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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149684/combining-benford-s-law-and-machine-learning-to-detect-money-laundering-an-actual-spanish-court-case
#1
Elena Badal-Valero, José A Alvarez-Jareño, Jose M Pavía
OBJECTIVES: This paper is based on the analysis of the database of operations from a macro-case on money laundering orchestrated between a core company and a group of its suppliers, 26 of which had already been identified by the police as fraudulent companies. In the face of a well-founded suspicion that more companies have perpetrated criminal acts and in order to make better use of what are very limited police resources, we aim to construct a tool to detect money laundering criminals...
November 11, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149210/development-and-validation-of-open-source-software-for-dna-mixture-interpretation-based-on-a-quantitative-continuous-model
#2
Sho Manabe, Chie Morimoto, Yuya Hamano, Shuntaro Fujimoto, Keiji Tamaki
In criminal investigations, forensic scientists need to evaluate DNA mixtures. The estimation of the number of contributors and evaluation of the contribution of a person of interest (POI) from these samples are challenging. In this study, we developed a new open-source software "Kongoh" for interpreting DNA mixture based on a quantitative continuous model. The model uses quantitative information of peak heights in the DNA profile and considers the effect of artifacts and allelic drop-out. By using this software, the likelihoods of 1-4 persons' contributions are calculated, and the most optimal number of contributors is automatically determined; this differs from other open-source software...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146299/functional-connectivity-during-affective-mentalizing-in-criminal-offenders-with-psychotic-disorders-associations-with-clinical-symptoms
#3
Carla L Harenski, Vince D Calhoun, Juan R Bustillo, Brian W Haas, Jean Decety, Keith A Harenski, Michael F Caldwell, Gregory J Van Rybroek, Michael Koenigs, David M Thornton, Kent A Kiehl
Psychotic disorders are associated with neurobehavioral impairments in mental state attribution (mentalizing). These impairments are most severe in psychotic patients with elevated symptom levels, particularly negative and cognitive symptoms. There have been few studies of functional connectivity related to mentalizing in psychotic disorders and associations with symptoms. We conducted a functional MRI study of affective mentalizing in individuals with psychotic disorders and varying symptom levels (positive, negative, cognitive)...
November 6, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144881/improving-graduation-rates-for-african-americans-in-drug-court-importance-of-human-relationships-and-barriers-to-gaining-and-sustaining-employment
#4
John Robert Gallagher, Anne Nordberg, Alyssa R Dibley
Drug courts have been an important part of the criminal justice system since 1989. They continue to expand throughout the United States because nearly three decades of research has shown that they are more effective than other interventions, such as traditional probation. There is a pattern, though, in some drug courts where African Americans are less likely to graduate than their Caucasian counterparts. This qualitative study explores this phenomenon by asking African American participants (n = 31) their views on the most helpful aspects of drug court and how drug court could be more helpful in supporting them in graduating the program...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144189/clinical-and-personality-disorders-in-a-danish-treatment-seeking-sample-of-intimate-partner-violence-perpetrators
#5
Ask Elklit, Siobhan Murphy, Christine Jacobsen, Morgan Kezia Jensen
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a global public health concern with profound psychological consequences. Perpetrators often have a history of childhood trauma and a range of co-occurring psychiatric problems, which may have implications for treatment. This study examines the prevalence of psychiatric and personality disorders (PD) among perpetrators and the association between a range of demographic, childhood trauma, and adult criminality variables for the most prominent disorders. Data were collected from IPV perpetrators ( n = 529) engaging in a treatment program, ' Dialogue Against Violence'...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143322/certifying-death-in-the-united-states
#6
Leah Ruiz, Brianne M Posey, Melanie-Angela Neuilly, Mary K Stohr, Craig Hemmens
Accurately identifying death and its causes is integral to the compilation of mortality data and ultimately to the operation of the criminal justice and public health systems. A clear understanding of who is in charge of such processes is paramount to establishing the quality, or lack thereof, of the information provided in death certificates. Our study provides a comprehensive overview of all state statutes identifying death investigators charged with classifying and certifying death in the United States. We found that state statutes designate a broad range of individuals as responsible for the classification and certification of death...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143153/statewide-mental-health-training-for-probation-officers-improving-knowledge-and-decreasing-stigma
#7
Nikhil Tomar, Marilyn A Ghezzi, Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, Amy Blank Wilson, Tonya B Van Deinse, Stacey Burgin, Gary S Cuddeback
BACKGROUND: The large and growing number of probationers with mental illnesses pose significant challenges to the probationer officers who supervise them. Stigma towards mental illnesses among probation officers is largely unstudied and the effectiveness of training initiatives designed to educate probation officers about mental illness is unknown. To address these gaps in the literature, we report findings from a statewide mental health training initiative designed to improve probation officers' knowledge of mental illnesses...
