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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562262/safety-profile-of-cough-and-cold-medication-use-in-pediatrics
#1
Jody L Green, George Sam Wang, Kate M Reynolds, William Banner, G Randall Bond, Ralph E Kauffman, Robert B Palmer, Ian M Paul, Richard C Dart
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The safety of cough and cold medication (CCM) use in children has been questioned. We describe the safety profile of CCMs in children <12 years of age from a multisystem surveillance program. METHODS: Cases with adverse events (AEs) after ingestion of at least 1 index CCM ingredient (brompheniramine, chlorpheniramine, dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, doxylamine, guaifenesin, phenylephrine, and pseudoephedrine) in children <12 years of age were collected from 5 data sources...
May 4, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466395/over-the-counter-medications-containing-diphenhydramine-and-doxylamine-used-by-older-adults-to-improve-sleep
#2
Olufunmilola Abraham, Loren Schleiden, Steven M Albert
Background The unintentional misuse of over-the-counter sleep aids among older adults is an important public health problem and a focus of Healthy People 2020. Accordingly, the 2015 Beers Criteria for Potentially Inappropriate Medication Use in Older Adults recommends that individuals 65 years or older avoid use of diphenhydramine and doxylamine; however, many over-the-counter sleep products contain these active ingredients. Objective To identify the proportion of older adults using an over-the-counter medication containing diphenhydramine or doxylamine, and compare their characteristics with older adults using an over-the-counter medication that does not contain these ingredients...
May 2, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220993/antiemetic-use-among-pregnant-women-in-the-united-states-the-escalating-use-of-ondansetron
#3
Lockwood G Taylor, Steven T Bird, Leyla Sahin, Melissa S Tassinari, Patty Greene, Marsha E Reichman, Susan E Andrade, Katherine Haffenreffer, Sengwee Toh
PURPOSE: To examine ondansetron use in pregnancy in the context of other antiemetic use among a large insured United States population of women delivering live births. METHODS: We assessed ondansetron and other antiemetic use among pregnant women delivering live births between 2001 and 2015 in 15 data partners contributing data to the Mini-Sentinel Distributed Database. We identified live birth pregnancies using a validated algorithm, and all forms of ondansetron and other available antiemetics were identified using National Drug Codes or procedure codes...
February 21, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090157/pharmaceutical-approval-update
#4
Mary Choy
Olaratumab (Lartruvo) for the treatment of soft tissue sarcoma; bezlotoxumab (Zinplava) for use with an antibiotic to reduce recurrence of C. difficile infection; and doxylamine succinate/pyridoxine hydrochloride (Bonjesta) for the treatment of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.
January 2017: P & T: a Peer-reviewed Journal for Formulary Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070660/treatment-options-for-hyperemesis-gravidarum
#5
REVIEW
Amy Abramowitz, Emily S Miller, Katherine L Wisner
Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) is a severe and prolonged form of nausea and/or vomiting during pregnancy. HG affects 0.3-2% of pregnancies and is defined by dehydration, ketonuria, and more than 5% body weight loss. Initial pharmacologic treatment for HG includes a combination of doxylamine and pyridoxine. Additional interventions include ondansetron or dopamine antagonists such as metoclopramide or promethazine. The options are limited for women who are not adequately treated with these medications. We suggest that mirtazapine is a useful drug in this context and its efficacy has been described in case studies...
June 2017: Archives of Women's Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052111/8-way-randomized-controlled-trial-of-doxylamine-pyridoxine-and-dicyclomine-for-nausea-and-vomiting-during-pregnancy-restoration-of-unpublished-information
#6
Rujun Zhang, Navindra Persaud
OBJECTIVES: We report information about an unpublished 1970s study ("8-way" Bendectin Study) that aimed to evaluate the relative therapeutic efficacy of doxylamine, pyridoxine, and dicyclomine in the management of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. We are publishing the trial's findings according to the restoring invisible and abandoned trials (RIAT) initiative because the trial was never published. DESIGN: Double blinded, multi-centred, randomized placebo-controlled study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035699/lack-of-respiratory-depression-in-paracetamol-codeine-combination-overdoses
#7
Simon P E Heppell, Geoffrey K Isbister
AIMS: Codeine containing analgesics are commonly taken in overdose, but the frequency of respiratory depression is unknown. We investigated whether paracetamol-codeine combination overdoses caused respiratory depression more than paracetamol alone. METHODS: We reviewed deliberate self-poisoning admissions with paracetamol (>2 g) and paracetamol-codeine combinations presenting to a tertiary toxicology unit (1987-2013). Demographic information, clinical effects, treatment (naloxone, length of stay [LOS], mechanical ventilation) were extracted from a prospective database...
