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Female reproductive system cancers

Yingmei Wang, Limei Hu, Ping Ji, Fei Teng, Wenyan Tian, Yuexin Liu, David Cogdell, Jinsong Liu, Anil K Sood, Russell Broaddus, Fengxia Xue, Wei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is one of the most common malignancies of the female reproductive system. Migration and invasion inhibitory protein (MIIP) gene was recently discovered candidate tumor suppress gene which located at chromosome 1p36.22. 1p36 deletion was found in many types of tumor including EC. In the present study, we will determine the role and mechanism of MIIP in EC metastasis. METHODS: Immunohistochemistry was used to measure MIIP expression in normal and EC tissue...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Esra Laloglu, Yakup Kumtepe, Hulya Aksoy, Emsal Pınar Topdagi Yilmaz
BACKGROUND: Ovarian and endometrial carcinomas are the two most common malignancies of the female reproductive system. Endocan is a proteoglycan that is specific to vascular endothelial cells. Increased serum levels have been reported in some tumors. The aim of this study was to investigate serum endocan levels in cases of endometrial and ovarian cancer. METHODS: Levels of serum endocan were assessed in 27 patients with endometrial cancer and 20 with ovarian cancer, and in 38 control subjects with benign ovarian or endometrial disorders...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
Thillai V Sekar, Kira Foygel, Tarik F Massoud, Sanjiv S Gambhir, Ramasamy Paulmurugan
Estrogen receptor-α (ERα) plays an important role in normal and abnormal physiology of the human reproductive system by interacting with the endogenous ligand estradiol (E2). However, other ligands, either analogous or dissimilar to E2, also bind to ERα. This may create unintentional activation of ER signaling in reproductive tissues that can lead to cancer development. We developed a transgenic mouse model that constitutively expresses a firefly luciferase (FLuc) split reporter complementation biosensor (NFLuc-ER-LBDG521T-CFLuc) to simultaneously evaluate the dynamics and potency of ligands that bind to ERα...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
L Casarini, G Brigante, M Simoni, D Santi
Gonadotropins (LH, FSH, and hCG) act in concert in the regulation of female reproductive system. Exploiting this influence, they are part of the assisted reproductive technique protocols. In this review we analyze the effectiveness of the different available gonadotropin formulations and the consequent adverse events. Moreover, different protocols for poor-responders and polycystic ovary syndrome affected women are explored. All these clinical different approaches have specific molecular bases, covered in this review starting from evolution and population genetics, getting to in vitro studies of gonadotropins action...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Sivraj Muralikrishnan, Christos Hatzis, Andrea Katz, Alessandro Santin, Peter E Schwartz, Maysa M Abu-Khalaf
OBJECTIVE: Ovarian cancer is the most lethal cancer involving the female pelvic reproductive system. Its incidence increases with age and with an aging population, its prevalence should also increase. The goal of our retrospective study is to report our experience in treating women over 65 years of age, with a diagnosis of primary ovarian cancer, using standard intravenous chemotherapy. METHODS: The medical records of 78 patients>65 years of age diagnosed with primary ovarian cancer at the Yale Cancer Center between 1996-2006 were retrospectively reviewed and included in our analysis...
August 2016: Gynecology & Obstetrics: Current Research
Sona Scsukova, Eva Rollerova, Alzbeta Bujnakova Mlynarcikova
A growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to chemical substances designated as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) due to their ability to disturb endocrine (hormonal) activity in humans and animals, may contribute to problems with fertility, pregnancy, and other aspects of reproduction. The presence of EDCs has already been associated with reproductive malfunction in wildlife species, but it remains difficult to prove causal relationships between the presence of EDCs and specific reproductive problems in vivo, especially in females...
September 28, 2016: Reproductive Biology
S Bernatsky, R Ramsey-Goldman, M Petri, M B Urowitz, D D Gladman, P F Fortin, E Ginzler, J Romero-Diaz, C Peschken, S Jacobsen, J G Hanly, C Gordon, O Nived, E H Yelin, D Isenberg, A Rahman, S-C Bae, L Joseph, T Witte, G Ruiz-Irastorza, C Aranow, D Kamen, G Sturfeldt, W D Foulkes, J E Hansen, Y St Pierre, P Chrétien Raymer, B Tessier-Cloutier, A E Clarke
OBJECTIVE: There is a decreased breast cancer risk in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) versus the general population. We assessed a large sample of SLE patients, evaluating demographic and clinical characteristics and breast cancer risk. METHODS: We performed case-cohort analyses within a multi-center international SLE sample. We calculated the breast cancer hazard ratio (HR) in female SLE patients, relative to demographics, reproductive history, family history of breast cancer, and time-dependent measures of anti-dsDNA positivity, cumulative disease activity, and drugs, adjusted for SLE duration...
