathogenesis-and-study-treatment-in-obstructive-airway-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Tinne C J Mertens, Harry Karmouty-Quintana, Christian Taube, Pieter S Hiemstra
Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are considered as two distinct obstructive diseases. Both chronic diseases share a component of airway epithelial dysfunction. The airway epithelium is localized to deal with inhaled substances, and functions as a barrier preventing penetration of such substances into the body. In addition, the epithelium is involved in the regulation of both innate and adaptive immune responses following inhalation of particles, allergens and pathogens. Through triggering and inducing immune responses, airway epithelial cells contribute to the pathogenesis of both asthma and COPD...
May 11, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502165/grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-inhibits-mucin-synthesis-and-viral-replication-by-suppression-of-ap-1-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-via-p38-mapks-jnk-signaling-pathways-in-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infected-a549-cells
#6
Jin-Woo Lee, Young Il Kim, Chang-Nim Im, Sung Wan Kim, Su Jin Kim, Seoyeon Min, Yong Hoon Joo, Sung-Vin Yim, Namhyun Chung
Airway epithelial cells are often infected by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), one of the most common causes of asthma, bronchiolitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia. During the infection process, excessive mucins aggravate airway inflammation. However, the mechanism underlying RSV-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation is poorly understood. Furthermore, no reliable vaccines or drugs for antiviral therapy are available. In this study, the effect of the natural compound grape seed proanthocyanidin (GSP) on RSV-infected human airway epithelial cells A549 was evaluated...
May 15, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490870/pre-and-post-bronchodilator-airway-obstruction-are-associated-with-similar-clinical-characteristics-but-different-prognosis-report-from-a-population-based-study
#7
Sami Sawalha, Linnea Hedman, Eva Rönmark, Bo Lundbäck, Anne Lindberg
INTRODUCTION: According to guidelines, the diagnosis of COPD should be confirmed by post-bronchodilator (post-BD) airway obstruction on spirometry; however, in clinical practice, this is not always performed. The aim of this population-based study was to compare clinical characteristics and prognosis, assessed as mortality, between subjects with airway obstruction divided into pre- but not post-BD obstruction, post-BD airway obstruction (COPD), and subjects without airway obstruction...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487516/peak-flow-meter-with-a-questionnaire-and-mini-spirometer-to-help-detect-asthma-and-copd-in-real-life-clinical-practice-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
Yogesh T Thorat, Sundeep S Salvi, Rahul R Kodgule
Peak flow meter with questionnaire and mini-spirometer are considered as alternative tools to spirometry for screening of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the accuracy of these tools together, in clinical settings for disease diagnosis, has not been studied. Two hundred consecutive patients with respiratory complaints answered a short symptom questionnaire and performed peak expiratory flow measurements, standard spirometry with Koko spirometer and mini-spirometry (COPD-6). Spirometry was repeated after bronchodilation...
May 9, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482883/rescue-medication-use-as-a-patient-reported-outcome-in-copd-a-systematic-review-and-regression-analysis
#9
Yogesh Suresh Punekar, Sheetal Sharma, Ankit Pahwa, Jitender Takyar, Ian Naya, Paul W Jones
BACKGROUND: Reducing rescue medication use is a guideline-defined goal of asthma treatment, however, little is known about the validity of rescue medicine use as a marker of symptoms in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To improve patient outcomes, greater insight is needed into the relationship between rescue medication use and alternative COPD outcomes. METHODS: A systematic search of electronic databases (Embase®, MEDLINE® and Cochrane CENTRAL) was conducted from database start to 26 May, 2015...
May 8, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481637/hydrogen-sulfide-a-novel-player-in-airway-development-pathophysiology-of-respiratory-diseases-and-antiviral-defenses
#10
Nikolay Bazhanov, Maria Ansar, Teodora Ivanciuc, Roberto P Garofalo, Antonella Casola
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a biologically relevant signaling molecule in mammals. Together with the volatile substances nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), H2S is defined as a gasotransmitter, playing a physiological role in a variety of functions such as synaptic transmission, vascular tone, angiogenesis, inflammation and cellular signaling. The generation of H2S is catalyzed by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and 3 mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST). The expression of CBS and CSE is tissue-specific with CBS being expressed predominantly in the brain and CSE in peripheral tissues, including lungs...
May 8, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475040/model-based-estimation-of-respiratory-parameters-from-capnography-with-application-to-diagnosing-obstructive-lung-disease
#11
Abubakar Abid, Rebecca J Mieloszyk, George C Verghese, Baruch S Krauss, Thomas Heldt
OBJECTIVE: We use a single-alveolar-compartment model to describe the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in exhaled breath, as recorded in time-based capnography. Respiratory parameters are estimated using this model and then related to the clinical status of patients with obstructive lung disease. METHODS: Given appropriate assumptions, we derive an analytical solution of the model, describing the exhalation segment of the capnogram. This solution is parametrized by alveolar CO2 concentration, dead-space fraction, and the time constant associated with exhalation...
May 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474651/squat-to-stand-test-in-functional-assessment-of-stable-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients
#12
Prahlad Rai Gupta, Asif Feroz, Sachet Dawar, Harshdeep Bhangoo, Shivani Swami, T K Khublani
BACKGROUND: Assessment of functional status is vital for proper therapy and rehabilitation programs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Traditionally, 6 min walk test (6MWT) has been used but it by itself may not reflect the total functional status in these patients as it poorly correlates to the disease severity. A sit-to-stand test (STST) has been proposed as a better alternative to 6MWT but to test their ability to stand from the squatting position, i.e., a squat-to-stand test (SqTST) will be more appropriate in rural patients...
