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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319814/time-specific-and-cumulative-effects-of-exposure-to-parental-externalizing-behavior-on-risk-for-young-adult-alcohol-use-disorder
#1
Alexis C Edwards, Sara L Lönn, Katherine J Karriker-Jaffe, Jan Sundquist, Kenneth S Kendler, Kristina Sundquist
BACKGROUND: Previous studies indicate that parental externalizing behavior (EB) is a robust risk factor for alcohol use disorder (AUD) in their children, and that this is due to both inherited genetic liability and environmental exposure. However, it remains unclear whether the effects of exposure to parental EB vary as a function of timing and/or chronicity. METHODS: We identified biological parents with an alcohol use disorder, drug abuse, or criminal behavior, during different periods of their child's upbringing, using Swedish national registries...
March 8, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318335/the-cognitive-affective-and-somatic-empathy-scales-cases-for-children
#2
Adrian Raine, Frances R Chen
Although the assessment of empathy has moved from general empathy to differentiating between cognitive and affective empathy, no instruments have assessed somatic (motor) empathy, and none have separated positive from negative affect empathy. The main objective of this study was to develop a 30-item self-report cognitive, affective, and somatic empathy scale (CASES) with positive and negative affect components for use with children and adolescents. A community sample of 428 male and female 11-year-olds completed the CASES together with validity questionnaires and were assessed on IQ...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315082/caregivers-support-network-characteristics-associated-with-viral-suppression-among-hiv-care-recipients
#3
Julie A Denison, Mary M Mitchell, Allysha C Maragh-Bass, Amy R Knowlton
Informal care receipt is associated with health outcomes among people living with HIV. Less is known about how caregivers' own social support may affect their care recipient's health. We examined associations between network characteristics of informal caregivers and HIV viral suppression among former or current drug using care recipients. We analyzed data from 258 caregiver-recipient dyads from the Beacon study, of whom 89% of caregivers were African American and 59% were female. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, care recipients had lower odds of being virally suppressed if their caregiver was female, was caring for youth involved in the criminal justice system, and had network members who used illicit drugs...
March 17, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314984/substance-use-criminal-behaviour-and-psychiatric-symptoms-following-childhood-traumatic-brain-injury-findings-from-the-alspac-cohort
#4
Eleanor Kennedy, Jon Heron, Marcus Munafò
Recent research suggests a link between traumatic brain injury (TBI) in youth and later risk behaviour. We explored the association between mild TBI and psychiatric symptoms, substance use and criminal behaviour using data from a longitudinal birth cohort. Participants with mild TBI (n = 800), orthopaedic injuries (n = 2305) and no injuries (n = 8307) were identified from self and parent reports up to age 16 years. Self-report measures of substance use (alcohol, tobacco and cannabis) and criminal behaviours, and parent-reported psychiatric symptoms were collected at age 17 years...
March 17, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314238/paternity-testing-and-other-inference-about-relationships-from-dna-mixtures
#5
Peter J Green, Julia Mortera
We present methods for inference about relationships between contributors to a DNA mixture and other individuals of known genotype: a basic example would be testing whether a contributor to a mixture is the father of a child of known genotype. The evidence for such a relationship is evaluated as the likelihood ratio for the specified relationship versus the alternative that there is no relationship. We analyse real casework examples from a criminal case and a disputed paternity case; in both examples part of the evidence was from a DNA mixture...
February 16, 2017: Forensic Science International. Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314129/crack-cocaine-inhalation-induces-schizophrenia-like-symptoms-and-molecular-alterations-in-mice-prefrontal-cortex
#6
Lorena Bianchine Areal, Alice Laschuk Herlinger, Fabrício Souza Pelição, Cristina Martins-Silva, Rita Gomes Wanderley Pires
Crack cocaine (crack) addiction represents a major social and health burden, especially seeing as users are more prone to engage in criminal and violent acts. Crack users show a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities - particularly antisocial personality disorders - when compared to powder cocaine users. They also develop cognitive deficits related mainly to executive functions, including working memory. It is noteworthy that stimulant drugs can induce psychotic states, which appear to mimic some symptoms of schizophrenia among users...
March 6, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302306/further-victimization-of-child-sexual-abuse-victims-a-latent-class-typology-of-re-victimization-trajectories
#7
Nina L Papalia, Stefan Luebbers, James R P Ogloff, Margaret Cutajar, Paul E Mullen, Emily Mann
The association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and risk for re-victimization is well-documented; however, less is known about the temporal progression of re-victimization experiences over the early life-course among CSA survivors, and whether this differs from that of those without known sexual abuse histories. This study investigated whether there are distinct temporal pathways of interpersonal re-victimization between the ages of 10-25 years among medically confirmed CSA cases, and considered whether abuse variables, re-victimization variables, and the presence of other adverse outcomes, were associated with heterogeneity in re-victimization pathways...
