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Takuya Yoshioka, Kazuma Murakami, Kyohei Ido, Mizuho Hanaki, Kanoko Yamaguchi, Satohiro Midorikawa, Shinji Taniwaki, Hiroki Gunji, Kazuhiro Irie
Oligomers of the 42-mer amyloid-β protein (Aβ42), rather than fibrils, cause synaptic dysfunction in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The nucleation phase in a nucleation-dependent aggregation model of Aβ42 is related to the formation of oligomers. Uncaria rhynchophylla is one component of "Yokukansan", a Kampo medicine, which is widely used for treating AD symptoms. Previously, an extract of U. rhynchophylla was found to reduce the aggregation of Aβ42, but its active principles have yet to be identified...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Natural Products
Hiromi Soraoka, Kentaro Oniki, Kazuki Matsuda, Tatsumasa Ono, Kosuke Taharazako, Yoshihiro Uchiyashiki, Ryoko Kamihashi, Ayana Kita, Ayaka Takashima, Kazuko Nakagawa, Norio Yasui-Furukori, Daisuke Kadowaki, Keishi Miyata, Junji Saruwatari
The concomitant use of herb and prescription medications is increasing globally. Herb-drug interactions are therefore a clinically important problem. Yokukansan (YKS), a Japanese traditional herbal medicine, is one of the most frequently used herbal medicines. It is effective for treating the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. We investigated the potential effects of YKS on drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in humans. An open-label repeat-dose study was conducted in 26 healthy Japanese male volunteers (age: 22...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Shinji Matsunaga, Taro Kishi, Nakao Iwata
BACKGROUND: Previous clinical studies found that yokukansan has a therapeutic effect on behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in dementia patients. OBJECTIVE: To perform an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing yokukansan for patients with BPSD. METHODS: Primary efficacy and safety endpoints were BPSD total scores and all-cause discontinuation, respectively. Secondary outcomes were BPSD subscales, cognitive function scores [Mini-mental state examination (MMSE)], activities of daily living (ADL) scores, discontinuation due to adverse events (AEs), and incidences of AEs...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Yasushi Ikarashi, Kazushige Mizoguchi
Dementia is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with cognitive dysfunction, and is often complicated by behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) including excitement, aggression, and hallucinations. Typical and atypical antipsychotics are used for the treatment of BPSD, but induce adverse events. The traditional Japanese Kampo medicine yokukansan (YKS), which had been originated from the traditional Chinese medicine Yi-Gan-San, has been reported to improve BPSD without severe adverse effects...
October 2016: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Haruna Tamano, Enya Yusuke, Kazuki Ide, Atsushi Takeda
We examined the effect of Yokukansankachimpihange (YKSCH), a form of Yokukansan containing parts of two herbaceous plants, Citrus Unshiu Peel (Chimpi) and Pinellia Tuber (Hange), on aggressive behavior of mice housed individually. Mice were fed a zinc-deficient diet for 2 weeks. In a resident-intruder test, the cumulative duration of aggressive behavior was decreased in zinc-deficient mice administrated drinking water containing YKSCH (approximately 300 mg/kg body weight/day) for 2 weeks. We tested mice for geissoschizine methyl ether (GM), which is contained in Uncaria Hook, and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid (GA), a major metabolite of glycyrrhizin contained in Glycyrrhiza, which were contained in YKS and YKSCH...
May 30, 2016: Experimental Animals
Jiahong Sun, Xuefang Ren, Wen Qi, Dan Yuan, James W Simpkins
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The rate of production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is determined by mitochondrial metabolic rate. In turn, excessive ROS damage mitochondrial function, which is linked to aging and neurodegenerative conditions. One possible path to prevent oxidative stress could be achieved by reducing mitochondrial respiration in favor of less efficient ATP production via glycolysis. Such a shift in energy metabolism is known as the 'Warburg effect'. Geissoschizine methyl ether (GM) is one of the active components responsible for the psychotropic effects of Yokukansan, an herbal preparation widely used in China and Japan...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Rei Wake, Tsuyoshi Miyaoka, Motohide Furuya, Sadayuki Hashioka, Jun Horiguchi
A neuropsychiatric syndrome, Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is qualified via impairments in qualitative communication, social interaction, and stereotyped or restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities. While all ASDs are considered to have qualitative deficits in social relatedness to others, many people with ASDs have other symptoms, including irritability (which includes aggression, self-injurious behavior, and severe tantrums). In order to decrease these behaviors, it is often helpful to make use of behavioral therapy...