June 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881103/demonstration-of-early-efficacy-results-of-the-delayed-release-combination-of-doxylamine-pyridoxine-for-the-treatment-of-nausea-and-vomiting-of-pregnancy
#8
Gideon Koren, Shannon Clark, Gary D V Hankins, Steve N Caritis, Jason G Umans, Menachem Miodovnik, Donald R Mattison, Ilan Matok
BACKGROUND: Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) affects up to 80% of expecting mothers. In April 2013 the FDA approved the delayed-release combination of doxylamine succinate and pyridoxine hydrochloride (Diclegis®) for NVP, based in part, on the results of a phase III randomized trial demonstrating the efficacy of this drug combination [study drug marketed under the trade name Diclectin® in Canada and Diclegis® in the United States] compared to placebo in pregnant women. Study drug dosing occurred for 14 days, which is substantially longer than what has been performed in similar studies...
November 24, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798077/a-fatality-related-to-the-synthetic-opioid-u-47700-postmortem-concentration-distribution
#9
Iain M McIntyre, Ray D Gary, Sandra Joseph, Robert Stabley
In this case report, we present an evaluation of the distribution of postmortem concentrations of 3,4-dichloro-N-[2-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]-N-methylbenzamide (U-47700) in a fatality attributed principally to the drug. A man who had a history of drug abuse was found unresponsive and not breathing on his bed. Drug paraphernalia, indicating drug insufflation, was located in the decedent's room. Toxicology screening tests in peripheral blood initially identified U-47700 using an alkaline drug screen with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) following solid-phase extraction...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27731292/treatments-for-hyperemesis-gravidarum-and-nausea-and-vomiting-in-pregnancy-a-systematic-review-and-economic-assessment
#10
Amy O'Donnell, Catherine McParlin, Stephen C Robson, Fiona Beyer, Eoin Moloney, Andrew Bryant, Jennifer Bradley, Colin Muirhead, Catherine Nelson-Piercy, Dorothy Newbury-Birch, Justine Norman, Emma Simpson, Brian Swallow, Laura Yates, Luke Vale
BACKGROUND: Nausea and vomiting in pregnancy (NVP) affects up to 85% of all women during pregnancy, but for the majority self-management suffices. For the remainder, symptoms are more severe and the most severe form of NVP - hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) - affects 0.3-1.0% of pregnant women. There is no widely accepted point at which NVP becomes HG. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of treatments for NVP and HG...
October 2016: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701665/treatments-for-hyperemesis-gravidarum-and-nausea-and-vomiting-in-pregnancy-a-systematic-review
#11
REVIEW
Catherine McParlin, Amy O'Donnell, Stephen C Robson, Fiona Beyer, Eoin Moloney, Andrew Bryant, Jennifer Bradley, Colin R Muirhead, Catherine Nelson-Piercy, Dorothy Newbury-Birch, Justine Norman, Caroline Shaw, Emma Simpson, Brian Swallow, Laura Yates, Luke Vale
Importance: Nausea and vomiting affects approximately 85% of pregnant women. The most severe form, hyperemesis gravidarum, affects up to 3% of women and can have significant adverse physical and psychological sequelae. Objective: To summarize current evidence on effective treatments for nausea and vomiting in pregnancy and hyperemesis gravidarum. Evidence Review: Databases were searched to June 8, 2016. Relevant websites and bibliographies were also searched...
October 4, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512487/ondansetron-and-pregnancy-understanding-the-data
#12
REVIEW
Debra Kennedy
Nausea and vomiting of pregnancy (NVP) is a common condition affecting 75% of pregnant women. NVP generally commences early in the first trimester, peaking in severity between 7 and 12 weeks and in over 90% symptoms will have abated by week 20. Thus, the time when women are most likely to have NVP and require treatment coincides with the embryonic period when there is maximum susceptibility to any teratogenic risk. Following the thalidomide tragedy of 55 years ago there is a particular awareness and sensitivity about these potential risks, especially in relation to any medication used to treat NVP...
March 2016: Obstetric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404374/development-and-validation-of-a-generic-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-for-the-simultaneous-separation-and-determination-of-six-cough-ingredients-robustness-study-on-core-shell-particles
#13
Ali Mohamed Yehia, Hebatallah Mohamed Essam
A generally applicable high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the qualitative and quantitative determination of pharmaceutical preparations containing phenylephrine hydrochloride, paracetamol, ephedrine hydrochloride, guaifenesin, doxylamine succinate, and dextromethorphan hydrobromide is developed. Optimization of chromatographic conditions was performed for the gradient elution using different buffer pH values, flow rates and two C18 stationary phases. The method was developed using a Kinetex® C18 column as a core-shell stationary phase with a gradient profile using buffer pH 5...
