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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441635/validation-of-smartrank-a-likelihood-ratio-software-for-searching-national-dna-databases-with-complex-dna-profiles
#1
Corina C G Benschop, Linda van de Merwe, Jeroen de Jong, Vanessa Vanvooren, Morgane Kempenaers, C P Kees van der Beek, Filippo Barni, Eusebio López Reyes, Léa Moulin, Laurent Pene, Hinda Haned, Titia Sijen
Searching a national DNA database with complex and incomplete profiles usually yields very large numbers of possible matches that can present many candidate suspects to be further investigated by the forensic scientist and/or police. Current practice in most forensic laboratories consists of ordering these 'hits' based on the number of matching alleles with the searched profile. Thus, candidate profiles that share the same number of matching alleles are not differentiated and due to the lack of other ranking criteria for the candidate list it may be difficult to discern a true match from the false positives or notice that all candidates are in fact false positives...
April 15, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441103/perceptions-of-abusive-parenting-behaviors-a-preliminary-exploration-into-the-underrecognition-of-mother-daughter-sexual-abuse
#2
Christine J Hatchard, Jamie L Goodwin, Eryn Siddall, Lauren Muniz
The current study examined the influence of the sex of the parent and the sex of the child on perceptions of sexually abusive behaviors. Vignettes illustrating different forms of sexual abuse were rated by 124 participants, with the different parent-child pairs (mother-daughter, mother-son, father-daughter, father-son) substituted into the vignettes being the only difference between groups. Two-way between subjects ANOVAs revealed that sexually abusive behaviors by mothers were perceived as less damaging to child victims (F (1, 120 = 7...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Child Sexual Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437730/the-practice-of-prosecuting-child-maltreatment-results-of-an-online-survey-of-prosecutors
#3
Theodore P Cross, Debra Whitcomb
Despite efforts by advocates, practitioners, and legislators to alleviate the burden on child maltreatment victims in the criminal justice system, many challenges remain for prosecutors as they seek to hold offenders accountable while minimizing the emotional impact on children. More than 200 state and local prosecutors in 37 states responded to an online survey to share their perspectives on current challenges, procedures to support children in the adjudication process, and the impact of the U.S. Supreme Court opinion in Crawford v...
April 21, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436865/video-anomaly-detection-with-compact-feature-sets-for-online-performance
#4
Roberto Leyva, Victor Sanchez, Chang-Tsun Li
Over the past decade, video anomaly detection has been explored with remarkable results. However, research on methodologies suitable for online performance is still very limited. In this paper, we present an online framework for video anomaly detection. The key aspect of our framework is a compact set of highly descriptive features, which is extracted from a novel cell structure that helps to define support regions in a coarse-to-fine fashion. Based on the scene's activity, only a limited number of support regions are processed, thus limiting the size of the feature set...
April 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435785/impact-of-a-brief-intervention-on-cervical-health-literacy-a-waitlist-control-study-with-jailed-women
#5
Megha Ramaswamy, Jaehoon Lee, Joi Wickliffe, Molly Allison, Amanda Emerson, Patricia J Kelly
Jailed women are four-five times more likely to have had cervical cancer compared to women without criminal justice histories. Previous research has shown that an important contributor to cervical cancer risk, and perhaps lack of follow-up, is incarcerated women's low health literacy about broader reproductive health issues. Little work has been done to address this disparity. Thus, the objective of this study was to test the effectiveness of an intervention to improve incarcerated women's cervical health literacy and ultimately address cervical cancer disparities...
June 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435669/reframing-the-science-and-policy-of-nicotine-illegal-drugs-and-alcohol-conclusions-of-the-alice-rap-project
#6
Peter Anderson, Virginia Berridge, Patricia Conrod, Robert Dudley, Matilda Hellman, Dirk Lachenmeier, Anne Lingford-Hughes, David Miller, Jürgen Rehm, Robin Room, Laura Schmidt, Roger Sullivan, Tamyko Ysa, Antoni Gual
In 2013, illegal drug use was responsible for 1.8% of years of life lost in the European Union, alcohol was responsible for 8.2% and tobacco for 18.2%, imposing economic burdens in excess of 2.5% of GDP. No single European country has optimal governance structures for reducing the harm done by nicotine, illegal drugs and alcohol, and existing ones are poorly designed, fragmented, and sometimes cause harm. Reporting the main science and policy conclusions of a transdisciplinary five-year analysis of the place of addictions in Europe, researchers from 67 scientific institutions addressed these problems by reframing an understanding of addictions...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430081/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-criminal-behavior-among-illicit-drug-users-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Rafael Alves Guimarães, Natália Silva Mesquita, Renata Silva Lopes, Roselma Lucchese, Rodrigo Lopes de Felipe, Ivânia Vera, Inaina Lara Fernandes, Paulo Alexandre de Castro, Luiz Henrique Batista Monteiro, Graciele Cristina Silva
BACKGROUND: Studies indicate high rates of criminal behavior, violent activities, and legal problems among illicit drug users (IDU) in Brazil. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and factors associated with criminal behavior among IDU undergoing treatment for chemical dependency in Central Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study carried out with IDU undergoing treatment for chemical dependence. Data were collected by means of face-to-face interviews and analyzed using logistic regression...