March 13, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299972/older-and-incarcerated-policy-implications-of-aging-prison-populations
#8
Zachary Psick, Jonathan Simon, Rebecca Brown, Cyrus Ahalt
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the policy Implications of aging prison populations. Design/methodology/approach An examination of the worldwide aging trend in prison and its implications for correctional policy, including an examination of population aging in California prisons as a case example of needed reform. Findings Prison populations worldwide are aging at an unprecedented rate, and age-related medical costs have had serious consequences for jurisdictions struggling to respond to the changes...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299971/addressing-excess-risk-of-overdose-among-recently-incarcerated-people-in-the-usa-harm-reduction-interventions-in-correctional-settings
#9
Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, David H Cloud, Chelsea Davis, Nickolas Zaller, Ayesha Delany-Brumsey, Leah Pope, Sarah Martino, Benjamin Bouvier, Josiah Rich
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss overdose among those with criminal justice experience and recommend harm reduction strategies to lessen overdose risk among this vulnerable population. Design/methodology/approach Strategies are needed to reduce overdose deaths among those with recent incarceration. Jails and prisons are at the epicenter of the opioid epidemic but are a largely untapped setting for implementing overdose education, risk assessment, medication assisted treatment, and naloxone distribution programs...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299969/challenges-and-opportunities-for-gender-affirming-healthcare-for-transgender-women-in-prison
#10
Jae Sevelius, Valerie Jenness
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to briefly address three interrelated areas of concerns - victimization, housing placement and healthcare provision - related to the health and welfare of transgender women in jails, prisons and other types of detention facilities. Design/methodology/approach Drawing on a growing body of research on health risks for transgender women who are detained in facilities in California and elsewhere, the authors provide recommendations for policy and practice that constitutes gender-affirming healthcare for transgender women behind bars...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299968/setting-a-minimum-age-for-juvenile-justice-jurisdiction-in-california
#11
Elizabeth S Barnert, Laura S Abrams, Cheryl Maxson, Lauren Gase, Patricia Soung, Paul Carroll, Eraka Bath
Purpose Despite the existence of minimum age laws for juvenile justice jurisdiction in 18 US states, California has no explicit law that protects children (i.e. youth less than 12 years old) from being processed in the juvenile justice system. In the absence of a minimum age law, California lags behind other states and international practice and standards. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In this policy brief, academics across the University of California campuses examine current evidence, theory, and policy related to the minimum age of juvenile justice jurisdiction...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299967/reducing-the-use-and-impact-of-solitary-confinement-in-corrections
#12
Cyrus Ahalt, Craig Haney, Sarah Rios, Matthew P Fox, David Farabee, Brie Williams
Purpose Although the reform of solitary confinement is underway in many jurisdictions around world, isolation remains in widespread use in many jails and prisons. The purpose of this paper is to discuss opportunities for reform in the USA that could also be applied globally. Design/methodology/approach A review of the evidence on solitary confinement policies and practices in the USA to develop recommendations for reform with global application. Findings Focusing on this evidence, the authors argue that solitary confinement is overused and recommend a multi-level approach available to correctional systems worldwide including: immediately limiting solitary confinement to only those cases in which a violent behavioral infraction has been committed for which safety cannot otherwise be achieved, ensuring the briefest terms of isolation needed to achieve legitimate and immediate correctional goals, prohibiting its use entirely for some populations, regularly reviewing all isolated prisoners for as-soon-as-possible return to general population, including the immediate return of those showing mental and physical health risk factors, assisting individuals who are transitioning out of isolation (either to the general population or to the community), and partnering with medical, public health, and criminal justice experts to develop evidence-based alternatives to solitary confinement for nearly all prisoners...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293987/risk-taking-and-the-triarchic-model-of-psychopathy
#13
Robert J Snowden, Chloe Smith, Nicola S Gray
INTRODUCTION: High risk behaviors, such as aggression, criminality, sexual promiscuity, drug use, and gambling, are often associated with psychopathic traits. Such behaviors might arise due to a lack of fear of the consequences (boldness) or due to impulsive actions (disinhibition). We examined risk taking behavior in the laboratory setting using the Balloon Analogue Risk Task (BART), where an individual can inflate a balloon to earn a reward, but will lose this accumulated reward if the balloon bursts...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292226/outcomes-of-offenders-with-co-occurring-substance-use-disorders-and-mental-disorders
#14
Geoff Wilton, Lynn A Stewart
OBJECTIVE: Whether a diagnosis of a mental disorder contributes to the risk of poorer correctional outcomes is controversial. This study aimed to clarify the extent to which mental and substance use disorders individually and in combination contribute to correctional outcomes in order to determine optimal treatment and promote public safety. METHODS: Differences were examined between four groups of federal offenders in Canada (N=715): those with a mental disorder only, those with a substance use disorder only, those with co-occurring mental and substance use disorders, and those with no disorder...