May 2017: Lung India: Official Organ of Indian Chest Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472184/lung-function-decline-in-subjects-with-and-without-copd-in-a-population-based-cohort-in-latin-america
#13
Rogelio Pérez-Padilla, Rosario Fernandez-Plata, Maria Montes de Oca, Maria Victorina Lopez-Varela, Jose R Jardim, Adriana Muiño, Gonzalo Valdivia, Ana Maria B Menezes
BACKGROUND: Lung-function decline is one of the possible mechanisms leading to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). METHODS: We analyzed data obtained from two population-based surveys of adults (n = 2026) conducted in the same individuals 5-9 years (y) after their baseline examination in three Latin-American cities. Post BronchoDilator (postBD) FEV1 decline in mL/y, as %predicted/y (%P/y) and % of baseline/y (%B/y) was calculated and the influence of age, gender, BMI, baseline lung function, BD response, exacerbations rate evaluated using multivariate models...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462763/economic-burden-of-diagnosed-pertussis-among-individuals-with-asthma-or-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-in-the-usa-an-analysis-of-administrative-claims
#14
P O Buck, J L Meyers, L-D Gordon, R Parikh, S K Kurosky, K L Davis
Individuals with chronic respiratory conditions may be at increased risk for pertussis. We conducted a retrospective administrative claims analysis to examine the incidence and economic burden of diagnosed pertussis among adolescents and adults in the USA with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or asthma. Patients aged ⩾11 years with diagnosed pertussis and pre-existing COPD (n = 343) or asthma (n = 1041) were matched 1:1 to patients with diagnosed pertussis but without COPD or asthma. Differences in all-cause costs ('excess' costs) during the 45-day and 3-month and 6-month periods before and after the pertussis index date were calculated; adjusted excess costs were estimated via multivariate regressions...
May 2, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461294/asthma-and-smoking-induced-airway-disease-without-spirometric-copd
#15
REVIEW
Neil C Thomson
Due to the high prevalence rates of cigarette smoking and asthma, current and ex-smokers frequently develop chronic airway disease without spirometric evidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), either alone or associated with asthma. This review considers the classification, clinical outcomes, inflammatory and imaging variables, phenotypes, and management of current and ex-smokers with airway disease without COPD, focusing on overlaps in those with and without asthma. These individuals have more respiratory symptoms, worse quality of life, increased exacerbation rates, reduced lung function and more comorbidities than never-smokers with asthma or healthy never-smokers...
May 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459697/early-detection-of-peak-demand-days-of-chronic-respiratory-diseases-emergency-department-visits-using-artificial-neural-networks
#16
Krishan Lal Khatri, Lakshman Tamil
Chronic Respiratory diseases, mainly asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), affect the lives of people by limiting their activities in various aspects. Overcrowding of hospital emergency departments (EDs) due to respiratory diseases in certain weather and environmental pollution conditions results in the degradation of quality of medical care, and even limits its availability. A useful tool for ED managers would be to forecast peak demand days so that they can take steps to improve the availability of medical care...
April 26, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458533/the-association-between-risk-of-airflow-limitation-and-serum-uric-acid-measured-at-medical-health-check-ups
#17
Atsuro Fukuhara, Junpei Saito, Suguru Sato, Kazue Saito, Naoko Fukuhara, Yoshinori Tanino, Xintao Wang, Katsuaki Rinno, Hitoshi Suzuki, Mitsuru Munakata
The prevalence of COPD and asthma is increasing all over the world; however, their morbidities are thought to be greatly underestimated because of unawareness of patients' conditions and respiratory symptoms. Spirometry is useful for the early detection of COPD and asthma with airflow limitation (AL), although it is not yet widely used for screening in epidemiological and primary care settings. A simple predictive marker used in combination with spirometry for AL is expected to be established. In medical health check-ups, serum uric acid (s-UA) is measured when screening for gout and has recently been suggested to have an association with several respiratory disorders, including asthma and COPD...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455714/macrophage-dysfunction-in-respiratory-disease
#18
Kylie B R Belchamber, Louise E Donnelly
In the healthy lung, macrophages maintain homeostasis by clearing inhaled particles, bacteria, and removing apoptotic cells from the local pulmonary environment. However, in respiratory diseases including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, and cystic fibrosis, macrophages appear to be dysfunctional and may contribute to disease pathogenesis. In COPD, phagocytosis of bacterial species and apoptotic cells by both alveolar macrophages and monocyte-derived macrophages is significantly reduced, leading to colonization of the lung with pathogenic bacteria...
2017: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448027/dry-powder-and-nebulized-aerosol-inhalation-of-pharmaceuticals-delivered-to-mice-using-a-nose-only-exposure-system
#19
Jonathan E Phillips, Xuxia Zhang, James A Johnston
Obstructive respiratory diseases like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are currently treated by inhaled anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator drugs. Despite the availability of multiple treatments, both diseases are growing public health concerns. The majority of asthma patients are well controlled on current inhaled therapies but a substantial number of patients with severe asthma are not. Asthma affects an estimated 300 million people worldwide and approximately 20 percent have a severe form of the disease...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440535/socioeconomic-status-and-its-relationship-to-chronic-respiratory-disease
#20
Sonu Sahni, Ankoor Talwar, Sameer Khanijo, Arunabh Talwar
Socioeconomic status (SES) is defined as an individual's social or economic standing, and is a measure of an individual's or family's social or economic position or rank in a social group. It is a composite of several measures including income, education, occupation, location of residence or housing. Studies have found a lower SES has been linked to disproportionate access to health care in many diseases. There is emerging data in pulmonary diseases such as COPD, asthma, cystic fibrosis, pulmonary hypertension and other chronic respiratory conditions that allude to a similar observation noted in other chronic diseases...
2017: Advances in Respiratory Medicine
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