April 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429396/children-s-uncertain-responses-when-testifying-about-alleged-sexual-abuse-in-scottish-courts
#8
Samantha J Andrews, Elizabeth C Ahern, Michael E Lamb
This study examined the uncertain responses of 56 alleged sexual abuse victims, aged 5-17 years, testifying in Scottish criminal court trials. Don't know/remember ground rules were explained to 38% of the children and each child reported uncertainty in response to 15% of the questions on average. Uncertain responding was associated with expressions of resistance and confusion, questioning context (proportionally more regarding substantive than non-substantive issues), question content (least to disclosure-focused questions), utterance type (more to directives, particularly those posed by defense lawyers; more to recall-based than recognition prompts), and age (children in mid-adolescence were less likely to respond uncertainly than those who were either older or younger)...
April 20, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429375/patient-characteristics-and-outcomes-related-to-successful-outpatient-competency-restoration
#9
Amy J Mikolajewski, Gina M Manguno-Mire, Kelly L Coffman, Sarah M Deland, John W Thompson
Criminal defendants have a fundamental right to a fair and speedy trial. However, individuals found incompetent to stand trial are unable to move forward in the adjudication process and are often mired in protracted legal proceedings. If competency restoration is statutorily permissible and can be conducted in the outpatient setting, we propose that it should be considered based on burgeoning empirical data. We present data from an outpatient forensic clinic in which individuals are conditionally released to receive competency restoration in the community...
April 20, 2017: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427371/inside-the-nation-s-largest-mental-health-institution-a-prevalence-study-in-a-state-prison-system
#10
Tala Al-Rousan, Linda Rubenstein, Bruce Sieleni, Harbans Deol, Robert B Wallace
BACKGROUND: The United States has the highest incarceration rate in the world which has created a public health crisis. Correctional facilities have become a front line for mental health care. Public health research in this setting could inform criminal justice reform. We determined prevalence rates for mental illnesses and related comorbidities among all inmates in a state prison system. METHODS: Cross-sectional study using the Iowa Corrections Offender Network which contains health records of all inmates in Iowa...
April 20, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425681/schedules-of-controlled-substances-temporary-placement-of-six-synthetic-cannabinoids-5f-adb-5f-amb-5f-apinaca-adb-fubinaca-mdmb-chmica-and-mdmb-fubinaca-into-schedule-i-temporary-scheduling-order
#11
(no author information available yet)
The Administrator of the Drug Enforcement Administration is issuing this temporary scheduling order to schedule six synthetic cannabinoids: methyl 2-(1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido)-3,3-dimethylbutanoate [5F-ADB; 5F-MDMB-PINACA]; methyl 2-(1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido)-3-methylbutanoate [5F-AMB]; N-(adamantan-1-yl)-1-(5-fluoropentyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide [5F-APINACA, 5F-AKB48]; N-(1-amino-3,3-dimethyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl)-1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamide [ADB-FUBINACA]; methyl 2-(1-(cyclohexylmethyl)-1H-indole-3-carboxamido)-3,3-dimethylbutanoate [MDMB-CHMICA, MMB-CHMINACA] and methyl 2-(1-(4-fluorobenzyl)-1H-indazole-3-carboxamido)-3,3-dimethylbutanoate [MDMB-FUBINACA], and their optical, positional, and geometric isomers, salts, and salts of isomers into schedule I pursuant to the temporary scheduling provisions of the Controlled Substances Act...
April 10, 2017: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424157/childhood-adversity-and-risk-of-suicide-cohort-study-of-548%C3%A2-721-adolescents-and-young-adults-in-sweden
#12
Charlotte Björkenstam, Kyriaki Kosidou, Emma Björkenstam
Objective To examine the relation between childhood adversity, the role of school performance, and childhood psychopathology and the risk of suicide.Design Cohort study of register based indicators of childhood adversity (at ages 0-14) including death in the family (suicide analysed separately), parental substance abuse, parental psychiatric disorder, substantial parental criminality, parental separation/single parent household, receipt of public assistance, and residential instability.Setting Swedish medical birth register and various Swedish population based registers...
April 19, 2017: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421573/-forensic-flexible-assertive-community-treatment-client-characteristics-and-treatment-outcomes
#13
L Neijmeijer, J Verwoerd, M van Vugt, C Place, H Kroon
BACKGROUND: (Flexible) Assertive community treatment ((f)act) is applied increasingly to forensic psychiatric clients. However, evidence about the effectiveness of forensic (f)act is scanty. AIM: To investigate to what extent (subgroups of) clients receiving care from forensic (f)act teams show, after a year, changes in their social and psychological functioning and are subjected to fewer justicial outcome measures. METHOD: Between 2009 and 2011, eight forensic (f)act teams collected, at two measurement moments separated by an average of 12 months, data relating to client characteristics and outcomes of care...