March 15, 2017: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291805/socioeconomic-factors-associated-with-severe-acute-malnutrition-in-jamaica
#15
Debbie S Thompson, Novie Younger-Coleman, Parris Lyew-Ayee, Lisa-Gaye Greene, Michael S Boyne, Terrence E Forrester
OBJECTIVES: Severe acute malnutrition (SAM) is an important risk factor for illness and death globally, contributing to more than half of deaths in children worldwide. We hypothesized that SAM is positively correlated to poverty, low educational attainment, major crime and higher mean soil concentrations of lead, cadmium and arsenic. METHODS: We reviewed admission records of infants admitted with a diagnosis of SAM over 14 years (2000-2013) in Jamaica. Poverty index, educational attainment, major crime and environmental heavy metal exposure were represented in a Geographic Information System (GIS)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290925/two-decades-of-saving-lives-on-the-battlefield-tactical-combat-casualty-care-turns-20
#16
Frank K Butler
BACKGROUND: Twenty years ago, the original Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) article was published in this journal. Since TCCC is essentially a set of best-practice prehospital trauma care guidelines customized for use on the battlefield, the presence of a journal with a specific focus on military medicine was a profound benefit to the initial presentation of TCCC to the U.S. Military. METHODS: In the two ensuing decades, which included the longest continuous period of armed conflict in our nation's history, TCCC steadily evolved as the prehospital trauma care evidence base was augmented and as feedback from user medics, corpsmen, and pararescuemen was obtained...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289783/estimating-the-risk-of-crime-and-victimisation-in-people-with-intellectual-disability-a-data-linkage-study
#17
Margaret Nixon, Stuart D M Thomas, Michael Daffern, James R P Ogloff
PURPOSE: People with intellectual disability (PWID) appear more likely to be victims and perpetrators of crime. However, extant evidence pertaining to these risks is limited by methodological weaknesses and the absence of consistent operational definitions. This research aimed to estimate the prevalence of criminal histories and victimisation using a large, well-defined sample of PWID. METHODS: A case-linkage study was conducted comprising 2220 PWID registered with disability services in Victoria, Australia, whose personal details were linked with a state-wide police database...
March 13, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289225/predicting-the-knowledge-recklessness-distinction-in-the-human-brain
#18
Iris Vilares, Michael J Wesley, Woo-Young Ahn, Richard J Bonnie, Morris Hoffman, Owen D Jones, Stephen J Morse, Gideon Yaffe, Terry Lohrenz, P Read Montague
Criminal convictions require proof that a prohibited act was performed in a statutorily specified mental state. Different legal consequences, including greater punishments, are mandated for those who act in a state of knowledge, compared with a state of recklessness. Existing research, however, suggests people have trouble classifying defendants as knowing, rather than reckless, even when instructed on the relevant legal criteria. We used a machine-learning technique on brain imaging data to predict, with high accuracy, which mental state our participants were in...
March 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287801/multiple-indicators-of-sexual-interest-in-prepubescent-or-pubescent-children-as-predictors-of-sexual-recidivism
#19
Skye Stephens, James M Cantor, Alasdair M Goodwill, Michael C Seto
OBJECTIVE: Sexual interest in children is a well-known risk factor for sexual reoffending (recidivism). The present study examined the relationship between sexual interest in prepubescent children (pedophilia) or pubescent children (hebephilia) and sexual recidivism. It extended previous work by using multiple indicators of sexual interest, using a more sensitive phallometric procedure that measures change in penile blood volume, and examining both hebephilia alongside pedophilia, as well as noncontact sexual recidivism...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285466/acceptability-and-effectiveness-of-a-web-based-psychosocial-intervention-among-criminal-justice-involved-adults
#20
J D Lee, B Tofighi, R McDonald, A Campbell, M C Hu, E Nunes
BACKGROUND: The acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of web-based interventions among criminal justice involved populations are understudied. This study is a secondary analysis of baseline characteristics associated with criminal justice system (CJS) status as treatment outcome moderators among participants enrolling in a large randomized trial of a web-based psychosocial intervention (Therapeutic Education System [TES]) as part of outpatient addiction treatment. METHODS: We compared demographic and clinical characteristics, TES participation rates, and the trial's two co-primary outcomes, end of treatment abstinence and treatment retention, by self-reported CJS status at baseline: 1) CJS-mandated to community treatment (CJS-mandated), 2) CJS-recommended to treatment (CJS-recommended), 3) no CJS treatment mandate (CJS-none)...
December 2017: Health & Justice
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