November 15, 2017: Health & Justice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141661/preventing-enduring-behavioural-problems-in-young-children-through-early-psychological-intervention-healthy-start-happy-start-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Paul G Ramchandani, Christine O'Farrelly, Daphne Babalis, Marian J Bakermans-Kranenburg, Sarah Byford, Ellen S R Grimas, Jane E Iles, Marinus H van IJzendoorn, Julia McGinley, Charlotte M Phillips, Alan Stein, Jane Warwick, Hillary C Watt, Stephen Scott
BACKGROUND: Behavioural problems are common in early childhood, and can result in enduring costs to the individual and society, including an increased risk of mental and physical illness, criminality, educational failure and drug and alcohol misuse. Most previous research has examined the impact of interventions targeting older children when difficulties are more established and harder to change, and have rarely included fathers. We are conducting a trial of a psychological intervention delivered to families with very young children, engaging both parents where possible...
November 15, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139119/effect-of-sterilants-on-amplification-and-detection-of-target-dna-from-bacillus-cereus-spores
#9
James M Robertson, Douglas L Anders, Francene Basalyga, Julie Millar, Donia Palomo Slack, Robert Bever
To conceal criminal activity of a bioterrorist or agroterrorist, the site of pathogen generation is often treated with sterilants to kill the organisms and remove evidence. As dead organisms cannot be analyzed by culture, this study examined whether DNA from sterilant-treated Bacillus cereus spores was viable for amplification. The spores were exposed to five common sterilants: bleach, Sterilox®, oxidizer foam (L-Gel), a peroxyacid (Actril®), and formaldehyde vapor. The spores were inoculated on typical surfaces found in offices and laboratories to test for environmental effects...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134854/prediction-of-recidivism-with-the-youth-level-of-service-case-management-inventory-reduced-version-in-a-sample-of-young-spanish-offenders
#10
Keren Cuervo, Lidón Villanueva
Intervention in youth recidivism is critical in helping prevent young people from continuing their criminal career into adulthood, on a life-course-persistent trajectory. Andrews and Bonta attempt to provide an explanation of risk and protective factors using a conversion of the Youth Level of Service/Case Management Inventory (YLS/CMI), which predicts recidivism. In this study, scores have been obtained from 382 adolescents ( M age = 16.33 years) from the juvenile court, to check the ability of a reduced version of the YLS/CMI, to predict recidivism...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131992/cross-validation-of-the-personality-assessment-inventory-chronic-suicide-risk-index-s_chron-in-a-large-sample-of-offenders
#11
John F Edens, Kevin S Douglas
Recently, Sinclair et al. (2016) reported on the development of a new Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) index designed to identify individuals with histories of multiple suicide attempts (Chronic Suicide Risk Index: S_Chron). We evaluated this new index in a sample of over 1000 criminal offenders who had been administered the PAI as part of a more extensive research project. The S_Chron meaningfully discriminated between those with multiple prior suicide attempts and those with 0-1 attempts, similar to what Sinclair et al...
November 7, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131309/deaths-from-resident-to-resident-aggression-in-australian-nursing-homes
#12
Briony Murphy, Lyndal Bugeja, Jennifer Pilgrim, Joseph E Ibrahim
OBJECTIVES: To describe the frequency and nature of deaths from resident-to-resident aggression (RRA) in nursing homes in Australia. DESIGN: National population-based retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Accredited nursing homes in Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Residents whose deaths resulted from RRA and were reported to the coroner between July 1, 2000, and December 31, 2013. MEASUREMENTS: Cases were identified using the National Coronial Information System, and data on individual, interpersonal, organizational, and societal factors were collected through review of the paper-based coroners' files...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127894/detection-and-localization-of-copy-paste-forgeries-in-digital-videos
#13
Raahat Devender Singh, Naveen Aggarwal
Amidst the continual march of technology, we find ourselves relying on digital videos to proffer visual evidence in several highly sensitive areas such as journalism, politics, civil and criminal litigation, and military and intelligence operations. However, despite being an indispensable source of information with high evidentiary value, digital videos are also extremely vulnerable to conscious manipulations. Therefore, in a situation where dependence on video evidence is unavoidable, it becomes crucial to authenticate the contents of this evidence before accepting them as an accurate depiction of reality...