2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Kenji Takeyoshi, Masatake Kurita, Satoshi Nishino, Mika Teranishi, Yukio Numata, Tadahiro Sato, Yoshiro Okubo
Although three drugs, risperidone, yokukansan, and fluvoxamine, have shown equal efficacy in treating behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) in our previous study, their mechanisms of action are different from one another. Monoamines have attracted attention for their key roles in mediating several behavioral symptoms or psychological symptoms through synaptic signaling. We aimed to clarify the monoamines changed by treatment with each drug in patients with BPSD. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites are correlated with pharmacological treatments...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Koji Nishijima, Genichi Nishimura
Operative stress causes various changes in the body, and immunological hypofunction and malnutrition increase complications and adversely affect long-term prognosis. Therefore, reducing operative stress as much as possible, minimizing complications after surgery, and aiming for a satisfactory postoperative course are important. However, difficult and unresolvable situations often arise when only the conventional Western medicine approach is used because the situation and condition varies for each patient. We believe that Kampo medicine is very useful in diverse situations...
December 2015: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Yasushi Ishida, Kosuke Ebihara, Masahiro Tabuchi, Sachiko Imamura, Kyoji Sekiguchi, Kazushige Mizoguchi, Yoshio Kase, Go Koganemaru, Hiroshi Abe, Yasushi Ikarashi
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the traditional Japanese medicine yokukansan (YKS) on the function of dopamine (DA) in the rat nigrostriatal system. Unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesions were produced in the rat nigrostriatal system. Despite a marked loss in the striatal immunoreactivity of tyrosine hydroxylase on the lesion side, striatal serotonin (5-HT) immunoreactivity was not affected. Treatment using L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA) in conjunction with benserazide for 15 d induced abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) such as locomotive (rotational response), axial, forelimb, and orolingual movements in the lesioned rats...
2016: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Katsutoshi Furukawa, Naoki Tomita, Daisuke Uematsu, Kazunori Okahara, Hiroyuki Shimada, Masaki Ikeda, Toshifumi Matsui, Koichi Kozaki, Masahiko Fujii, Tatsuji Ogawa, Hiroyuki Umegaki, Katsuya Urakami, Hiroshi Nomura, Naoto Kobayashi, Aki Nakanishi, Yukihiro Washimi, Hisashi Yonezawa, Satoshi Takahashi, Masaharu Kubota, Yosuke Wakutani, Daisuke Ito, Takahiro Sasaki, Etsuro Matsubara, Kaori Une, Aiko Ishiki, Yukie Yahagi, Mikio Shoji, Hiroyasu Sato, Yasuo Terayama, Masafumi Kuzuya, Nobuo Araki, Manabu Kodama, Takuhiro Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki Arai
AIM: Yokukansan (YKS), a traditional herbal medicine, has been used to treat behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD). The present study is the first double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial to determine the efficacy and safety of YKS for the treatment of BPSD in Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: A total of 22 sites consisting of clinics, hospitals and nursing homes participated. A total of 145 patients with AD were randomized. Active YKS (7...
December 29, 2015: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Toshiyuki Ueki, Kazushige Mizoguchi, Takuji Yamaguchi, Akinori Nishi, Yasushi Ikarashi, Tomohisa Hattori, Yoshio Kase
The traditional Japanese medicine yokukansan has an anxiolytic effect, which occurs after repeated administration. In this study, to investigate the underlying mechanisms, we examined the effects of repeated yokukansan administration on serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) receptor density and affinity and its expression at both mRNA and protein levels in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) of socially isolated mice. Moreover, we examined the effects of yokukansan on a 5-HT1A receptor-mediated behavioral response. Male mice were subjected to social isolation stress for 6 weeks and simultaneously treated with yokukansan...
2015: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Yuko Ogawa, Yuuko Fujii, Reina Sugiyama, Tenji Konishi
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Yokukansan is a traditional Japanese "Kampo" medicine derived from Yi-Gan San in traditional Chinese medicine. Many studies have been published on its effects and mechanisms. In this study, we focused on the sleep-promoting effects of Yokukansan. AIM OF THE STUDY: Yokukansan composes of seven crude drugs: Uncaria Hook, Bupleurm Root, Cnidium Rhizome, Japanese Angelica Root, Poria Sclerotium, Atractylodes Lancea Rhizome, and Glycyrrhiza...