September 29, 2016: Lupus
Elahe Nikpayam, Behnoosh Tasharrofi, Shaghayegh Sarrafzadeh, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer is the most fatal tumor of female's reproductive system, and several genetics and environmental factors are involved in its development. Various studies have already identified suitable biomarkers to facilitate the early detection, prognosis evaluation, and the assessment of treatment response. However, the aim of this review was to investigate the role of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in tumorigenesis process of ovarian cancer and their potential applications as ovarian cancer biomarkers...
September 24, 2016: Iranian Biomedical Journal
Sareh Dashti, Latiffah A Latiff, Habibah Abdul Hamid, Suriani Mohamad Sani, Mehrnoosh Akhtari-Zavare, Azrin Shah Abu Bakar, Nur Amirah Inani Binti Sabri, Maimunah Ismail, Ali Jafarzadeh Esfehani
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a combination of chronic anovulation, obesity, and hyperandrogenism and can affect sexual function in women of reproductive age. It is also associated with endometrial cancer. Our aim was to evaluate the frequency and predisposing factors of sexual dysfunction in PCOS patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 16 married women with a definite diagnosis of PCOS were recruited. Sexual function was assessed in the domains of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain using the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire...
2016: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Zhi-Jun Yang, Bing-Bing Zhao, Li Li
BACKGROUND: Ovarian cancer has the highest mortality rate of the three main malignant tumors of the female reproductive system, with a 5-year overall survival (OS) of only 20-30 %. Approximately 70 % of patients relapse without being cured. To explore the significance of serum CA125 level pre-treatment and the change pattern of CA125 post-treatment for judging prognosis and diagnosing recurrences of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). METHODS: A radioimmunoassay was used to continuously monitor levels of serum CA125 in 152 patients with EOC...
2016: Journal of Ovarian Research
Aleksandra Aracki-Trenkic, Dragan Stojanov, Aleksandra Petric, Daniela Benedeto-Stojanov, Milan Trenkic, Jelena Ignjatovic
Gynecological cancers comprise about 19% of all cancers in women whereas the endometrial cancer is the most common malignant tumor of the female reproductive organs. The application of modern imaging tools plays an important role in the preoperative assessment of disease extent and allows the selection of a proper and adequate therapeutic approach for each patient. The purpose of this review was to show the role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the evaluation of endometrial carcinoma. MRI enables the display of zonal anatomy of the uterus, detection of the anomalies as well as the detection and characterization of pathological processess...
May 2016: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
Lin-Lin Yu, Dong-Zhi Yuan, Shi-Mao Zhang, Li-Min Yue
Estrogen is one of the steroid hormones. Besides the genomic action mediated by its intracellular receptor on target cells, there is now increasing body of evidence indicating that estrogen also has non-genomic action. For the non-genomic action, estrogen binds to its receptor on cell membrane, subsequently rapidly activates various intracellular signaling pathways, such as PLC/Ca(2+), ERK/MAPK, cAMP-PKA, PI3K-AKT-NOS, and finally induces biological effects. The non-genomic effects of estrogen on physiologic and pathologic processes have been found in many tissues within the reproductive, nervous and cardiovascular systems and bone etc...
August 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
Jessica R Walter, Shuai Xu, Amy S Paller, Jennifer N Choi, Teresa K Woodruff
BACKGROUND: Melanoma is the most common cancer diagnosed for patients ages 25 to 29 years, the group with the highest birth rates in the United States. Oncofertility is a new field addressing the reproductive needs of patients with cancer facing fertility-threatening treatments. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess gender-specific fertility risk for Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved melanoma therapies with a new risk category system. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of FDA, European Union, and Health Canada regulatory filings, along with previously published reports to grade fertility risk of systemic melanoma therapies...