September 2016: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27015372/detection-of-drugs-in-275-alcohol-positive-blood-samples-of-korean-drivers
#14
Eunmi Kim, Sanggil Choe, Juseon Lee, Moonhee Jang, Hyeyoung Choi, Heesun Chung
Since driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) is as dangerous as drink-driving, many countries regulate DUID by law. However, laws against the use of drugs while driving are not yet established in Korea. In order to investigate the type and frequency of drugs used by drivers in Korea, we analyzed controlled and non-controlled drugs in alcohol-positive blood samples. Total 275 blood samples were taken from Korean drivers, which were positive in roadside alcohol testing. The following analyses were performed: blood alcohol concentrations by GC; screening for controlled drugs by immunoassay and confirmation for positive samples by GC-MS...
August 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26945835/assessment-and-comparison-of-vitreous-humor-as-an-alternative-matrix-for-forensic-toxicology-screening-by-gc-ms
#15
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Imir G Metushi, Robert L Fitzgerald, Iain M McIntyre
Alternative specimens have been occasionally considered as substitutes for whole blood for postmortem toxicology testing. We studied the applicability of vitreous humor, and evaluated whether it would be suitable to replace (or augment) whole blood for routine drug screening. Results showed that from 51 autopsy cases, we were able to identify an aggregate of 209 findings in whole blood compared with 169 in vitreous. The total number of compounds identified was 71 for whole blood and 60 for vitreous humor. Quantitative analysis showed that whole-blood concentrations of trazodone were several fold higher than vitreous humor concentrations (1...
May 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26657408/enantioseparation-of-six-antihistamines-with-immobilized-cellulose-chiral-stationary-phase-by-hplc
#16
Jie Zhou, Pei Luo, Shanshan Chen, Lingchang Meng, Chong Sun, Qiuzheng Du, Fang Sun
A stereoselective high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed for the chiral separation of the enantiomers of six antihistamines, doxylamine, carbinoxamine, dioxopromethazine, oxomemazine, cetirizine and hydroxyzine. The effects of mobile phase additive, column temperature and flow rate on the retention time and resolution were studied. Enantiomeric separation of cetirizine, doxylamine and hydroxyzine were achieved on cellulose tris-(3,5-dichlorophenylcarbamate) immobilized on silica gel chiral stationary phase known as Chiralpak IC (RS = 3...
April 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26511271/sleep-health-and-appropriate-use-of-otc-sleep-aids-in-older-adults-recommendations-of-a-gerontological-society-of-america-workgroup
#17
Steven M Albert, Thomas Roth, Michael Toscani, Michael V Vitiello, Phyllis Zee
Getting a good night's sleep can be challenging for older adults with chronic medical conditions, which often interfere with sleep. As a result, many older adults turn to over-the-counter (OTC) sleep aids, that is, products with diphenhydramine or doxylamine. However, these products are indicated only for occasional difficulty with sleep, not for chronic use; and their safety and efficacy has not been well established in general and in older adults specifically. To engage national stakeholders in a discussion of OTC sleep aids in older adults, the Gerontological Society of America (GSA) convened a multidisciplinary workgroup...
October 28, 2015: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26469132/effect-of-oxidation-on-amine-based-pharmaceutical-degradation-and-n-nitrosodimethylamine-formation
#18
Xiaofeng Wang, Hongwei Yang, Beihai Zhou, Xiaomao Wang, Yuefeng Xie
Four pharmaceuticals (ranitidine, nizatidine, doxylamine, and carbinoxamine) were selected as model compounds to assess the efficiency of four oxidants (ozone (O3), chlorine (Cl2), chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and potassium permanganate (KMnO4)) on the removal of amine-based pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), as well as the reduction of their N-Nitrosodimethylamine formation potentials (NDMAFPs). The changes in PPCPs and their NDMAFPs during oxidation were quantified using various oxidants and dosages...
December 15, 2015: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26348534/interventions-for-nausea-and-vomiting-in-early-pregnancy
#19
REVIEW
Anne Matthews, David M Haas, Dónal P O'Mathúna, Therese Dowswell
BACKGROUND: Nausea, retching and vomiting are very commonly experienced by women in early pregnancy. There are considerable physical, social and psychological effects on women who experience these symptoms. This is an update of a review of interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy last published in 2014. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of all interventions for nausea, vomiting and retching in early pregnancy, up to 20 weeks' gestation...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26243801/toxicology-findings-in-cases-of-hanging-in-the-city-and-county-of-san-francisco-over-the-3-year-period-from-2011-to-2013
#20
A C San Nicolas, N P Lemos
In postmortem cases where the cause of death is hanging, toxicological analyses may be considered unnecessary by some medical examiners, toxicologists, and other persons involved in medico-legal investigations because the cause of death seems "obvious." To ascertain if toxicological analyses are necessary when the cause of death is hanging, all 102 hanging cases (25 females; 77 males) from 2011 to 2013 that came under the jurisdiction of the San Francisco Office of the Chief Medical Examiner were examined from a total of 3912 sudden, unexpected, or violent death cases in the same period...
October 2015: Forensic Science International
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