January 11, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Kojiro Yamaguchi
This article highlights several refractory oral diseases, such as stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome (BMS), glossalgia, atypical facial pain (AFP), oral cancer, dry mouth, and Sjögren's syndrome (SJS), in which use of Japanese herbal medicines, Kampo medicines (KM), on the basis of Kampo theory could exert the maximum effects on human body. (1) In acute stomatitis, heat because of agitated vital energy may affect the head, chest, and middle abdominal region. Stomatitis is also related to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
2015: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Takashi Matsumoto, Hirotaka Kushida, Takeshi Maruyama, Hiroaki Nishimura, Junko Watanabe, Kazuya Maemura, Yoshio Kase
1. Yokukansan (YKS) is a traditional Japanese medicine also called kampo, which has been used to treat neurosis, insomnia, and night crying and peevishness in children. Geissoschizine methyl ether (GM), a major indole alkaloid found in Uncaria hook, has been identified as a major active component of YKS with psychotropic effects. Recently, GM was reported to have a partial agonistic effect on serotonin 5-HT1A receptors. However, there is little published information on GM metabolism in humans, although several studies reported the blood kinetics of GM in rats and humans...
2016: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Shinji Kamei, Hideaki Kaneto, Shintaro Irie, Tomoe Kinoshita, Akihito Tanabe, Hidenori Hirukawa, Fuminori Tatsumi, Masashi Shimoda, Kenji Kohara, Tomoatsu Mune, Kohei Kaku
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2015: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Hiroyuki Kitagawa, Masaya Munekage, Kengo Ichikawa, Ian Fukudome, Eri Munekage, Yuka Takezaki, Takashi Matsumoto, Yasushi Igarashi, Haruo Hanyu, Kazuhiro Hanazaki
CONTEXT: Yokukansan (YKS) is a traditional Japanese herbal medicine called kampo medicine in Japan. Its extract comprises seven crude drugs: Atractylodis lanceae rhizoma, Poria, Cnidii rhizoma, Uncariae uncis cum ramulus, Angelicae radix, Bupleuri radix, and Glycyrrhizae radix. YKS is used to treat neurosis, insomnia, as well as behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia. OBJECTIVE: To confirm the exposure and pharmacokinetics of the active components of YKS in healthy volunteers...
2015: PloS One
Shoko Shimizu, Takashi Tanaka, Takashi Takeda, Masaya Tohyama, Shingo Miyata
It is well known that glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling regulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and GR expression level is associated with HPA axis activity. Recent studies revealed that microRNA- (miR-) 18 and/or 124a are candidate negative regulators of GR in the brain. The Kampo medicine Yokukansan (YKS) can affect psychological symptoms such as depression and anxiety that are associated with stress responses. In this study, we evaluated the effect of YKS on miR-18 and 124a and GR levels in mice exposed to stress...
2015: BioMed Research International
Chris Stinton, Ian McKeith, John-Paul Taylor, Louise Lafortune, Eneida Mioshi, Elijah Mak, Victoria Cambridge, James Mason, Alan Thomas, John T O'Brien
OBJECTIVE: The authors examined research on effects, costs, and patient and caregiver views of pharmacological management strategies for Lewy body dementia. METHOD: Studies were identified through bibliographic databases, trials registers, gray literature, reference lists, and experts. The authors used the search terms "Lewy or parkinson" and "dementia" through March 2015 and used the following inclusion criteria: participants with diagnoses of Lewy body dementia, dementia with Lewy bodies, or Parkinson's disease dementia (or participants' caregivers); investigation of pharmacological management strategies; outcome measures and test scores reported...
August 1, 2015: American Journal of Psychiatry
Tsuyoshi Miyaoka, Motohide Furuya, Jun Horiguchi, Rei Wake, Sadayuki Hashioka, Masaya Thoyama, Kenta Murotani, Norio Mori, Yoshio Minabe, Masaomi Iyo, Shuichi Ueno, Sachiko Ezoe, Syuzo Hoshino, Haruo Seno
Objectives. We aimed at evaluating both the efficacy and safety of TJ-54 (Yokukansan) in patients with treatment-resistant schizophrenia. This randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted. Methods. One hundred and twenty antipsychotic-treated inpatients were included. Patients were randomized to adjuvant treatment with TJ-54 or placebo. During a 4-week follow-up, psychopathology was assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results. TJ-54 showed a tendency of being superior to placebo in reduction total, positive, and general PANSS scores in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but the difference was not statistically significant in both per-protocol set (PPS) and intention-to-treat (ITT)...
2015: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
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