September 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Jie Zhu, Yuanming Xu, Alexandra S Rashedi, Mary Ellen Pavone, J Julie Kim, Teresa K Woodruff, Joanna E Burdette
STUDY QUESTION: Do interactions between human fallopian tube epithelium and murine follicles occur during an artificial reproductive cycle in a co-culture system in vitro? SUMMARY ANSWER: In a co-culture system, human fallopian tissues responded to the menstrual cycle mimetic by changes in morphology and levels of secreted factors, and increasing murine corpus luteum progesterone secretion. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: The entire fallopian tube epithelium, including ciliated and secretory cells, can be regulated in the reproductive cycle...
August 19, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
G Chakalova
Among the key factors that influence the survival of patients is adherence to medical treatment standards. Indicators are assessing the degree of adherence to medical standards and represent the relative shares (%) of patients who fulfilled the relevant aspect of any subject. Data from the BNCR of 9842 cases of patients with malignant diseases of the female reproductive diagnosed in 2011-2013 in Bulgaria has been analyzed. Patients with tumors of the vulva were incorrectly staged in 15% to 30% of the cases, and those with vaginal tumors were incorrectly staged in 20% to 23% of cases...
2016: Akusherstvo i Ginekologii︠a︡
Yingmei Wang, Chao Gao, Yanfang Zhang, Jinping Gao, Fei Teng, Wenyan Tian, Wen Yang, Ye Yan, Fengxia Xue
OBJECTIVE: Endometrial carcinoma is one of the most common malignancies of the female reproductive system, but the aetiology and pathogenesis are not well understood, although adipokines such as visfatin may be involved. Our study provides insight into the mechanism underlying the tumorigenic effects of visfatin in endometrial carcinoma. METHODS: We investigated the effect of visfatin on endometrial carcinoma cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis using well-differentiated Ishikawa cells and poorly differentiated KLE cells...
October 2016: Gynecologic Oncology
Whasun Lim, Muhah Jeong, Fuller W Bazer, Gwonhwa Song
Coumestrol is the one of the major phytoestrogens which is abundant in soybeans, legumes, brussel sprouts and spinach. The beneficial effects of coumestrol are well known in various biological processes including; neuroprotective effects on the nervous system, function of the female reproductive system, anti-bacterial properties and anti-cancer effects. Although the anti-tumor activity of coumestrol has been demonstrated for ovarian, breast, lung and cervical cancers, little is known of its effects on prostate cancer...
July 19, 2016: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Lino Del Pup, Alberto Mantovani, Carla Cavaliere, Gaetano Facchini, Amalia Luce, Pasquale Sperlongano, Michele Caraglia, Massimiliano Berretta
Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are pollutants that alter the endocrine system and are involved in carcinogenesis. EDs have multiple and complex levels of action. They can affect the synthesis, release and transport of natural hormones. In target tissues, EDs can reduce or increase the effects of natural hormones on their receptors and change signaling cascades. When ED exposure happens at critical periods of life, from embryo to puberty, they can act at doses considered safe for an adult. Furthermore, their epigenetic effects can also influence the cancer risk of future generations...
August 2016: Oncology Reports
S U Wei, Hui Li, Bei Zhang
Ovarian cancer is a common malignancy of the female reproductive system. Tumor markers serve as tools in the diagnosis of the disease. The aim of the present study was to determine the diagnostic value of sera levels of carbohydrate antigen-125 (CA-125), human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) as well as the area under the curve of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) and the risk of ovarian malignancy algorithm (ROMA) index in ovarian cancer. The sera were measured using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay on 158 individuals (64 patients with ovarian cancer, 64 with ovarian benign tumor and 30 healthy individuals) between September 2013 and May 2015...
July 2016: Biomedical Reports
Yueling Wang, Jiang DU, Shulan Lv, Yanxia Sui, Xue Xue, Chao Sun, Junkai Zou, Qunying Ma, Guoxing Fu, Qing Song, Qiling Li
Endometrial cancer is the most common malignancy of the female reproductive system. The three common spread patterns of endometrial cancer are local invasion, lymphatic spread and hematogenous spread. Vaginal metastasis occurs by submucosal lymphatic or vascular metastases in ~10% of patients with clinical stage I disease. Vaginal implantation metastasis of endometrial cancer is extremely rare. Here we present a case of endometrial carcinoma (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IA) spread to the vagina by implantation metastasis as opposed to any of the methods mentioned above...
July 2016: Oncology Letters
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