October 26, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124683/the-21st-century-cures-act-implications-for-the-reduction-of-racial-health-disparities-in-the-us-criminal-justice-system-a-public-health-approach
#14
Donna M Cole, Dawna Marie Thomas, Kelsi Field, Amelia Wool, Taryn Lipiner, Natalie Massenberg, Barbara J Guthrie
Past drug epidemics have disproportionately criminalized drug addiction among African Americans, leading to disparate health outcomes, increased rates of HIV/AIDS, and mass incarceration. Conversely, the current opioid addiction crisis in the USA focuses primarily on white communities and is being addressed as a public health problem. The 21st Century Cures Act has the potential to reduce racial health disparities in the criminal justice system through the Act's public health approach to addiction and mental health issues...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124293/identification-of-major-depressive-disorder-among-the-long-term-unemployed
#15
Kirsti Nurmela, Aino Mattila, Virpi Heikkinen, Jukka Uitti, Aarne Ylinen, Pekka Virtanen
PURPOSE: Depression is a common mental health disorder among the unemployed, but research on identifying their depression in health care is scarce. The present study aimed to explore the identification of major depressive disorder (MDD) in health care on long-term unemployed and find out if the duration of unemployment correlates with the risk for unidentified MDD. METHODS: The study sample consisted the patient files of long-term unemployed people (duration of unemployment 1-35 years, median 11 years), who in a screening project diagnosed with MDD (n = 243)...
November 9, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123972/how-does-early-adulthood-arrest-alter-substance-use-behavior-are-there-differential-effects-by-race-ethnicity-and-gender
#16
Connie Hassett-Walker, Katrina Walsemann, Bethany Bell, Calley Fisk, Mark Shadden, Weidan Zhou
Purpose: Much criminal justice research has ignored racial/ethnic and gender differences in substance use subsequent to criminal justice involvement. This paper investigated how early adulthood arrest (i.e., 18 to 21 years of age) influences individuals' subsequent transitions from non-substance use to substance use, and substance use to non-substance use through age 30. We also consider if these relationships differ by race/ethnicity and gender. Processes proscribed by labeling theory subsequent to getting arrested are considered...
June 2017: Journal of Developmental and Life-course Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121814/sex-difference-in-homicide-comparing-male-and-female-violent-crimes-in-korea
#17
Jonghan Sea, Donna Youngs, Sophia Tkazky
The comparison of the South Korean male and female homicide offenders' characteristics and crime scene behaviours is presented in this study. A total of 537 cases of homicide offenders prosecuted in Korea between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed in terms of offenders' characteristics, victim-offender interaction, places of crime, and crime scene actions. Significant differences between male and female offenders were revealed in prior criminal history, offenders' personal characteristics, choice of victim, crime scene behaviours during and after the homicide, and choice of weapon...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121811/evidence-for-two-levels-of-intimate-partner-violence-and-aggression-among-incarcerated-young-male-violent-offenders
#18
Anna-Kari Sjödin, Märta Wallinius, Eva Billstedt, Björn Hofvander, Thomas Nilsson
Furthering knowledge of the subset of incarcerated partner violent offenders distinguished by aggression, anger, and hostility is relevant, as these offenders are guilty of the more severe kinds of intimate partner violence (IPV). Our aim was to identify groups with different patterns of IPV among convicted young Swedish male offenders, using data from the Development of Aggressive Antisocial Behavior Study, including 171 young men (18-25 years) convicted of a violent crime. Cluster analysis was used to identify different clusters based on amount and severity of IPV in combination with measures of anger, hostility, aggression, and psychopathic personality traits...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120846/firesetting-and-general-criminal-recidivism-among-a-consecutive-sample-of-finnish-pretrial-male-firesetters-a-register-based-follow-up-study
#19
Annika Thomson, Jari Tiihonen, Jouko Miettunen, Matti Virkkunen, Nina Lindberg
The rate of criminal reoffending among firesetters varies greatly. Our aim was to investigate firesetting and general criminal recidivism in a consecutive sample of Finnish males who were sent for a forensic psychiatric examination (FPE)(1) after committing firesetting offenses. We also wanted to evaluate the relationships between psychopathy and criminal recidivism, and between schizophrenia-spectrum disorders and criminal recidivism. The sample comprised 113 firesetters with a mean age of 32.8 years, and the average follow-up time was 16...
November 5, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119325/major-mental-illness-in-those-who-sexually-abuse
#20
REVIEW
Heather M Moulden, Liam E Marshall
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is evidence showing an increasing prevalence of mental illness in those in conflict with the law. However, there are many factors affecting the detection, treatment, and management of criminals who are mentally ill. RECENT FINDINGS: Sex offenders with major mental illness present many challenges to those providing treatment and management services. For example, it is important to consider whether sexually offensive behavior is the cause of criminal behavior or whether it is reflective of an antisocial orientation...
November 9, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
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