2017: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415998/effectiveness-of-current-policing-related-mental-health-interventions-in-england-and-wales-and-crisis-intervention-teams-as-a-future-potential-model-a-systematic-review
#14
Eddie Kane, Emily Evans, Farhad Shokraneh
BACKGROUND: Experiencing mental ill health adds a layer of complexity for individuals in touch with the justice system and for those responsible for working in the justice service with these individuals, such as frontline police officers. In England and Wales, there are three commonly used but not necessarily commonly designed or operated, mental health interventions associated with policing, Liaison and Diversion, Street Triage and specialist staff embedded in Police Contact Control Rooms...
April 17, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415884/alcohol-quantification-recent-insights-into-amperometric-enzyme-biosensors
#15
Vinita Hooda, Vikas Kumar, Anjum Gahlaut, Vikas Hooda
Biosensors are the switching channels that make sense. The biosensors have found an empirical role in health applications (e.g. clinical diagnostics) as they represent the technological counterpart of living senses. On a global scale, alcohol analysis is indispensable for criminal justice systems, monitoring medical conditions of HIV patients & pregnant women as well as public safety issues regarding pilots, metro drivers, doctors etc. For addressing the clinical and toxicological problems, much advancement in the improvement of biosensors have been witnessed in recent decades...
April 17, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413921/preventing-the-onset-of-child-sexual-abuse-by-targeting-young-adolescents-with-universal-prevention-programming
#16
Elizabeth J Letourneau, Cindy M Schaeffer, Catherine P Bradshaw, Kenneth A Feder
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health problem that increases risk for physical and mental health problems across the life course. Young adolescents are responsible for a substantial portion of CSA offending, yet to our knowledge, no validated prevention programs that target CSA perpetration by youth exist. Most existing efforts to address CSA rely on reactive criminal justice policies or programs that teach children to protect themselves; neither approach is well validated. Given the high rates of desistance from sexual offending following a youth's first CSA-related adjudication, it seems plausible that many youth could be prevented from engaging in their first offense...
May 2017: Child Maltreatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409709/the-lived-experience-of-help-seeking-by-south-african-women-after-sexual-assault
#17
Sheila Young Steinbrenner, Celeste Shawler, Sandra Ferreira, Claire Draucker
The purpose of this study was to explore the lived experience of help-seeking by South African women following sexual assault. Hermeneutic phenomenology guided the study. Interviews were conducted with six women who had experienced sexual assault at some point in their lives. Three venues were most significant to women's help-seeking experiences: the criminal justice system, health care facilities, and/or social service agencies. Essentially, the women's help-seeking experiences in these three venues are best described as fraught justice-seeking, pragmatic help-seeking, and desperate help-seeking...
May 2017: Health Care for Women International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408047/psychology-and-psychiatry-in-singapore-courts-a-baseline-survey-of-the-mental-health-landscape-in-the-legal-arena
#18
Kenji Gwee
Despite the increasing prevalence and involvement of mental health professionals in local courts, there has been no systematic study of the role played by these expert witnesses in Singapore courtrooms. An empirical study of all existing recorded cases on Lawnet (Singapore's legal database of all court trial cases) from 1975-2014 involving psychologists and psychiatrists was conducted. Results revealed that, not only were these mental health experts increasingly dotting the landscape of the legal arena, the variety of their contributions has also been gradually growing...
April 10, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407560/genital-and-anal-injuries-a-cross-sectional-australian-study-of-1266-women-alleging-recent-sexual-assault
#19
Renate R Zilkens, Debbie A Smith, Maureen A Phillips, S Aqif Mukhtar, James B Semmens, Maire C Kelly
OBJECTIVES: To describe the frequency of genital and anal injury and associated demographic and assault characteristics in women alleging sexual assault. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Sexual Assault Resource Centre (SARC), Western Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Total of 1266 women attending SARC from Jan-2009 to Mar-2015. METHODS: Women underwent a standardised data collection procedure by forensically trained doctors...
March 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405265/socio-epidemiologic-aspects-and-cutaneous-side-effects-of-permanent-tattoos-in-germany-tattoos-are-not-restricted-to-a-specific-social-phenotype
#20
Cornelia Sigrid Lissi Müller, Angela Oertel, Rebecca Körner, Claudia Pföhler, Thomas Vogt
Background: More and more people of all age classes have a tattoo. Intriguingly, there are multiple prejudices in the general population and published data that concern tattooed persons, such as being criminals, having a low education, being alcohol or drug abusers, or more risky in their life style. Objective: To obtain and to evaluate sociodemographic data on tattooed persons, to investigate the incidence of tattoo-related cutaneous complications and to define personal risk factors and course of the persons after being tattooed concerning behavior of personal environment...
2017: Dermato-endocrinology
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